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INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO

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INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO INDICATORS' ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO

Abstract

Land in Morocco constitutes a basic resource seen as the most profitable and assured investment for many investors. Two systems of administration dominate the land tenure system. The first system is based on the abstract deeds managed by the Ministry of Justice to guaranty land ownership and land transactions. The second system is based on Torrent act principles to describe accurately a piece of land in a land titling process. The description consists of determining accurate position of lands, their exact boundaries, their real capacity, and their consistency. It also defines all ownership related to lands. This system respects he principles of adjudication, absolute advertisement, and the convincing force of registration that defines the complete civil state of all titled lands. Land rights are guaranteed in both systems. Many operators are facing challenges in terms of land market transactions and land rights management. The issues are linked to the diversity of the land regulations and the bureaucracy of the involved institutions. Indeed, it is necessary to assess land governance in Morocco. The LGAF tool as the basis of a highly participatory approach analyzing various dimensions of land governance in a systematic way was adopted to achieve this purpose. The goal behind is to identify good practices and build consensus on priority areas for land administration enhancement. The results of the analysis enable stakeholders to address key governance gaps and elaborate a clear roadmap of improving land governance.
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INDICATORS’ ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO
Moha El-ayachi, m.elayachi@iav.ac.ma,
Tayeb Tachallait, t.tachallait@iav.ac.ma,
Omar Amanar, Tarik Ouachaou,
Loubna EL Mansouri, loubna.elmansouri@gmail.com
Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Morocco
Paper prepared for presentation at the
“2019 WORLD BANK CONFERENCE ON LAND AND POVERTY
The World Bank - Washington DC, March 25-29, 2019
Copyright 2019 by author(s). All rights reserved. Readers may make verbatim copies of this
document for non-commercial purposes by any means, provided that this copyright notice
appears on all such copies.
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INDICATORS’ ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO
Moha El-ayachi, m.elayachi@iav.ac.ma,
Tayeb Tachallait, t.tachallait@iav.ac.ma,
Omar Amanar, Tarik Ouachaou,
Loubna EL Mansouri, loubna.elmansouri@gmail.com
Institute of Agronomy and Veterinary Medicine, Rabat, Morocco
Abstract
Land in Morocco constitutes a basic resource seen as the most profitable and assured investment
for many investors. Two systems of administration dominate the land tenure system. The first
system is based on the abstract deeds managed by the Ministry of Justice to guaranty land
ownership and land transactions. The second system is based on Torrent act principles to
describe accurately a piece of land in a land titling process. The description consists of
determining accurate position of lands, their exact boundaries, their real capacity, and their
consistency. It also defines all ownership related to lands. This system respects he principles of
adjudication, absolute advertisement, and the convincing force of registration that defines the
complete civil state of all titled lands. Land rights are guaranteed in both systems. Many
operators are facing challenges in terms of land market transactions and land rights
management. The issues are linked to the diversity of the land regulations and the bureaucracy
of the involved institutions. Indeed, it is necessary to assess land governance in Morocco. The
LGAF tool as the basis of a highly participatory approach analyzing various dimensions of land
governance in a systematic way was adopted to achieve this purpose. The goal behind is to
identify good practices and build consensus on priority areas for land administration
enhancement. The results of the analysis enable stakeholders to address key governance gaps
and elaborate a clear roadmap of improving land governance.
Keywords: land, deed, torrent, LGAF, governance, assessment, stakeholders
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INDICATORS’ ASSESSMENT OF LAND GOVERNANCE IN MOROCCO
Moha El-ayachi1, m.elayachi@iav.ac.ma,
Tayeb Tachallait1, t.tachallait@iav.ac.ma,
Omar Amanar2, Tarik Ouachaou2,
Loubna EL Mansouri1, loubna.elmansouri@gmail.com
1 INTRODUCTION
Throughout the history of Morocco, the developed land tenure forms have supported the social
stability in the history of the country. This effect can be noticed by the role of the collective
lands, religious lands, and the state private lands in ensuring the individual rights within large
farms of the communities. They are considered as a potential form of protecting families against
dispossession of their lands. They also could be a crucial barrier of the development because of
their diversity. The form of the estate warranty as instituted by the Torrent system is sporadic,
time consuming, and expensive. Many economic operators are facing difficulties in their
investment projects related to the land market transactions and land rights management. The
difficulties are linked to the diversity of the land regulations and the bureaucratic management
of the real estate by many institutions. The State, as a primary landowner, needs to develop an
efficient system to increase the security on land and facilitate land administration. This will
allow monitoring land market, improving planning in urban and rural areas, enhancing the legal
framework of land, and integrating the new technology to maintain land management such as
redistribution, consolidation, valuation, and assessment.
Indeed, it is necessary to analyze land governance system indicators in Morocco in a
participatory process to identify good practices and build consensus on priority areas for land
administration enhancement. The results of the analysis will enable stakeholders to address key
governance gaps and to elaborate a clear roadmap of improving land governance. In this sense,
the NELGA North Africa Node undertakes activities to enrich the debate on issues related to
land governance in Morocco and North Africa. It has initiated several discussions to choose a
convenient tool facilitating land governance assessment. The LGAF for Land Governance
Assessment Framework tool as the basis of a highly participatory approach analyzing various
dimensions of land governance in a systematic way was adopted to achieve this purpose.
The study has started by analyzing legal aspects of land management and administration.
Secondly, a panel of experts was organized to evaluate three indicators related to land
governance. The panel had the aim to sensitize many actors on the role of LGAF in the analysis
of land policies. It was an opportunity to gather experts from various institutions such as
ministries, policy makers, scientists, and professionals.
The conducted study regarding its results highlights that the LGAF has the advantage as a
potential tool of land governance analysis in Morocco to offer for specialists and for many
stakeholders an instrument of understanding the shortcoming of the land tenure systems and
providing solutions to overcome difficulties and institutional barriers.
2 THE LAND GOVERNANCE ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK: A BRIEF
DESCRIPTION
The Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) is a diagnostic instrument that helps
assessing the legal framework, policies, and practices of land governance and tracking
improvement for long term. It was developed as a collaborative process based on recognizing
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the increasingly important role of land governance in enabling countries to meet challenges of
the 21st century. It provides a basis of highlighting made progress in terms of urbanization, and
land management to face the increased land demand (World Bank, 2013).
The matrix structure of the LGAF facilitate the analysis of several indicators in an independent
manner regarding the specific themes that concretely affect various sectors of land governance.
The LGAF process shall be conducted in a short-term activity (4 to 6 months) through a process
of successive phases supervised by a country coordinator (World Bank, 2012). It is organized
into five main themes to measure performance in the area of land governance, namely: the legal
and institutional framework, land use planning, land management and property taxation, public
land management, public access to land information, dispute resolution, and conflict
management. The five themes are characterized by 21 indicators of land governance (LGI).
Each indicator relates to a basic governance principle and is subdivided into dimensions. For
each indicator, there are 2 to 6 dimensions, with a total of 80 key dimensions. Each dimension
must be evaluated by selecting an appropriate answer from a list of statements and pre-coded
proposals.
To assess areas of particular depth for some countries, the targeted LGAF key indicators can
be supplemented by optional modules of land governance indicators, such as the large-scale
land acquisition module, or forest governance (Figure 1).
Figure 1: The main themes of land governance
For each dimension within the 80 elements of LGI, a scorecard is produced to present the
selecting appropriate response from a list of previously coded options. The affected scores are
rated using A, B, C, and D. The score ‘A’ corresponds to the best possible situation while the
D score corresponds to the least enviable situation. The score B refers to a moderately good
situation, and the score C reflects a need for improvement. Some dimensions will require
completing a matrix with statistics or figures to justify the ratings assigned to them. The LGI
are evaluated by panels of experts gathering people with a good knowledge of the subject. The
experts shared during a panel meeting their knowledge on dimensions to evaluate information
and judgments. To enable the panel session to be effective and productive, introductory notes
are prepared on each of the five themes that are selected (Table1).
When panelists cannot reach a consensus or if there is a significant lack of data or evidence to
make a decision about a particular dimension, the sampling method can be used to determine
the score of a dimension. This approach is adopted regarding the time available, the budget and
the resource constraints originally negotiated (World Bank, 2012).
LGAF
Theme 1: Legal and
institutional framework
Theme 3 : Management
of Public Land
Theme 2 : Land use
Planning,
Management and
Taxation
Theme 5 : Dispute resolution and
conflict management
5
LGI-nn
Scoring
Dimension i
Rating
A - Dimension description is the best option towards a good land
governance scenario.
B Dimension description is generally the second-best set of options
that make progress towards good land governance.
C Dimension description generally struggles to meet the criteria for
good land governance however some attempts are being made.
D There are no attempts in this area that indicate good land
governance operates
Tableau 1: scoring process of LGAF (World Bank, 2012)
A study was conducted to describe land governance framework in Morocco. The analysis is
based firstly on an analysis of the legal texts of the Moroccan land law arsenal, and the reports
of the ministries and public institutions involved in land administration and management. The
aim behind the analysis is to present regulations and juridical instruments dealing with each
dimension of the LGAF instrument, reinforced by statistical statistics in order to have an
overview on the situation of land governance in Morocco. Some dimensions have not been
addressed due to a lack of information.
2.1 Recognition of a continuum of rights
The current Moroccan land legislation is the result of several legislation systems enacted
throughout different periods in the history of Morocco. Several laws are introduced by the
French protectorate during the period (1912-1956) and other resources are based on the Islamic
law. Moroccan land legislation recognizes individual and collective property rights in both
urban and rural areas, as long as these rights do not encroach on the public domain and areas
with specific statutes according to a set of laws (Table 2).
Table 2: legal references
Period
Land Law
1912 1956
Dahir of 31 October 1912 related to the Ministry of Habous;
Dahir of 12 August 1913 land registration;
Dahir of 16 April 1914 Urban planning;
Dahir of 1er Juy 1914 on the public land;
Dahir of 7 July 1914 land registration;
Dahir of 2 June 1915 on applied laws for titled houses;
Dahir of 3 January 1916 on the delimitation of the public land ;
Dahir of 10- 1917 on forest conservation and exploration;
Dahir of 27 April 1919 on the delineation of the collective lands
Dahir of 24 May 1912 on the titling of the state real estate ;
Dahir of 18 February 1924 on the delimitation of the collective
lands ;
Dahir of the 1st August on the water regime ;
Dahir of May 1925 related to the notary ;
Dahir of 25 June 1927 on the titling of the private state land
declassified from the public land;
Dahir of 15 August 1928 on the legal regime of land cover slick
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Table 2: legal references
Period
Land Law
Dahir of 06 February 1937 on the delimitation of the collective
land ;
After the independence (1956)
1960 to 1970
Dahir of 25 June 1960 on the rural housing development;
Dahir of 30 June 1962 on the rural land consolidation ;
Dahir N°1.63.288 of 26 September 1963 on the contrôle process of
the real estate transations conducted by land owner of rural properties ;
Dahir N°1.69.29 of 25 July 1969 on the collective land located in the
perimeter of irrigation ;
Dahir N° 1.72.277 of 29 December 1972 on the transfer of the
priavte state land to the agriculture land owner;
Dahir of 30 September 1976 on the inclusive process for forest
development ;
80ies
La loi n° 7.81 related to the expropriation ;
Dahir du 30 Novembre 1983 related to the temporary use of certain
parcels ;
Current era
Law 25.90 related to the allotment, housing, and subdivision;
Law 12.90 related to the urban development ;
Law 30.93 related to the profession of land surveyors and survey
engineers ;
Law 18.00 related to the statute of co-property;
Law 44.00 related to the sale of land under constructions ;
Law 51.00 related to the renting access of the real estate ;
Law 05-01 modifying the Dahir 29 December 1972 related to the
private state land ;
Law n°16.03 related to the profession of Adoul ;
Dahir of 3 February 2004 related to the familial code
Law 14.07 related to the land titling ;
Law 39.08 related to the land right code ;
Law 32.09 related to the notary profession ;
Dahir n° 1.09.236 of 23 February 2010 related to the endowment
lands (Habous) ;
The recognition of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution (Article 35) has been relatively
unstable since 2011, after the introduction of Law 39-08; land rights code. Article 2 stipulates
the obligation to verify the right of ownership every four years, to protect land right from any
possible spoliation due to third party registration. It recognizes private ownership based on
unopposed occupation on unregistered lands known as Melk. These unregistered private
properties must be proved by a deed act known as (Moulkiya) or an act of transfer of ownership
that can be carried out either by an act adoulaire or by a private registered deed, or by a notarial
act (Article 5 of the Dahir 4 May 1925). Collective lands, Habous properties and Melk estates
may be subject to land registration (GIGNOUX, 2017). (LGI 1)
Similarly, formal legislation does not recognize the rights of urban informal groups, where the
creation of "slums" and the extension of those existing at the time of the promulgation of the
present dahir are prohibited in municipal cities and their suburbs as well as within the delimited
urban centers and their peripheral zones, except by a granted exemption granted the temporary
housing according to the article 3 of the Dahir 8 July 1938 (LGI 1).
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2.2 Respect for and enforcement of rights (LGI 2)
Most demarcated and registered land are in urban area. Land registration, certification and
cadastral operations are formal procedures in the process of registration of existing land in
Morocco. The National Agency of Land Conservation, Cadastre and Cartography achieve
currently more than 5,400,000 land titles, more than 159,400,000 digitized plans. The official
statistics of the agency in December 2017 show that more than 20.41% of the land is registered
and delimited mainly in urban areas (LGI 2-ii and LGI 2-iii). The registered collective land area
represents 4.5% of the total national territory, which is about 21.1% of the collective lands of
the Kingdom (ANCFCC, 2017)
The Moroccan land system follows two regimes: a regime governed by the principles of Islamic
law and customs, and another system of land registration introduced by the French protectorate
in 1912. The Moroccan legislation recognizes common property rights or co-ownership by an
arsenal of legal texts composed of laws, dahirs, and decrees, mainly Law 18.00 which applies
to the ownership of buildings divided into apartments or floors of which the property belonging
to several persons is subdivided into lots. A lot could consist of a private and a common quota.
An essential element of good governance regarding condominiums is not only the right to live
in, but also the recognition of collective rights, with a clear methodology for the management
of the common parts (Article 4 of Law 18.00) and the constitution of trade unions and
attributions of trustees (Articles 13 and 20 of Law 18.00). In order to ensure the full enjoyment
of their property rights, this is respected by the development of the co-ownership by-law
according to articles 9 and 51 of this law. In the same way in rural areas, common property is
presented mainly by the lands of rural consolidation, governed by the Dahir June 30, 1962. (IGF
2-v). The loss of rights resulting from a land use change gives rise to compensation. Indeed,
Article 21 of Law 7.81 on expropriation for public utility and temporary occupation states that
in the case where there are usufruct rights, use, housing or other similar rights, only one
compensation is fixed by the registry of the administrative court with regard to the total value
of the building. The various interested parties exercise their rights over the amount of indemnity
(IGF 2-vi).
In the inspired regime by local customs, the right of ownership of unregistered property is based
on peaceful possession and public notoriety uninterrupted for 10 years against a third party or
40 years of parents (IGF 3-ii). Proof of the right of ownership of unregistered property is the
presentation of a deed act called "moulkiya", under which twelve ordinary witnesses (IGF 3-i)
confirm the regular possession of the person claiming ownership of the property in front of two
"Adouls" (IGF 3-vi) (Mejdoubi and Bachelet, 2016). It is therefore an act of notoriety, drawn
up in the authentic form, by which sufficient witnesses affirm that a person has possession of a
real property for a certain period (GIGNOUX, 2017).
In addition to land registration fees ranging from 4 to 6%, the landowner must pay fees to the
land conservation. Many taxes must be paid from the phase of land acquisition to housing. As
soon as the land is acquired, the landowner must pay the registration fees. In this context, he
has the choice between two rates. The first, usually used, is the reduced rate of 4%. In fact, the
registration code makes it possible to benefit from this rate provided that it undertakes in writing
in the act of acquisition of the land to build its dwelling within a period not exceeding 7 years.
In return, he consents to the benefit of the State a first rank mortgage to guarantee the
complement of the tax which passes to 6% if he does not respect his commitment. If the owner
respects this delay, he obtains the release of the State free of charge. Otherwise, he is obliged
to pay the supplement, ie 2% extra, in addition to late penalties since the date of acquisition of
the land. In addition to the registration, the landlord must pay the land registration fee
(Benchanna, 2017) (LGI 3-iii, LGI 3-iv).
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2.3 Clarity of Mandates and Practices
The multiplicity of institutional actors involved in land management leads to a problem of
coordination and convergence. This multiplicity of official institutional actors intervening in
the control and the management is related to the diversity of the Moroccan land structure
encompassing the Ministry of the Economy and Finance, the Ministry of the Interior, the
Ministry of Habous and Islamic Affairs, the Ministry of Equipment and the Office of the High
Commissioner for Water and Forests and the fight against desertification (LGI 26-i).
As a result of this situation, several constraints and dysfunctions are linked to public land
management mechanisms and procedures. Indeed, the multiplicity of institutional entities
involved in the management of the public land, in proportion to the land tenure in this area,
raises the issue of coordination (IGF 26-iv) and the convergence between these management
entities and non-unification vision in terms of land mobilization (IGF 26-ii, IGF 26-iii).
2.4 Land Use Planning, Land Management and Taxation
In a best land management system, land use and management regulations are used primarily to
avoid or reduce non-optimal or undesirable uses. They must be reasonable to avoid pushing a
large part of the population into informal settlements. Regulations of this kind must therefore
be formulated by ensuring public participation in the development process. This makes the role
of public inquiry an essential element in the preparation of urban documents and land use plans,
whether in urban or rural areas (Article 25 of Law 12.90 and PDAR Article 3 of Dahir 1.6.063
of 25 June 1960 concerning the development of rural settlements). The survey enables citizens
to be informed about the project and express any observations within a specific period (LGI 7-
i), (LGI 7-ii)
The change in land use is accompanied by potential gains and benefits in case of infrastructure
development such as roads or other investment projects including land valuation, marketing
and reconciliation of production. In other cases, land-use changes may negatively affect public
profit, for example in the case of the construction of highways that marginalize cities (LGI 7-
iii).
Where an act of the public utility is enacted for the expropriated properties, it has been
published in the official bulletin (BO) and submitted to the concerned city to be available for
consultation within a period of two months (Articles 9-10 law 7.81). Beyond two months, there
is an opportunity to declare a new public utility (LGI 7-iv)
2.5 Effectiveness of Land Use Planning Procedures
Morocco has known for several decades, a strong continuous demographic growth. This is more
profitable to cities than to the countryside because of the rural immigration. The urbanization
increase is due to the internal population growth of cities as well as to the tendency of the
countryside population to leave towards neighboring cities. Urban growth generates specific
problems related to housing, local public services, basic infrastructure and public amenities
(GRIDAUH, 2002). According to articles 19 and 20 of law 12.90 related to town planning, the
purpose of the management plan is to define the allocation of the different zones according to
the main land use such as inhabitant zone, industrial zone, commercial zone, tourist zone,
market gardening zone, agricultural zone and forest zone. In addition, it defines the rules of
land use and the housing. According to article 59 of the previous law, the building regulations
set safety regulations that the buildings must respect and the conditions they must meet in the
interest of hygiene, circulation, aesthetics and public convenience, including the size, volume
or size (IGF 7-iv)
3 AN IMPLEMENTING INITIATIVE OF THE LGAF PROCESS
The Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) is designed by the World Bank in 2009
to assess the status of land governance at a country or sub-national level. LGAF is based on
9
highly-participatory and country-driven approach and follows a deliberative process. The
process aims to identify good practice and reach consensus on priority areas for reform and for
the testing, evaluation, and roll-out of new approaches to address key gaps in land governance.
The essential part of implementing the land governance framework is through the panel
sessions. In this regard, a panel was held to evaluate and rating a set of dimensions of the
instrument by bringing together professionals and specialists in land governance in Morocco.
The included dimensions require a large discussion and debate among the panelists to set up a
consensual and reasonable assessment. In this context, the NELGA North Africa network
undertook a discussion debate through a panel to enrich the debate on issues related to land
governance in Morocco and Africa.
3.1 Purpose of the panel
The purpose of the Panel is to evaluate a set of three indicators related to land governance.
Because of their qualitative nature, the choice of land-governance indicators focused only on
three indicators that require expert evaluation. Such indicators are:
- Efficiency in the urban land use planning process: land use plans and regulations are
justified, effectively implemented, do not drive large parts of the population into
informality, and are able to cope with population growth (LGI 7);
- Clarity of mandates and practice: institutional mandates concerning the regulation and
management of the land sector are clearly defined, duplication of responsibilities is
avoided and information is shared as needed (LGI 26);
- Equity and non-discrimination in the decision-making process: policies are formulated
through a legitimate decision-making process that draws on inputs from all concerned.
The legal framework is non-discriminatory and institutions to enforce property rights
are equally accessible to all (LGI 27).
The other indicators based on quantitative data have been the subject of a bibliographical
review. The Panel of Experts was an opportunity to carry out a pedagogical and professional
exercise. It had the aim to sensitize many actors on the role of LGAF in the analysis of land
policies, and to verify the contribution of LGAF and its feasibility in land policy assessment
missions.
The LGAF Panel was attended by 22 experts from different institutions including:
representatives of Ministry of Land Planning, Urban Planning, Habitat and Politics of the City,
Surveyors Enterprises, National Order of Surveying Engineers, the National Order of Notaries,
IAV Hassan II, and faculty members of the National Institute of Urban Development and
Planning. The Panel was an opportunity to share experiences and knowledge among experts in
the fields of land and urban planning. Participants ' interventions focused on developments and
innovations in national land governance strategies. Participants also highlighted some persistent
problems and dysfunctions in the above-mentioned areas. The workshop agenda was devoted
to evaluating land governance indicators. The evaluation sheet of the three indicators was
shared with the participating experts for assessment. An evaluation sheet based of the LGAF
scorecard related to the selected 3 indicators was shared in digital format with the panelists.
Each member shall rate a corresponding dimension.
3.2 The panelists and the panel session
The selection of panelists is done in collaboration with the Network of Excellence on Land
Governance in Africa (NELGA) and the Regional Council of Surveyor in Rabat-Salé-Kenitra
A half-day panel was organized by the focal point of the network of excellence on land
governance NELGA in collaboration with CRRSK-ONIGT, July 5, 2018 at the headquarters of
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the regional council. The panel gathers 22 experts from different institutions such as land
surveyors, lawyers, planners, notaries, judges; and other professionals with a perfect knowledge
of the subject. It was facilitated by the coordinator of the NELGA network in North Africa.
Detailed information on the LGAF instrument and its role in the analysis and assessment of
land governance at the global level as well as the dimensions that have been assigned to the
panel have been presented. The second part of the panel was devoted to rating the dimensions.
Thus, the panelists provide the appropriate notation based on their knowledge about the subject
that the dimension is dealing with, along with a commentary that justifies their choice. At the
end of the panel, the twenty evaluation sheets completed by the specialists were collected.
After collecting the evaluation sheets and establishing the scorecard of the three indicators, we
were able to summarize the panel results. The affected score to each dimension in the table
corresponds to the most rated by the panelists. In case of equality between two rates, we assign
the best rate to the dimension (Tables 3, 4, 5) .
Table 3: Efficiency in the urban land use planning process: land use plans and regulations
are justified, effectively implemented, do not drive large parts of the population into
informality, and are able to cope with population growth (LGI 7)
Dim
A
B
C
D
i
A policy is in place and progress is being made to ensure delivery
of low-cost housing and associated services to those in need.
x
ii
Land use planning effectively controls urban spatial expansion in
the largest city in the country
x
iii
Land use planning effectively controls urban development in the
four largest cities in the country, excluding the largest city.
x
iv
Planning processes are able to cope with urban growth
x
Table 4 : Clarity of mandates and practice: institutional mandates concerning the regulation
and management of the land sector are clearly defined, duplication of responsibilities is
avoided and information is shared as needed (IGF 26)
Dim
A
B
C
D
i
Policy formulation, implementation, and arbitration are properly
separated.
x
ii
The responsibilities of the ministries and agencies dealing with land
do not overlap (horizontal overlap)
x
iii
Administrative (vertical) overlap is avoided
x
iv
Information on land ownership and use is shared among
responsible institutions and relevant parts are freely accessible to
the public.
x
Table 5 : Equity and non-discrimination in the decision-making process: policies are
formulated through a legitimate decision-making process that draws on inputs from all
concerned. The legal framework is non-discriminatory and institutions to enforce property
rights are equally accessible to all (LGI 27)
Dim
scores
A
B
C
D
i
Land policies and regulations exist and are developed in a
participatory manner
x
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ii
There is meaningful incorporation and monitoring of equity goals
in land policy
x
iii
The implementation of land policy is costed, matched with benefits
and adequately resourced
x
iv
There is regular and public reporting indicating progress in policy
implementation
x
4 CONCLUSION
Regarding the separation of functions related to the formulation of land policies, their
implementation and the arbitration procedures of conflicts that may result from the
implementation of these policies, nine panelists confirmed the separation but there is also
overlap and conflicts of responsibility that frequently cause problems. Indeed, the
responsibilities exercised by the competent authorities (the ministries) in the field of land
administration are defined but go beyond the responsibilities of the other agencies of the land
sector, thus posing a problem of coherence. In addition to the institutional overlap, there is also
an administrative overlap of land responsibilities between the different levels of government
and communities, despite the clarity of this distribution and the difficulty of accessing these
institutions. It should also be noted that the majority of specialists have stated that in most cases
information on land rights is available for the institutions that need it but are not accessible at a
reasonable cost.
The process of land policy development is experiencing delays in terms of implementation. The
majority of participants agree that Morocco does not adopt a participatory land policy at the
large scales. But in the other hand, it has various instruments of land policy that take the public
opinion into consideration, namely in land consolidation projects, development plans and
development projects. In the same sense, the question of achieving the objectives set is also a
problem to consider. More than 50% of panelists agree that there is equity discrimination in
favor of land over, depending on land reserves and the location of land open to investment
projects. Morocco focuses on sectoral policies and not homogeneous policies, each with a
specific strategy linked to a certain area. The costs of their implementation are not quantified,
and generally they lack human and institutional capacities, which pushes its policies towards
the non-success and the grounding.
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ADRARI I., MEROUHAHEL A., (2014), Interdépendance des politiques publiques de
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diplôme d’Ingénieur en Topographie. Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II,
Rabat, 115p.
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Article
Increased global demand for land posits the need for well-designed country-level land policies to protect long-held rights, facilitate land access and address any constraints that land policy may pose for broader growth. While the implementation of land reforms can be a lengthy process, the need to swiftly identify key land policy challenges and devise responses that allow the monitoring of progress, in a way that minimizes conflicts and supports broader development goals, is clear. The Land Governance Assessment Framework (LGAF) makes a substantive contribution to the land sector by providing a quick and innovative tool to monitor land governance at the country level. The LGAF offers a comprehensive diagnostic tool that covers five main areas for policy intervention: Legal and institutional framework; Land use planning, management and taxation; Management of public land; Public provision of land information; and Dispute resolution and conflict management. The LGAF assesses these areas through a set of detailed indicators that are rated on a scale of pre-coded statements (from lack of good governance to good practice). While land governance can be highly technical in nature and tends to be addressed in a partial and sporadic manner, the LGAF posits a tool for a comprehensive assessment, taking into account the broad range of issues that land governance encompasses, while enabling those unfamiliar with land to grasp its full complexity. The LGAF will make it possible for policymakers to make sense of the technical levels of the land sector, benchmark governance, identify areas that require further attention and monitor progress. It is intended to assist countries in prioritizing reforms in the land sector by providing a holistic diagnostic review that can inform policy dialogue in a clear and targeted manner. In addition to presenting the LGAF tool, this book includes detailed case studies on its implementation in five selected countries: Peru, the Kyrgyz Republic, Ethiopia, Indonesia and Tanzania.
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