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Abstract

Nowadays, being excluded from the web is a huge disadvantage. People with dyslexia have, despite their general intelligence, difficulties for reading and writing through their whole life. Therefore, web technologies can help people with dyslexia to improve their reading and writing experience on the web. This chapter introduces the main technologies and many examples of tools that support a person with dyslexia in processing information on the web, either in assistive applications for reading and writing as well as using web applications/games for dyslexia screening and intervention.

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... Early diagnosis and access to proper learning aids are critical in supporting children with dyslexia; without such resources, they are likely to struggle with learning throughout their entire lives. With appropriate training, children with dyslexia can learn language skills and decode words for reading; however, they need more time to practice these skills [24]. ...
... Assistive technologies (ATs) for dyslexia provide reading aids through personalized parameters such as text customization, text simplification, and text-to-speech [24]. Additionally, ATs provide writing aids through spelling correction, text suggestions, and dictation [24]. ...
... Assistive technologies (ATs) for dyslexia provide reading aids through personalized parameters such as text customization, text simplification, and text-to-speech [24]. Additionally, ATs provide writing aids through spelling correction, text suggestions, and dictation [24]. Assistive e-books and applications for readings are effective tools, including parameters to support readability (e.g., font and size in Apple Books) and the adjustment of book layouts. ...
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We designed and evaluated Augmenta11y, a cross-platform application that aims to provide ubiquitous reading and learning companionship to children with dyslexia. We developed the application following the Reflective Agile Iterative Design (RAID) framework, a participatory approach involving dyslexic individuals and special educators to provide feedback throughout the prototyping processes. We then conducted a user study with ten children with dyslexia between 10-14 years of age. We employed the think-aloud, post-usability session interview, and questionnaire methods to evaluate the tool's usability and usefulness. Our study revealed the Augmenta11y application's effectiveness in assisting children with dyslexia by providing affordable and accessible reading practices. We offer comprehensive suggestions and guidelines for designing future assisted reading applications. We foresee the opportunity for Augmenta11y to be an accessible, low-cost assistive reading solution for dyslexic children with little to no access to educational specialists or after-school practices/programs. The Augmenta11y application is available on iOS and Android.
... The analysis of mouse tracking data recorded while the risk and non-risk children playing the game gives insights to attention and difficulty issues. The indicators were chosen based on the behavior of children with dyslexia [6] [7] [8]. ...
... With the increasing use of computers, serious games have received much attention in dyslexia risk detection because of its convenience and low expenses [6] [7] [8] [11]. Although the results are not yet proven to be adequate for detection of the risk, it provides valuable insights to initial or early diagnosis [6]. ...
... With the increasing use of computers, serious games have received much attention in dyslexia risk detection because of its convenience and low expenses [6] [7] [8] [11]. Although the results are not yet proven to be adequate for detection of the risk, it provides valuable insights to initial or early diagnosis [6]. ...
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Dyslexia is the disorder affecting reading and learning language acquisition. Children with dyslexia cannot spell words or acquire reading. Screening is a necessary process to distinguish dyslexia children early to treat and help them appropriately. If detection can be done since they are in pre-readers age, it can lessen the undesirable outcomes for children such as lower educational attainment, negative feelings toward learning, and loss of low self-confidence and self-respect. Many researchers start using computer games for screening purpose. Game design is a significant part to achieve the goal. One of the challenges in creating a game for children is designing the game that maintains children’s attention until they finish the game. In addition, the level of difficulties must be suitable for the participants’ skill. Thus, this paper presents a pilot study to develop a picture rotation game. The game was designed mainly to study behavior of children with dyslexia while overlooking the game element principles. This study found that game playing behavior of the two groups of children was different. The difficulty levels of the game were found to have influences on the gameplay behaviors of both groups. The findings are used as the guidelines to improve the design of the game to better assess the risk of dyslexia children.
... Current detection tools mainly use linguistic elements such as spelling or reading errors to detect dyslexia [12,27,41], which can only detect readers. Consequently, new indicators and tools for the detection of pre-readers are required, which would give children with dyslexia more time to succeed. ...
... Web or mobile applications have been used to predict readers and pre-readers with dyslexia [27,33] using linguistic content or to measure the readability with sensor data (mouse movements) [32]. Games have been designed with dyslexia related indicators (language related [9,10,41] or language-independent [24,26,28]) to 1 A thread of the discussion can be found here: https://twitter.com/zacharylipton/status/ ...
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Dyslexia is a widespread specific learning disorder, which can have a particularly negative influence on the learning success of children. Early detection of dyslexia is the foundation for early intervention, which is the key to reduce the adverse effects of dyslexia, e.g., bad school grades. In this paper, we present the prototype of a puzzle app, which we explicitly designed with the human-centred design (HCD) process for dyslexia screening in pre-reader using new indicators related to motor skills to ensure users needs for the data collection to apply machine learning prediction. The app records the telemetry of the gaming sequence in order to derive future statements about the prevalence of dyslexia based on the telemetry data. The high-fidelity prototype was evaluated with a five-user test usability study with five German-speaking child-parent pairs. The results show how young children and parents are interacting with new games, and how new applications (web and mobile technologies) which are used for online experiments, could be developed. The usability of the prototype is suitable for the target group with only minor limitations. CCS
... Various applications and games to support, detect and treat dyslexia have been developed (Rauschenberger et al., 2019b). Gamification has been used to design various use cases, applications as well as frameworks (Hamari et al., 2014;Ritzhaupt et al., 2014;Mora et al., 2015;Seaborn and Fels, 2015;Thomas et al., 2021). ...
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Children with dyslexia have difficulties learning how to read and write. They are often diagnosed after they fail school even if dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. Early screening of dyslexia can prevent the negative side effects of late detection and enables early intervention. In this context, we present an approach for universal screening of dyslexia using machine learning models with data gathered from a web-based language-independent game. We designed the game content taking into consideration the analysis of mistakes of people with dyslexia in different languages and other parameters related to dyslexia like auditory perception as well as visual perception. We did a user study with 313 children (116 with dyslexia) and train predictive machine learning models with the collected data. Our method yields an accuracy of 0.74 for German and 0.69 for Spanish as well as a F1-score of 0.75 for German and 0.75 for Spanish, using Random Forests and Extra Trees, respectively. We also present the collected user data, game content design, potential new auditory input, and knowledge about the design approach for future research to explore universal screening of dyslexia. Universal screening with language-independent content can be used for the screening of pre-readers who do not have any language skills, facilitating a potential early intervention.
... Early diagnosis and access to proper learning aids are critical in supporting children with dyslexia; without such resources, they are likely to struggle with learning throughout their entire lives. With appropriate training, children with dyslexia can learn language skills and decode words for reading; however, they need more time to practice these skills [7]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We designed Augmenta11y, a cross-platform application that aims to provide ubiquitous reading and learning companionship to children with dyslexia. This paper presents the iterative user-centered design process and implementation details of the application and offers suggestions and guidelines for designing future assisted reading applications. We foresee the opportunity for Augmenta11y to be an accessible, low-cost assistive reading solution for dyslexic children with little to no access to educational specialists or after-school practices. The Augmenta11y application is available on iOS and Android.
... When taking into account participants with a learning disorder, in our case, participants with dyslexia, we need to address their needs [38] in the design of the application and the experiment as well as consider the ethical aspects [7]. As dyslexia is connected to nine genetic markers and reading ability is highly hereditary [14], we support readability for participants' supervisors (who could be parents) with a large font size (minimum 18 points) [43]. ...
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When discussing interpretable machine learning results, researchers need to compare them and check for reliability, especially for health-related data. The reason is the negative impact of wrong results on a person, such as in wrong prediction of cancer, incorrect assessment of the COVID-19 pandemic situation, or missing early screening of dyslexia. Often only small data exists for these complex interdisciplinary research projects. Hence, it is essential that this type of research understands different methodologies and mindsets such as the Design Science Methodology, Human-Centered Design or Data Science approaches to ensure interpretable and reliable results. Therefore, we present various recommendations and design considerations for experiments that help to avoid over-fitting and biased interpretation of results when having small imbalanced data related to health. We also present two very different use cases: early screening of dyslexia and event prediction in multiple sclerosis.
... When taking into account participants with a learning disorder, in our case, participants with dyslexia, we need to address their needs [34] in the design of the application and the experiment as well as consider the ethical aspects [6]. As dyslexia is connected to nine genetic markers and reading ability is highly hereditary [12], we support readability for participants' supervisors (who could be parents) with a large font size (minimum 18 points) [39]. ...
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When discussing interpretable machine learning results, researchers need to compare results and reflect on reliable results, especially for health-related data. The reason is the negative impact of wrong results on a person, such as in missing early screening of dyslexia or wrong prediction of cancer. We present nine criteria that help avoiding over-fitting and biased interpretation of results when having small imbalanced data related to health. We present a use case of early screening of dyslexia with an imbalanced data set using machine learning classification to explain design decisions and discuss issues for further research.
... Such corpora can be used as source of knowledge to study different aspects of dyslexia. They can also be used to develop tools such as spellcheckers and games, and for screening with applications for readers (Rauschenberger et al., 2019), e.g. Dytective (Rello et al., 2016) To the best of our knowledge, there is currently no available data set for French with reading errors of poor readers and dyslexics. ...
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In this paper, we present a new parallel corpus addressed to researchers, teachers, and speech therapists interested in text simplification as a means of alleviating difficulties in children learning to read. The corpus is composed of excerpts drawn from 79 authentic literary (tales, stories) and scientific (documentary) texts commonly used in French schools for children aged between 7 to 9 years old. The excerpts were manually simplified at the lexical, morpho-syntactic, and discourse levels in order to propose a parallel corpus for reading tests and for the development of automatic text simplification tools. A sample of 21 poor-reading and dyslexic children with an average reading delay of 2.5 years read a portion of the corpus. The transcripts of readings errors were integrated into the corpus with the goal of identifying lexical difficulty in the target population. By means of statistical testing, we provide evidence that the manual simplifications significantly reduced reading errors, highlighting that the words targeted for simplification were not only well-chosen but also substituted with substantially easier alternatives. The entire corpus is available for consultation through a web interface and available on demand for research purposes.
... Various applications and games to support, detect and treat dyslexia have been developed [31]. Gamification has been used to design various use cases, applications as well as frameworks [14,22,41,47]. ...
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Children with dyslexia are often diagnosed after they fail school even if dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. In this work, we present an approach for universal screening of dyslexia using machine learning models with data gathered from a web-based language-independent game. We designed the game content taking into consideration the analysis of mistakes of people with dyslexia in different languages and other parameters related to dyslexia like auditory perception as well as visual perception. We did a user study with 313 children (116 with dyslexia) and train predictive machine learning models with the collected data. Our method yields an accuracy of 0.74 for German and 0.69 for Spanish as well as an F1-score of 0.75 for German and 0.75 for Spanish, using Random Forests and Extra Trees, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that risk of dyslexia is screened using a language-independent content web-based game and machine-learning. Universal screening with language-independent content can be used for the screening of pre-readers who do not have any language skills, facilitating a potential early intervention.
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Chapter
Augmented Reality Game for based learning has been enhanced the learning experienced and developed the knowledge and skills of the user. The project methodology used in this study is the game development life cycle (GDLC). It includes initiation, pre-production, production, testing, beta testing and release. The purpose of this project is to produce video games for children with dyslexia who have visual and auditory learning difficulties related to memory, time management, speed processing, organization, organization and planning. The objective of this product was to develop Augmented Reality games for dyslexia students, second was to develop Reality-based games on reading, spelling and numbers for dyslexia students using the Unity Game Engine, the third was to test the appropriateness of learning based on reading, spelling games and numbers for dyslexic students. The number of user targets used to test this product are dyslexia students, teachers who teach dyslexia students, expert programmers and designer games and evaluators from the eLearning Carnival & Conference (eLCC 2019). The result of this DyslexiAR learning game is that dyslexic students have a better understanding of learning to read, spell and learn numbers.
Thesis
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Children with dyslexia have difficulties learning how to read and write. They are often diagnosed after they fail in school, even though dyslexia is not related to general intelligence. In this thesis, we present an approach for earlier screening of dyslexia using a language-independent game in combination with machine learning models trained with the interaction data. By earlier, we mean before children learn how to read and write. To reach this goal, we designed the game content with knowl- edge of the analysis of word errors from people with dyslexia in different languages and the parameters reported to be related to dyslexia, such as auditory and visual perception. With our two de- signed games (MusVis and DGames), we collected data sets (313 and 137 participants) in different languages (mainly Spanish and German) and evaluated them with machine learning classifiers. For MusVis we mainly use content that refers to one single acoustic or visual indicator, while DGames content refers to generic content related to various indicators. Our method provides an accuracy of 0.74 for German and 0.69 for Spanish and F1-scores of 0.75 for German and 0.75 for Spanish in MusVis when Random Forest and Extra Trees are used. DGames was mainly evaluated with German and reached a peak accuracy of 0.67 and a peak F1-score of 0.74. Our results open the possibility of low-cost and early screening of dyslexia through the Web.
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We present an ebook reader for Android which displays ebooks in a more accessible manner for users with dyslexia. The ebook reader combines features that other related tools already have, such as text-to-speech technology, and new features, such as displaying the text with an adapted text layout based on the results of a user study with participants with dyslexia. Since there is no universal profile of a user with dyslexia, the layout settings are customizable and users can override the special layout setting according to their reading preferences.
Conference Paper
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People with dyslexia often face difficulties on consuming written content at the Web. This occurs mainly because websites' designs do not consider the barriers faced by them, since dyslexia is not taken into account as often as other functional limitations. Guidelines for designing accessible Web pages are being consolidated and studied. Meanwhile, people with dyslexia face barriers and develop workarounds to overcome these difficulties. This work presents a customization toolbar called Firefixia, especially designed to support people with dyslexia to adapt the presentation of Web content according to their preferences. Firefixia was tested by 4 participants with diagnosed dyslexia. The participants evaluated and provided us feedback regarding the toolbar most/least useful features. From the presented results, one expects to highlight the need for end-user customization features that are easy to access, easy to use, and easy to explore. Participants reported that the most useful customization features are the text size, the text alignment, and the link color. Finally, this work indicates promising directions for end-user customization tools such as Firefixia.
Conference Paper
Standards organizations, (e.g., the World Wide Web Consortium), are placing increased importance on the cognitive accessibility of online systems, including web search. Previous work has shown an association between query-document relevance judgments, and query-independent assessments of document readability. In this paper we study the lexical and aesthetic features of web documents that may underlie this relationship. Leveraging a data set consisting of relevance and readability judgments for 200 web pages as assessed by 174 adults with dyslexia and 172 adults without dyslexia, we answer the following research questions: (1) Which web page features are most associated with readability? (2) To what extent are these features also associated with relevance? And, (3) are any features associated with the differences in readability/relevance judgments observed between dyslexic and non-dyslexic populations? Our findings have implications for improving the cognitive accessibility of search systems and web documents.
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Approximately 4–10% of the German population suffers from developmental dyslexia. The learning disorder afffects educational, personal, and social development of children in a negative way. Mobile serious games have the potential to support dyslexic primary-school children in addition to school support and learning therapy. We propose such a mobile serious game called “Prosodiya”, with the help of which dyslexic children can improve their reading and writing performance. Prosodiya includes innovative and evidence-based interventions that focus on improving the awareness of linguistic features related to syllable stress. We report the results of a pilot study of a preliminary version of the game. Results indicate that the children enjoyed playing the game, that their motivation was maintained, and that they wanted more levels.
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The use of colors to enhance the reading of people with dyslexia have been broadly discussed and is often recommended, but evidence of the effectiveness of this approach is lacking. This paper presents a user study with 341 participants (89 with dyslexia) that measures the effect of using background colors on screen readability. Readability was measured via reading time and distance travelled by the mouse. Comprehension was used as a control variable. The results show that using certain background colors have a significant impact on people with and without dyslexia. Warm background colors, Peach, Orange and Yellow, significantly improved reading performance over cool background colors, Blue, Blue Grey and Green. These results provide evidence to the practice of using colored backgrounds to improve readability; people with and without dyslexia benefit, but people with dyslexia may especially benefit from the practice given the difficulty they have in reading in general.
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In this demo we present DytectiveU, a game with 35,000 exercises to train the cognitive abilities related to dyslexia. To personalize the exercises, the game takes into consideration 25 indicators grouped in performance measures, language skills, working memory, executive functions and perceptual processes. The main contribution of this approach is to train dyslexia from a holistic point of view addressing not only the difficulties in reading and writing but also other cognitive abilities that are related to dyslexia and/or contribute to create coping skills to overcome dyslexia. The game is available for Android, iOS and Web (PC/Mac).
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Previous research has shown that speech-to-text (STT) software can support students in producing a given piece of writing. This is the 1st study to investigate the use of STT to teach a writing strategy. We pretested 45 Grade 5 students on argument writing and trained them to use STT. Students participated in 4 lessons on an argument writing strategy and wrote a practice text for each lesson. We then randomly assigned the students to compose practice texts in 1 of 2 modalities: handwriting or STT. Students then completed posttests on argument writing in both modalities. Both modality conditions resulted in statistically significant, large gains in text quality, word count, and variety of argument moves and significant transfer to the untrained modality. The modalities did not differ significantly in their effects on argument writing or cognitive load. The results suggest that STT provides an alternative medium for learning writing strategies.
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The goal of the DYSL-X project is to develop a tool to predict whether a preschooler (5 yrs) shows high risks for developing dyslexia. This tool is a tablet game that incorporates tests to take specific performance measures that allow for this prediction. The game will thus serve as an assessment tool to be used in school psychology services and clinical diagnostic and rehabilitation centers. In order to design the optimal tablet game for preschoolers, during the first phase of the projects several existing games for preschoolers were evaluated in order to derive design guidelines for games targeted at preschoolers. These design guidelines are presented in this paper and next, we show how these guidelines were used to develop the final game of the DYSL-X project.
Conference Paper
Poor spelling is a challenge faced by people with dyslexia throughout their lives. Spellcheckers are therefore a crucial tool for people with dyslexia, but current spellcheckers do not detect real-word errors, which are a common type of errors made by people with dyslexia. Real-word errors are spelling mistakes that result in an unintended but real word, for instance, form instead of from. Nearly 20% of the errors that people with dyslexia make are real-word errors. In this paper, we introduce a system called Real Check that uses a probabilistic language model, a statistical dependency parser and Google n-grams to detect real-world errors. We evaluated Real Check on text written by people with dyslexia, and showed that it detects more of these errors than widely used spellcheckers. In an experiment with 34 people (17 with dyslexia), people with dyslexia corrected sentences more accurately and in less time with Real Check.
Chapter
DIESEL-X is a computer game that was developed to detect a high risk for developing dyslexia in preschoolers. The game includes three mini-games that test the player on three skills that are considered to yield outcome measures that predict the onset of dyslexia: the detection threshold of frequency modulated tones, a test on phonological awareness in which the player has to identify words that have the same phonetic ending, and a test on letter knowledge. In order to keep the motivation of the player high during testing, these tests are embedded in a computer game. We discuss the participatory design process that was adopted to design and develop the game, the rationale behind the design decisions, and we describe the resulting games. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. All rights reserved.
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Around 10% of the people have dyslexia, a neurological disability that impairs a person's ability to read and write. There is evidence that the presentation of the text has a significant effect on a text's accessibility for people with dyslexia. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no experiments that objectively measure the impact of the typeface (font) on screen reading performance. In this article, we present the first experiment that uses eye-tracking to measure the effect of typeface on reading speed. Using a mixed between-within subject design, 97 subjects (48 with dyslexia) read 12 texts with 12 different fonts. Font types have an impact on readability for people with and without dyslexia. For the tested fonts, sans serif, monospaced, and roman font styles significantly improved the reading performance over serif, proportional, and italic fonts. On the basis of our results, we recommend a set of more accessible fonts for people with and without dyslexia.
Conference Paper
This paper reviews the main challenges of studying dyslexia for web accessibility. These are: (1) measuring the impact of dyslexia in the population; (2) the limitations of the up-to-date studies; and (3) including dyslexia in the Web accessibility guidelines. While some aspects are already addressed by the guidelines, we propose the inclusion of simple recommendations for typeface and font size that would benefit both people with and without dyslexia. We also suggest a change in the current methodologies to overcome up-to-date research limitations using larger and more representative datasets.
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A single-subject alternating treatment design was used to investigate the extent to which a specialized dyslexia font, OpenDyslexic, impacted reading rate or accuracy compared to two commonly used fonts when used with elementary students identified as having dyslexia. OpenDyslexic was compared to Arial and Times New Roman in three reading tasks: (a) letter naming, (b) word reading, and (c) nonsense word reading. Data were analyzed through visual analysis and improvement rate difference, a nonparametric measure of nonoverlap for comparing treatments. Results from this alternating treatment experiment show no improvement in reading rate or accuracy for individual students with dyslexia, as well as the group as a whole. While some students commented that the font was "new" or "different", none of the participants reported preferring to read material presented in that font. These results indicate there may be no benefit for translating print materials to this font.
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The Web is an essential resource widely used by many organizations, affecting the lives of countless people. Thus, it is essential to ensure that Websites are accessible in order for people with disabilities to enjoy all its benefits. Many studies have been dedicated to investigate Web accessibility issues for users with visual or motor disabilities. However, comparatively fewer studies have addressed accessibility for users with specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia. Furthermore, few tools provide support for dyslexic users during reading and browsing in Web content. The present study involved the design and implementation of a prototype extension for a Web browser that offers customization features of Web pages, based on requirements from problems encountered by users with dyslexia in related studies in the literature. The research involved the design, implementation and a preliminary user evaluation involving users with dyslexia in two iterative cycles. The implemented prototype included features to adjust layout characteristics of text and other features identified by means of feedback from users to aid concentration and dealing with difficult words, such as a “reading ruler”. The results obtained from this study highlighted the importance of providing further support in user agents to help dyslexic users and provide tools to help with linguistic issues.
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In this paper we present a method which aims to improve the spelling of children with dyslexia through playful and targeted exercises. In contrast to previous approaches, our method does not use correct words or positive examples to follow, but presents the child a misspelled word as an exercise to solve. We created these training exercises on the basis of the linguistic knowledge extracted from the errors found in texts written by children with dyslexia. To test the effectiveness of this method in Spanish, we integrated the exercises in a game for iPad, DysEggxia (Piruletras in Spanish), and carried out a within-subject experiment. During eight weeks, 48 children played either DysEggxia or Word Search, which is another word game. We conducted tests and questionnaires at the beginning of the study, after four weeks when the games were switched, and at the end of the study. The children who played DysEggxia for four weeks in a row had significantly less writing errors in the tests that after playing Word Search for the same time. This provides evidence that error-based exercises presented in a tablet help children with dyslexia improve their spelling skills.
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In this paper we present the evaluation of DysWebxia, a reading app for iOS devices, specially designed for people with dyslexia. DysWebxia integrates previous results about the best way to present text for people with dyslexia together with a unique feature, the ability to show synonyms on demand for complex words. Although the new algorithm used for this unique feature is language independent, our first prototype is for Spanish. To evaluate DysWebxia we carried out two different user studies. One to evaluate the quality of the synonyms on demand that included 32 participants with dyslexia and 38 strong readers without dyslexia, and another one to evaluate the usability of the app based on 12 participants. Our results show that the quality of the synonyms generated by the new algorithm outperforms a frequency based baseline, and that the participants found DysWebxia very usable. Therefore, we show that this app may have in the future a large impact for people with dyslexia.
Conference Paper
We present a user study for two different automatic strategies that simplify text content for people with dyslexia. The strategies considered are the standard one (replacing a complex word with the most simpler synonym) and a new one that presents several synonyms for a complex word if the user requests them. We compare texts transformed by both strategies with the original text and to a gold standard manually built. The study was undertook by 96 participants, 47 with dyslexia plus a control group of 49 people without dyslexia. To show device independence, for the new strategy we used three different reading devices. Overall, participants with dyslexia found texts presented with the new strategy significantly more readable and comprehensible. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest user study of its kind.
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In 2012, Wikipedia was the sixth-most visited website on the Internet. Being one of the main repositories of knowledge, students from all over the world consult it. But, around 10% of these students have dyslexia, which impairs their access to text-based websites. How could Wikipedia be presented to be more readable for this target group? In an experiment with 28 participants with dyslexia, we compare reading speed, comprehension, and subjective readability for the font sizes 10, 12, 14, 18, 22, and 26 points, and line spacings 0.8, 1.0, 1.4, and 1.8. The results show that font size has a significant effect on the readability and the understandability of the text, while line spacing does not. On the basis of our results, we recommend using 18-point font size when designing web text for readers with dyslexia. Our results significantly differ from previous recommendations, presumably, because this is the first work to cover a wide range of values and to study them in the context of an actual website.