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Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cognitive Profiles of Autism and ADHD from a Cognitive Behavioral Perspective: Treatment, Prevention and the Understanding of the Comorbidity


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] The aim of the present research was to increase the understanding of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from a cognitive behavioral perspective. The investigation was made to examine the effect of modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) using visualization. Basing our research on Salkovskis’ cognitive model of OCD, the aim was to investigate whether obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) in individuals with ASD differs from OCD in patients with OCD alone, and to identify cognitive differences between individuals with a combination of ASD and OCD and a non-clinical control group. Further, to investigate the possibility that the criteria for ADHD, as given on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS), are overrepresented in sports athletes compared to non-athletes, and that these criteria may be an advantage for athletes’ achievement rather than causing problems for these individuals. In Study I, therapy was given with modified CBT including visualization. Results showed that modified CBT, resulted in significant reduction in anxiety levels, and behavioral changes in the target behaviors. In Study II, three groups, individuals with ASD and OCD, individuals with only OCD, and non-clinical controls, were compared. Results showed a significant difference between participants with both ASD and OCD and participants with OCD only. In Study III, the interest was to examining whether athletes, compared to non-athletes, have more ADHD-like symptoms in the two settings i.e. in school and leisure time/ sport activity and whether the cognitive profile that includes these criteria could be of advantage to their sport performance. The results showed significant differences between the groups and within the athlete’s group, in school and in leisure time/the sports activity, concerning ASRS scores. One general conclusion from these investigations is that the cognitive profiles of ASD and ADHD need to be recognized and taken into consideration early in the daily life both at home and in school, to reduce the risk of comorbidity.
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This is the second edition (2021) of a book originally published in 2000. It is a clearly explained textbook covering both psychology-related research methods and methods of analysis. It deals with methods of obtaining and dealing with qualitative data as well as ways of obtaining and analysing quantitative material, and forms a useful accompanying text for any introductory research methods course, or as an introduction for any other professionals undertaking research projects with people.
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Qualitative research has grown within sport and exercise psychology and is now widely conducted. The purpose of this review is to discuss three commonly used ways to demonstrate rigor when conducting or judging qualitative research in sport and exercise psychology. These are the method of member checking, the method of inter-rater reliability, and the notion of universal criteria. Problems with each method are first highlighted. Member checking and inter-rater reliability are shown to be ineffective for verification, trustworthiness, or reliability purposes. Next, universal criteria within the context of Tracy’s (2010) heavily drawn on paper within sport and exercise psychology is problematized. Throughout the discussion of each method and universal criteria more suitable possibilities for conducting rigorous qualitative research are offered. The paper concludes that to support high quality qualitative research, scholars - including journal editors and reviewers - need to change how rigor is developed and judged, rather than perpetuate the problems with how it has been commonly evaluated in the past. Recommendations for developing rigor when conducting and/or judging qualitative research within sport and exercise psychology are also offered.
Aims To examine the association between attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and suicidal behavior in psychiatric outpatients and whether this association differs among patients with different psychiatric disorders. Methods Cross‐sectional data came from the Japan Prevalence Study of Adult ADHD at Psychiatric Outpatient Care (the J‐PAAP study) which included psychiatric outpatients aged 18‐65 years recruited from one university hospital and three general psychiatric outpatient clinics in Kitakyushu City, Fukuoka, Japan in April 2014 to January 2015 (N=864). The Adult ADHD Self‐Report Scale (ASRS) Screener was used to collect information on ADHD symptoms. Reports of current and lifetime suicidal behavior were also obtained. A multivariable Poisson regression analysis was used to examine the association between ADHD symptoms and suicidal behavior. Results After adjusting for covariates there was a strong association between possible ADHD (ASRS ≥ 14) and suicidal behavior with prevalence ratios ranging from 1.17 (lifetime suicidal ideation) to 1.59 (lifetime suicide attempt) and 2.36 (current suicidal ideation). When ASRS strata were used, there was a dose‐response association between increasing ADHD symptoms and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Analyses of individual ICD‐10 psychiatric disorders showed that associations varied across disorders and that for anxiety disorder ADHD symptoms were significantly linked to all forms of suicidal behavior. Conclusion ADHD symptom severity is associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior in general psychiatric outpatients. As ADHD symptoms are common among adult psychiatric outpatients, detecting and treating ADHD in this population may be important for preventing suicidal behavior. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The behavior patterns of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention that would ultimately become recognized as Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been described for centuries. Nevertheless, in the past 35 years, advances in diagnostic methods, identification of biomarkers, and treatments have advanced at an exponential rate. ADHD is now recognized as the most common behavioral disorder of childhood, with risks extending well into adulthood for both males and females, leading to its identification as a significant public health issue. This historical neuropsychological review of ADHD emphasizes scientific highlights in the past 35 years related to ADHD, including the evolution of the diagnosis (from Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood to ADHD), influential theories (executive functions, cognitive-energetic, delay aversion), landmark treatment studies (Multimodal Treatment of ADHD [MTA] and Preschool ADHD Treatment Study [PATS]), and advances in brain mapping techniques (anatomic, functional, and resting state magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging). The review concludes by highlighting the challenges of studying and treating a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder like ADHD, with emphasis on associated disorders and conditions (learning disabilities, sluggish cognitive tempo), special populations (girls, preschoolers, adults), and recommendations for scientific inquiry in the next 35 years. Neuropsychologists are well positioned to address the clinical and research challenges of the next generation of studies, especially involving advances in understanding the sexual dimor.phism, full developmental course, and dynamic risks associated with ADHD. ( JINS , 2017, 23 , 916–929)
Objective: In adulthood, the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been subject of recent controversy. We searched for a neuroanatomical signature associated with ADHD spectrum symptoms in adults by applying, for the first time, machine learning-based pattern classification methods to structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data obtained from stimulant-naïve adults with childhood-onset ADHD and healthy controls (HC). Method: Sixty-seven ADHD patients and 66 HC underwent high-resolution T1-weighted and DTI acquisitions. A support vector machine (SVM) classifier with a non-linear kernel was applied on multimodal image features extracted on regions of interest placed across the whole brain. Results: The discrimination between a mixed-gender ADHD subgroup and individually matched HC (n = 58 each) yielded area-under-the-curve (AUC) and diagnostic accuracy (DA) values of up to 0.71% and 66% (P = 0.003) respectively. AUC and DA values increased to 0.74% and 74% (P = 0.0001) when analyses were restricted to males (52 ADHD vs. 44 HC). Conclusion: Introvert personality traits showed independent risk effects on suicidality regardless of diagnosis status. Among high risk individuals with suicidal thoughts, higher neuroticism tendency is further associated with increased risk of suicide attempt.