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Deep into the Water: Exploring the Hydro-Electromagnetic and Quantum-Electrodynamic Properties of Interfacial Water in Living Systems

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Normal water structures are maintained largely by interactions with biomacromolecular surfaces and weak electromagnetic fields, which enable extended networks for electron and proton conductivity. All standard chemistry is totally reliant on electrostatics and avoids all mention of electrodynamics and the consequent radiation field, which is supporting the notion of water as a primary mediator of biological effects induced via electromagnetic means into living systems. Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) field theory have produced a vision of water in a liquid state as a medium, which for a peculiarity of its molecular electronic spectrum reveals itself as an essential tool for long-range communications, being able to change its supra-molecular organization in function of the interaction with the environment. This paper draws attention to the fact that interfacial water (nanoscale confined water) has been shown, independently by Emilio Del Giudice et al. and by Gerald Pollack et al., to contain respectively Coherence Domains (CDs) and Exclusion Zones (EZs), which may be regarded as long-range ensembles of CDs, dynamic aqueous structures, which uses the special properties of water, such as its electron/proton dynamics and organized response to electromagnetic fields, to receive electromagnetically encoded signals endowed with coherence (negentropy) at a low frequency, and sum the resultant excitations, so as to foster the redistribution of that coherence at frequencies which may affect biological systems. The phase transition of water from the ordinary coherence of its liquid state (bulk water) to the semi-crystalline or glassy and super-coherent state of interfacial water and its role in living organisms is discussed. The link between interfacial and intracellular water of the living and 1) the thermodynamic correlation between electron and proton transfer responsible for the redox potential of chemical species, 2) the Grotthuss mechanism and the H+ eightfold path, 3) superconductivity and superfluidity (dissipationless quantum states), 4) the proton motive force and protons role in biological liquid-flow systems, and 5) two possible explanations to as many non-ordinary phenomena, one related to the mind-body severely stressful condition due to a Near Death State (NDS) or to a Near Death Like State (NDLS), namely the Electromagnetic Hyper Sensitivity (EHS) or Electromagnetic After-Effect (EAE), the other related to the harmful consequences avoided during the so-called fire walking (ceremony), are discussed.
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Open Access Library Journal
2019, Volume 6, e5435
ISSN Online: 2333-9721
ISSN Print: 2333-9705
DOI:
10.4236/oalib.1105435 May 31, 2019 1 Open Access Library Journal
Deep into the Water: Exploring the
Hydro-Electromagnetic and
Quantum-Electrodynamic Properties
of Interfacial Water in
Living Systems
Claudio Messori
Str. Villaggio Prinzera 1, Fraz. Boschi di Bardone, Terenzo, Italy
Abstract
Normal water structures are maintained largely by interactions with bioma-
cromolecular surfaces and weak electromagnetic fields, which enable ex-
tended networks for electron and proton conductivity. All standard chemi
stry
is totally reliant on electrostatics and avoids all mention of electrody
namics
and the
consequent radiation field, which is supporting the notion of water as
a primary mediator of biological effects induced via electromagnetic means
into living systems. Quantum Electrodynamic (QED) field theory have pro-
duced a vision of water in a liquid state as a
medium
, which for a pecu
liarity
of its molecular electronic spectrum reveals itself as an essential tool for
long-range communications, being able to change its supra-molecular organ-
ization in function of the interaction with the environment. This
paper draws
attention to the fact that
interfacial water
(nanoscale confined water) has been
shown, independently by Emilio Del Giudice
et al
. and by Gerald Pollack
et
al
., to contain respectively Coherence Domains (CDs) and Exclusion Zones
(EZs), which may be regarded as long-
range ensembles of CDs, dynamic
aqueous structures, which uses the special properties of water, such as its
electron/proton dynamics and organized response to electromagnetic fields,
to receive electromagnetically encoded signals endowed with coherence (ne-
gentropy) at a low frequency, and sum the resultant excitations, so as to foster
the redistribution of that coherence at frequencies which may affect biological
systems. The
phase transition
of water from the ordinary coherence of its liq-
uid state (bulk water) to the
semi-crystalline
or
glassy
and
super-coherent
How to cite this paper:
Messori, C. (2019
)
Deep into the Water: Exploring the
Hydro
-Electromagnetic and Quantum-
Electrodynamic Properties of Interfacial
Water in Living Systems
.
Open Access
Library
Journal
,
6
: e5435.
https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1105435
Received:
April 30, 2019
Accepted:
May 28, 2019
Published:
May 31, 2019
Copyright © 201
9 by author(s) and Open
Access Library Inc
.
This work
is licensed under the Creative
Commons Attribution International
License (CC BY
4.0).
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Open Access
C. Messori
DOI:
10.4236/oalib.1105435 2 Open Access Library Journal
state
of
interfacial water
and its role in living organisms is discussed. The link
between interfacial and intracellular water of the living and 1)
the thermody-
namic correlation between electron and proton transfer responsible for the
redox potential of chemical species, 2) the Grotthuss mechanism and the H+
eightfold path, 3) superconductivity and superfluidity (dissipationless quan-
tum states), 4) the proton motive force and protons role in biological liq-
uid-flow systems, and 5) two possible explanations to as many non-
ordinary
phenomena, one related to the mind-
body severely stressful condition due to
a Near Death State (NDS) or to a Near Death Like State (NDLS)
, namely the
Electromagnetic Hyper Sensitivity (EHS) or Electromagnetic After-
Effect
(EAE), the other related to the harmful consequences avoided during the
so-called fire walking (ceremony), are discussed.
Subject Areas
Chemical Engineering & Technology
Keywords
Interfacial Water, Hydrophilic
vs
Hydrophobic Surface,
Coherence Domain, Exclusion Zone, Proton Transfer, Proton
Motive Force, Grotthuss Mechanism
1. Introduction
Water (H2O) is the third most common molecule in the Universe (following the
H2 and CO molecule), and its standard chemical structure, based on the hydro-
gen bond, is actually confined by a simple scheme of charges interacting via
static Coulomb forces; that is, it is totally reliant on electrostatics and omits all
mention of electrodynamics and the consequent radiation field. It has been spe-
culated that a goodish percentage of effects in condensed matter physics make
use of the radiation field in one way or another but it still doesn’t seem to have
found a place in much of basic chemistry. In biological systems almost all water
is within a fraction of a micron or less from a surface or molecular backbone and
so is
interfacial water
, which behaves in a quantum way, where the Coulomb law
of electrostatics does not apply. In these circumstances, like charges attract. Bi-
ology itself depends on this, so as to allow the accumulation of tissues from ne-
gatively charged cell bodies.
Section 1 of the present work provides an overview of water as seen from both
points of view, the one provided by the standard chemistry paradigm and the
one introduced by the QED approach.
Section 2 and 3 respectively discuss the meaning of Coherence Domain (CD)
introduced by QED and that of Exclusion Zone (EZ) introduced by Gerald Pol-
lack and colleagues.
Section 4 focuses on the thermodynamic correlation between electron and
C. Messori
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10.4236/oalib.1105435 3 Open Access Library Journal
proton transfer responsible for the redox potential (oxidation state or electronic
configuration) of chemical species. In particular, the Grotthuss mechanism and
the H+ eightfold path are discussed.
Section 5 provides an overview of two dissipationless quantum states, namely
superconductivity and superfluidity.
In Section 6 the proton motive force and protons role in biological liquid-flow
systems are discussed.
In Section 7 two possible explanations are given to as many non-ordinary
phenomena, one related to the mind-body severely stressful condition due to a
Near Death State (NDS) or a Near Death Like State (NDLS), namely the Elec-
tromagnetic Hyper Sensitivity (EHS) or Electromagnetic After-Effect (EAE), the
other related to the harmful consequences avoided during the so-called fire
walking (ceremony), that is how is it possible to walk across a bed of about 482
degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit) up to 980˚C (1800˚F) burning wood
coals and emerge unscathed.
Our journey into the water ends up in the deep-sea hydrothermal vent eco-
systems, habitats where the unicellular and multicellular organisms inhabiting
there can cope with extreme conditions thanks to unusual physiological solu-
tions and food strategies, the understanding of which cannot proceed without
the contribution provided by QED.
Emphasizing the central role of water, which in humans constitutes approx-
imately 70% of total body mass and 99% of all molecules, marks a departure
from the typical molecular biological enzyme-substrate, protein-receptor, and
genetic, Watson-Crick base pairing, “lock and key” approach to understanding
human physiology and pathology [1] [2].
It is the aim of this paper to introduce an overview on the subject and its re-
levance in medicine.
2. Deep into the Water
Water is a polar molecule, it has positive and negative charges separated by a
dipole length and thus exists as an electric dipole. This is due to the 104.5˚
angle of the hydrogen bonds to the oxygen atom. The electronegativity of the
oxygen atom attracts the electron of the hydrogen atom. Thus the region
about the oxygen is negative compared to the region around the hydrogen
atoms, which are comparatively positive. Because of this molecular configura-
tion, water molecules mutually attract one another due to the (−) and (+) re-
gions. The negative (oxygen atom) side of a dipolar water molecule attracts
and is attracted by any positive ion in solution (
ion-dipole force
), which, in
turn, are attracted to negative ions. This process, in which either a positive or
a negative ion attracts water molecules to its immediate vicinity, is called
hy-
dration
.
The compound or group that donates the hydrogen is the hydrogen donor,
while the compound or group that accepts the hydrogen is the hydrogen accep-
C. Messori
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tor. Water is both hydrogen donor and acceptor; it can donate two hydrogens
and its oxygen can accept two other hydrogens. The water molecule is generally
represented as a tetrahedron with four arms”—two hydrogen donors and two
hydrogen acceptorspointing at the vertices. This tetrahedral structure is typi-
cal of ordinary ice, where all the water molecules are cross-linked in a crystalline,
hexagonal array. The water hexamer, representing a transition from cyclic
structures favored by smaller water clusters to 3D structures favored by larger
water cluster, is predicted by theory to be the smallest water cluster with a
three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network as its minimum energy structure
[3].
Individual water molecules are linked by these hydrogen bonds and form
what are called
clusters
(structural water), tens of nanometers to millimetres in
dimensions that can be seen under the transmission electron microscope (TEM)
[4] [5] [6].
Water is paramagnetic meaning that it holds a magnetic charge. Pa-
ra-magnetism occurs primarily in substances in which some or all of the indi-
vidual atoms, ions, or molecules possess a permanent magnetic dipole moment.
Water has a dipole moment and is, therefore, subject to paramagnetism.
Chemical bonds (including covalent, ionic, hydrogen and van der Waals
types) have been commonly assumed to be dominating for biological organiza-
tion and activity. However, these bonds represent forces acting at short distances
in the
nm
region. Biological systems maintain coherence at every dimension
scale. Long-range coherence, large distance cooperation, and the whole body
control are significant properties of biological systems.
Water at an interface, as with the atmosphere, has a
surface tension
due to the
polar interactions of water with other water molecules at the interface surface.
This clustering imparts a
crystalline like
property to the water. In the bodies of
living organisms, the clusters form
hydration layers
around biological molecules.
It is known from electronics that different patterns which contain
information
1
result within a cluster depending upon its structure. Thus, depending on its
structure, each molecule has an oscillatory pattern (resonance frequency) that
can be determined by spectroscopy. It is known, through spectrographic analy-
sis, that water and other dipole molecules are able to be entrained to exogenous
oscillatory patterns by rearranging their cluster patterns. The cluster rearrange-
ments then resonate with the entraining frequency.
1It must be stressed out that the physical concept of
information
it has absolutely nothing to do
with that of
data transmission
, and even less with that of
transmission of messages containing a
(
semantic
)
meaning
. The former (physical concept) consider
information
as a measure of coh
e-
rence or structural “
complexity
” of surrounding system related to various entropic processes in
physical world, that is the measure of information amount, related to a certain object, may be
a
complexity of its internal structure (
negentropy
), while the latter (IT concept) consider
a
mount of
information
as frequency characteristic of code letters-signals, that is improving of
messages coding
and decoding methods and solving of other questions related to optimization of technical comm
u-
nication systems operation.
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Like other dipoles, water molecules can stack together in dipole interactions
with alternating positive and negative poles next to each other. It can also engage
in electrostatic interactions with charged ions and other dipoles dissolved in it.
More generally:
It is primarily the charge distribution on the surface of mole-
cules that determines their physical and chemical properties
,
such as bonding
ability
,
orientation
,
and mutual position
.
When the geometrical configuration of
two molecules fits in such a way that a minimum of the
(
electrical
)
Coulomb
potentials of the valence electrons is achieved
,
a chemical bonding can take
place
.
However
,
charge distribution through its time variations is also responsi-
ble for the properties of the e
.
m
. [electromagnetic]
radiation which molecules
emit
,
such as polarization
,
spatial distribution
,
and direction
,
and for their inte-
raction with impinging radiation
.
The interaction of radiation with matter is
only possible through redistribution of charge
.
Structural changes in the mole-
cules entail charge shifts and thus changes in the e
.
m
.
field envelope of the mo-
lecule
,
which may be the real mediator of the molecule
s interaction with other
molecules
[7].
Biological systems have high water content containing ions. Ions in water are
not just simple charged particles as one would expect to observe in a vacuum, as
the charges attract molecules of water that may be bound to them in a variety of
configurations and with bonds of varying strength [8].
Hydrogen bonds are non-covalent forces that arise between an acid and a base
and may be an intermediary in acid base reactions. Hydrogen bonds provide no
net free energy in protein folding but are responsible for aligning atoms and
holding them at precise distances and constrain the angle between them. Of par-
ticular interest to us are hydrogen bonds to atoms like oxygen, nitrogen, carbon,
and sulfur. These bonds are formed when the potential energy wells for a proton
in a donor atom overlaps that of an acceptor atom so that the barrier between
them is low enough to allow the transfer of protons. The forces of attraction are
largely electrostatic in nature and vary with distance as the interaction between
dipoles is shielded by the dielectric constant of the medium.
Carignano
et al
. [9] investigated the effect of the ionic polarizability on the
solvation of positive and negative ions in water, and he concludes that increases
of the polarizability lead to a larger electrical field at the ion. This occurs through
shrinking of the solvation shell around the ion and the asymmetric location of
the ion in the cage. Positive ions have smaller polarizabilities than negative ions.
However, for a given polarizability, the electrical field at an ion and probability
of asymmetric location is larger for cations than for anions.
Ion-specific effects are widespread, but nowhere are more critically manifested
than at the fluid interfaces of biological structures. Action potentials, osmotic
flows, energy transduction, and the stabilization of proteins are driven by ion
concentration gradients across liquid films on hydrophobic biomaterials. Recent
experiments [10] revealed that ions interact specifically at the prototype
air-water interface over separations that vastly exceed the range of direct elec-
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trostatic forces in any dielectric medium2. Such long-range specific ion effects
may be triggered by electrostatic and electrodynamic forces, but they must be
powered also by other mechanisms, such as the thermal fluctuations intrinsic to
fluid interfaces.
As a liquid, water possesses many remarkable properties that to a large extent
can be explained by its extremely high density of hydrogen bonds. One of these
properties is the anomalously high mobility of protons and hydroxyl ions (OH)
in this liquid. This phenomenon has been explained from a (Grotthuss) conduc-
tion mechanism that involves the exchange of the chemical O-H bond and the
hydrogen bond in the O-H···O hydrogen-bonded system formed by an
H3O+/OH ion and an H2O molecule. Metabolic/energetic regulation may well
depend on the flow of protons (proton currents) and on other nonlinear optical
and phonon effects such as solitons via
liquid semi-crystalline water
(which is
sharing all the characteristics of
soft matter
, as for colloids, polymers, gels and
foams3) [15], structured in nanospaces throughout the extracellular matrix into
the interior of every single cell and its nanospaces [16]. Moreover, the separation
of positive and negative charges is important for
short and long range collective
coherent correlation
(SLRCCC), especially in the form of
proton-SLRCCC
.
Relatively little is known about the effects of hydrogen bond interactions in
liquid water on the reactivity of the O-H groups of the water molecule [17] [18]
[19], and despite intense theoretical and experimental study, it continues to hold
some surprises, e.g. hydrogen bonded protons in liquid water experience signif-
icant excursions in the direction of the acceptor oxygen atoms, generating a
small but non-negligible fraction of transient autoprotolysis events, associated
with major rearrangements of the electronic density [20].
In most molecular dynamics simulations, these effects are not included. Even
2Dielectrophoretic
attraction of dielectric particles to living cells is observed, and a corresponding
frequency of oscillations is assessed in the frequency range 1.5 - 52 MHz.
Recently, researchers have
directed their efforts to distinguish between healthy and pathological state of cells utilizing a tec
h-
nique called
dielectrophoresis
(DEP), an analytical diagnostic and screening technique that uses the
principles of polarization and the motion of bioparticles in applied electric fields [11], that is by d
e-
tection of cells’ dielectric and electrophysical properties (
dielectrophoretic profile
) [12] [13], ma
n-
aging to clarify the processes underlying cell membrane impairment due to electrical and mechan
i-
cal stress (electro-deformation) [14]
. DEP is the movement of particles by a trapping force in a
non-uniform electric field when the particles and surrounding medium have different polarizabil
i-
ties. According to the Maxwell-
Wagner theory of conductivity in heterogeneous systems, there is a
critical frequency that separates the low-frequency range, where ionic cond
uctivity dominates, from
the high-frequency range, where dielectric properties determine the system
s behavior in the electric
field.
3All the major constituents of living organisms, from lipids of cellular membranes to DNA, possibly
all proteins, especial
ly cytoskeletal proteins, muscle proteins, and proteins in the connective tissues
such as collagens and proteoglycans, may be liquid crystalline. Liquid crystals (LCs) are states or
phases of matter in between solid crystals and liquids, hence the term,
mesophases
. Unlike liquids
which have little or no molecular order, LCs have orientational order, and varying degrees of tran
s-
lational order. But unlike solid crystals, LCs are flexible, malleable, and responsive. LCs typically
undergo rapid changes in orien
tation or phase transitions when exposed to electric (and magnetic)
fields. They also respond to changes in temperature, hydration, shear forces and
pressure. Biological
LCs carry static electric charges and are therefore also influenced by pH, salt concentration and d
i-
electric constant of the solvent.
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in the most advanced Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations [21] these
effects are not well accounted for because the nuclear coordinates are described
classically. In view of the small mass of the hydrogen atom and the proton, such
a classic approach gives a poor description of the properties of the O-H groups
of the water molecule. The effects of hydrogen bonding on the O-H bonds of
water can in principle be studied by a spectroscopic investigation of the different
vibrational quantum states of the O-H stretch vibrations. Unfortunately, such a
study is strongly complicated by the ultrafast (subpicosecond) energy equilibra-
tion of liquid water [22]. Therefore, the experimental study of the excited vibra-
tional states of the hydrogen-bonded O-H groups of the water molecule requires
the use of ultrafast (
i.e
., femtosecond) mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy. This
type of spectroscopy has been applied successfully to the study of the vibrational
relaxation [23] [24] [25], molecular reorientation [26], and hydrogen bond dy-
namics [27] [28] of different isotopic varieties of liquid water.
In biological systems, liquid water interacts not only with small solutes but
also with many larger, extended hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, such as
those of proteins, nucleic acids, various organelles, and cell membranes [1].
Results of inelastic incoherent neutron scattering studies of several cell and
tissue types suggest that ca. 20% - 30% of the total (intracellular plus extracellu-
lar) water in these systems is
interfacial water
,
i.e
. water located within 1 - 4 nm
of these surfaces, with bulk water comprising the remaining 70% - 80%. At this
nanoscale level, interfacial water near hydrophilic surfaces displays viscosity
from about 2 up to 106 times greater than that of bulk water, while no significant
water viscosity changes are seen near hydrophobic surfaces [29]. Furthermore,
water near extended (>ca. 1 nm) hydrophobic surfaces shows less hydrogen
bonding and behaves more like water near a liquid-vapor interface than bulk
water [30].
However, biological water can be considered as (structured)
interfacial water
,
due to the fact that there is almost no point in an organism that is not far more
than a fraction of a micron from a surface.
According to [1] the main systems by which (structured) interfacial water
promotes life-enabling biological processes include:
promoting electrical conductivity at biological interfaces, thereby facilitating
metabolism and voltage differences maintained by intracellular organelles;
absorbing, storing, and emitting electromagnetic energy, enabling storage
and transmission of energy and information;
overcoming the kT or “thermal diffusion” problem; and
solving the intracellular crowding and molecular self-assembly problems by
way of chirality (handedness of molecules) [31] and magnetization.
Exogenous interfacial water stress (EIWS), may disrupt biological water
structure, initiating a series of events in extracellular and intracellular space
leading toward disorder and disease, such as neuropathologies, infections, can-
cers, and fatalities [1] [32] [33].
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Disruptive changes may occur in the aqueous
interphase
(“
interface
” refers to
the surface area between two phases, while
interphase
corresponds to the vo-
lume defined by the narrow region sandwiched between the two phases4), the
zone near a biomacromolecular surface where water structure and properties
differ from those of bulk liquid water. Disruptive changes consist of:
Life-enabling water structures in the aqueous interphase, normally main-
tained by weak magnetic fields and the heparan sulfate proteoglycans
(HSPGs) that decorate cell membrane surfaces, are disrupted by exogenous
interfacial water stressors such as aluminum cations.
This disruption leads to localized water hydrophobicity, unwetting, increased
water tension, and membrane “softening.” In addition, exogenous interfacial
water stressors such as aluminum cations ties up cell surface HSPGs by
charge neutralization and thus breaks up the HSPG-membrane complex that
connects extracellular matrix components to the intracellular cytoskeleton.
The resulting disconnection of the cytoskeleton from the plasma membrane
has several adverse consequences, including impaired electrical conductivity
of the cytoskeleton and microtubules5 and re-orientation of the cytoskeleton
toward the cell nucleus, which can accelerate the pathological mitosis cha-
racteristic of cancer.
4The concept of a soft interface is related to the notion of interfaces and interphases[34]
. This
homophone pair appears to originate from adhesion science, and has been applied in different co
n-
text. In this
notion, the transition zone of finite width between two phases is addressed as a separate
entity having its own character. This interphase
is not a true phase in the thermodynamic sense,
but it is not a purely two dimensional separation sheet between the two neighbouring
bulk phases
either. The layer between the bulk phases can be affected by external fields. Here we look for co
n-
cepts to increase its response. Interface tension plays the role of the major antagonist against inte
r-
face fluctuations. It aims
to keep the interface area as small as possible. Interface bound fluctuations
of large thermal amplitude must not significantly affect the interface area. Consequently, only inte
r-
facial degrees of freedom which are weakly coupled to the interface area can
become soft, except for
low interface tension systems. The inverse interface tension corresponds to the low compressibility
in bulk systems. In bulk, only fluctuations which do not involve compression acquire large thermal
amplitudes.
5Energy is supplied to microtubules by hydrolysis of GTP upon
β
-
tubulin polymerization, through
motion of motor proteins, and by nonlinear transfer from the higher frequency oscillations.
This is
where many diseases (which has been shown to be a result of mitochondrial disrup
tion) connection
comes in. When mitochondrial function slows, the infrared light and electronegative outputs of the
cell drop and so does the volume of structured water (EZ) [35]
. Much of the cytosolic water is
created as a byproduct of mitochondrial respiration and electron chain transport. This metabolism
makes heat (
bio-photons
emission and
phonons
transfer) and the density of electrons flowing along
the inner mitochondrial membrane correspond
the electronegative charge (which makes proteins
hydrophilic). Mitochondria transport protons into the intermembrane space, and their diffusion i
n-
to cytosol leads to generation of a strong static electric field and water ordering
. The strong static
electric field shifts also vibrations in microtubules into a highly nonlinear region. The decrease of
oxidative metabolism results in changes of the intensity of the static electric field and changes of w
a-
ter ordering. The water ordering depends also on pH factor and on the static electric field.
In presence of dysfunctional mitochondria, the surrounding biological water’s layer
reorganize
with a reversed orientation
of the electric field, which enables transport of electrons released into
cytosol
. As biological water occupies 70% of the cell volume, it is capable of releasing a huge amount
of electrons into the cytosol. Free electrons increase conductivity which causes damping of electr
o-
magnetic field. The mechanism of damping electromagnetic oscillations generated by micro
tubules
may explain the disturbed organization in cells with dysfunctional mitochondria [36] [37].
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In addition, penetration of the interfacial water stressors into the cell disrupts
intracellular
water structure, leading to unfolded protein response, unfolded
DNA response, and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
Interfacial water assumes a glassy appearance, that is semi-crystalline, and has
been studied by several researchers [38], suggesting the possibility that it is of a
different phase
(Pollack’s
four phase
) from that of common water in the liquid
state [39].
Neither classical nor standard quantum theory predicts quantum coherence
for water, largely because they ignore quantum fluctuations and the interaction
between matter and the
vacuum electromagnetic field
(VEMF), which are taken
into account in
Quantum Field Theory
(QFT).
3. Water Coherence Domains
QFT explicitly recognizes an extended VEMF interacting with matter, as well as
quantum fluctuations whereby energy in the VEMF in the form of photons
could be captured by matter. The first clear example was the
Lamb shift
, the
energy of an electron surrounding the proton in a hydrogen atom is slightly
lower than the value calculated from the atomic theory based on purely static
forces. Although this shift is very small, it provided evidence of the quantum
vacuum fluctuation that has to be understood within the framework of
Quantum
Electrodynamic
(QED) field theory. In the case of the hydrogen atom, the effect
is due to the interactions between the electric current of the electron orbiting the
nucleus and the fluctuating EMF of the surrounding space (vacuum). For a col-
lection of particles, the usual approach is to apply the Lamb shift to each particle
separately. While this is correct for very low density systems like gases, where
the distance between any two particles is larger than the wavelength of the rele-
vant fluctuating fields coupled to the systems, dense systemscondensed matter
or liquids and solidsshow entirely different behavior. When energy is ab-
sorbed from the VEMF, the particles will begin to oscillate between two confi-
gurations. In particular, all particles coupled to the same wave-length of the
fluctuations will oscillate in phase with the EMF, that is, they will be coherent
with the EMF. At that point, a phase transition occurs. The coherent oscillations
of the particles no longer require any external supply of energy, they become
stabilized and will begin to attract more molecules and attract each other, there-
by turning gas into liquid in a change of phase. With further increase in density,
the system becomes a net exporter of energy because the stabilized coherent state
has a lower energy than the incoherent ground state. A collection of molecules
interacting with the radiative EMF above a density threshold and below a critical
temperature acquires a new minimum energy state different from the conven-
tional where the oscillations of individual molecules are uncorrelated and the
electromagnetic field is vanishing. The new minimum energy state is a
Cohe-
rence Domain
(CD) that oscillates in unison and in tune with an EMF trapped
within it.
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The physical process can be therefore summarized as follows. The system
has initially the configuration where all particles are independent and the EMF
is absent; subsequently it runs away from this configuration, driven by the ex-
ploding EMF and finally settles in the configuration described by the limit
cycle. This limit cycle describes just a coherent situation since the fields, both
EM and matter, have defined phases and moreover the frequency of the EMF
happens to be equal to the difference of the frequencies of χ0 and χq, which is
the frequency of oscillation of the molecular system. Therefore molecules and
EMF oscillate in tune. Finally it is possible to show that energy per particle of
the system, after inserting the limit cycle fields, assumes a negative value,
which means that the phase transition is a spontaneous process. The EMF is
trapped in the CD because in the limit cycle its frequency decreases sharply
producing on the internal border a situation of total reflection. The field
therefore falls off exponentially out of the CD, giving rise to an evanescent
field. This field acts as a trap for surrounding molecules so that the molecule
density in the coherent state increases until reaching a saturation value when
the intermolecular distance reaches the value of the radius of the molecular
hard core [40].
In the QFT approach, the quanta of the field correlating the molecules are
components of the system on the same ground that the molecules, and they
would disappear when the system is dismantled. In QFT the interaction is con-
sidered an object as much as the basic components. Moreover, the tight binding
between molecules and the correlation field produces new basic objects named
quasi-particles
and the conventional separation between matter and interaction
is dropped out. An important feature of the QFT approach is the fundamental
role assumed by the physical variable, named the phase Ф of the field (which
should not be confused with the thermodynamic phase). The phase Ф describes
the rhythm of oscillation of the field and therefore the wavelike aspects of the
system.
Contrary to the objects described by Classical Physics, a coherent quantum
system is not defined in isolation, but gets defined by the array of its relation-
ships. The phase Ф is connected with the EM potential in a mutual relationship
so that we could be able to change the phase of a biological organism by applying
an EM potential [41] [42] [43].
We could interpret the biological effectiveness of very and ultra weak EM and
magnetic fields just by assuming that the agent at work in the interaction is not
the field but the potential and the mechanism of interaction is the
phase-sharing
6.
6
External electromagnetic signals can be selectively damped by tissues, according to their being or
not in phase with the possible oscillatory m
otion of the system’s components. This specific
phase-matching
(
i.e
.
resonance
) feature operates as a very selective mechanism, a sort of filter di
s-
criminating among perturbations and stimuli acting on the system, thus protecting it against any
noisy perturbative background or even strong actions, which, however, are out of phase with the o
s-
cillatory motions allowed by the system’s inner dynamics [44].
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That is, the biological organisms, being coherent, can interact with environ-
ment in two basically different ways:
through the conventional exchanges of energy which amount to the applica-
tion of mutual forces. This mechanism of interaction obeys to the causality
principle, since energy cannot travel faster than light (
c
);
through the sharing of the phase Ф with other coherent systems (biological
organisms), which amounts to the establishment of a resonance with them
[45].
The phase velocity is not bounded above and can be larger than
c
.
In the framework of a biology based on coherence, the health of an organism
depends on its ability of constructing a well defined phase during the mainly
unpredictable variables of life. When this happens, we say that this organism is
able to self adapt and, eventually, self repair. The capability of self repair of an
organism is enhanced by the presence of a well defined phase in tune with the
part of the environment the organism is connected to. However, in case of severe
diseases, the chemical structure of the organism could become so modified to be
unable to resonate with its background water; in these cases of course a chemical
repair seems to be necessary.
A better life quality is then supported by a sharper definition of the phase of
each organism. In this interaction the connectedness of the organism is essential,
not the amount of exchanged energy, which could on the contrary be harmful
when its amount exceeds the threshold of the “energy gap”, namely the amount
of energy necessary to make the coherent system
boiling
and therefore losing
coherence [40].
In standard QFT, the energy levels of material systems are shifted by their in-
teraction with the fluctuations of the
electromagnetic field
(EMF) in the vacuum.
QFT predicts that liquids, being condensed matter with high density, are not
governed by purely static local interactions such as H-bonds and dipoles. On the
contrary, their binding is induced by radiative
long range electromagnetic fields
(LR-EMF). But the conventional QFT applies only to gases.
The conventional
ab initio
approaches to water, based just on
Quantum Me-
chanics
(QM), describe it as a
monophasic liquid
. On the contrary, the concep-
tual frame of QFT admits infinitely many ground states (vacua), each one cor-
responding to a particular function describing the expectation value of the in-
volved field.
Quantum fluctuations and couplet between matter and VEMF in QED indeed
predicts quantum coherence for liquid water even under ordinary temperatures
and pressures. QED has introduced the concept according to which the interac-
tion between the vacuum EMF and liquid water induces the formation of large,
stable Coherence Domains (CDs) of about 100 nm in diameter at ambient con-
ditions, and these CDs may be responsible for all the special properties of water
including life itself.
According to Giuliano Preparata, Emilio Del Giudice and colleagues [2], the
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water CD is a quantum superposition of ground coherent state and excited
state (in the proportion of 0.87 and 0.13). Liquid water is therefore a two-fluid
system consisting of a coherent phase (about 40 percent of total volume at
room temperature) and an incoherent phase. In the coherent phase, the water
molecules oscillate between two electronic configurations in phase with a re-
sonating EMF. The EMFs that are trapped within the CD of water and within
its coherent matrice [46], produce electromagnetic potentials that regulate the
phase of the entire system, which in turn gives rise to selective attractions be-
tween the molecules of the solute. The CD is then a resonating cavity produced
by the EMF (a self-produced cavity resonator for the EMF), whose size is just
the wavelength
λ
of the trapped EMF, that ends up trapping the field because
the photon acquires an imaginary mass, so the frequency of the CD electro-
magnetic field7 becomes much smaller than the frequency of the free field with
the same wavelength. Within the CD water molecules oscillate between the
ground state and an excited state close to the ionizing potential of water and,
therefore, contain close to a million almost-free electrons. That means CD is
most likely negatively charged at the periphery close to or at the surface of its
domain (at the same time, positively-charged protons are present just outside
the CD).
Thus pure bulk liquid water consists in two interspersed phases,
coherent
and
incoherent
, having widely different dielectric constants8 (that of the coherent
7Electromagnetic field generated in living cells and conditioning biological activity is a nature of life.
In eukaryotic cells, the electromagnetic field is generated by microtubules composed of tubulin h
e-
terodimers with a strong electric dipole. Energy transport, processing, parceling out into small bits
and storing into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) form a complex
fermentative and oxidative pathway. High-
energy electrons are transported down the respiratory
chain in the mitochondrial inner membrane, and the released energy is used to pump protons across
the inner membrane into the intermembrane space and cytosol. The electrochemical grad
ient
around mitochondria is formed. In functional mitochondria, the actual electric inner membrane
potential of the electrochemical gradient is about
140 mV and the pH gradient of about −1 pH
unit. Resonant frequencies of microtubules are important parame
ters for assessment of the cellular
functions and interactions with other cells in the tissue. Interaction between cells is mediated by
cellular electromagnetic field in the near-infrared range. Microtubules are capable to generate ele
c-
tromagnetic field in
a wide spectrum in classical frequency bands up to 20 GHz, at 20 THz, and in
the UV range. Comparing to healthy cells, unhealthy cells aren’t getting enough electrons and r
a-
diant energy (e.g. in the form of cells and tissues’
biophotons
emission and ELF-U
V light from cell’s
nucleic acids, or in the form of solar light), lowering their volume of EZ water.
8
One way of thinking about the dielectric constant (despite a massive amount of literature dedicated
to the subject, the dielectric constant of interfacial water and its depth
remain essentially unknown
because measurements are challenging [47]) is to think of it as the fraction of the electric field
that is
shorted out by the movement of charged particles that are limited in the extent of their motion. In
the case of the water structures mentioned earlier (water hexamer), the dielectric constant can be
thought of as resulting from the movement of hydrogen ions from one end to the other or the i
n-
duction of a dipole moment across the structure. This structure with an induced dipole moment
may also rotate to align along the field. The average size of these structures can be expected to d
e-
crease as the temperature increases as the thermal energy available to break hydrogen bonds i
n-
creases. The fraction of the dielectric constant contributed by the ability of these structures to short
out the electric field would be expected to decrease as the temperature in
creases. The different sized
structures can be expected to have different time constants for both the motion of the hydrogen ions
and the rotation of the structure.
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phase is 160, due to the high polarizability of the coherently aligned water mo-
lecules that are oscillating in concert; while the dielectric constant of the incohe-
rent state is about 15). The incoherent phase comprises water molecules in the
molecular ground state (as observed in the gas phase) packed in a highly dense
state in the interstices around large clusters in which the water molecules per-
form hindered rotations and interact coherently with a large electromagnetic
field.
The externally applied electric fields are therefore only felt in the
non-coherent phase. Because coherent water is excited water with a plasma of
almost free electrons, it can easily transfer electrons to molecules on its surface.
The interface between fully coherent
interfacial water
and normal
bulk water
becomes a “
redox pile
”.
All biological envelopes, from cell membrane to epithelial tissue, contain this
aqueous phase in a
liquid-crystalline state
or are perfused by it. It is water in a
particular phase of quantum organization (
oscillatory coherence
) that close to
charged hydrophilic surfaces is confined in layers of
Exclusion Zone
(EZ) (see
next paragraph), and gives it a high capacity to:
retain electronic charges, in the form of vortical excitations of quasi-free
electrons, storable as energy reserve;
induce an electronic and protonic long-range and long life excitation of the
different molecular species available, enabling their selective activation and
mutual attraction;
convert mechanical vibrations (phonons) in quanta of electromagnetic ener-
gy (photons)9 and
viceversa
(piezoelectric effect).
The CD of liquid water, unlike the CD of other molecular species, is suscepti-
ble to give rise to a large number of excited states [48]. Arises, consequently, the
possibility of a further level of coherence, generated by the collective oscillation
of a plurality of CDs of water, between two own configurations: a coherence be-
tween CDs, namely
Super-coherence
[49], that on one hand makes it grow the
size of the related region by the tenth of a micron of the elementary CDs of wa-
ter, up to microns of the cells, to centimeters of the organs, or to the meters of
higher organisms.
Given the plurality of the excited levels of the CD, it is able to withdraw from
the environmental noise small amounts of energy, transforming them into co-
herent vortices of quasi-free electrons. The duration of these vortical excitations
can be very long (days, weeks, months), since because of the coherence the in-
ternal friction is zero, there are no collisions and the CD can not dissipate energy
in thermal form. Given the long duration of these excitations, it is possible to
accumulate a large number of them within the domain. Each vortex is a motion
of electrons, that is, electrically charged particles, which gives rise to the appear-
9
Coherent mechanical vibrations (phonons) of living cells are measured by atomic force microscopy
in
the acoustic frequency range. Frequencies of the mechanical vibrations and of the electromagnetic
field (photons) generated by a cell are equal.
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ance of a magnetic moment, which in turn aligns with the environmental mag-
netic field, which in the final analysis can also be the Earths magnetic field10 [57]
[58]. The vortices therefore can not cancel each one another, but add up cohe-
rently, then transforming low-quality environmental energy (high entropy), in
high quality coherent energy (low entropy-neghentropy), capable of inducing, as
predicted by Szent-Gyorgyi [59], the electronic excitation of the molecules sur-
rounding the CD/EZ. There it exists at normal body temperature, with its densi-
ty fluctuations between a dominant coherent low entropy and a less frequent
incoherent distorted high entropy ordering water. The former is organized in
spherical CDs of clustering water molecules tuning in unison their quantum os-
cillations in phase with a self-trapped EMF within the CDs, forming an inclusive
endo-plasma. The CDs can be activated to collect in their environment
low-grade energy with high entropy, and transform it, by exciting coherent vor-
tices of almost free electrons, into high-grade energy, with low entropy, so that
this energy can be released outwards into useful work without thermal losses
[60]. Energy of thermal fluctuations is then transformed into energy of the su-
per-coherent state [43] [48] [61].
The unique value of such super-coherent biological water spanning all the
CDs throughout water can be considered one of the most important characteris-
tics of a healthy physiological state.
4. Interfacial Water Exclusion Zones
In the frame of QED, then, the dominant contribution of water molecules in
10In order to load energy in the water CDs, a resonating magnetic field is needed. In higher orga
n-
isms, such as humans, these fields can be induced by
the nervous system. In elementary organisms,
such as bacteria or yeast cells and physiological liquids, i.e. water, environmental fields like geoma
g-
netic fields can serve as the inducer [50]. These modes act as stationary fields produced by the ma
g-
netic activity occurring in the shell whose boundaries are the surface of the earth-conductive iono
s-
phere resonant cavity, which acts as a mirror wall for very-low-
frequency (VLF) and Alfvén waves
[51]
. Aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radicals, and other ROS, when excited, show
variations in energy-emitting
activity that have been found to correlate with fluctuations in the
geomagnetic field [52]. Accordingly, bacterial and viral DNA sequ
ences have been found to induce
low-frequency EMFs in high aqueous dilutions [53]
. The formation of condensed DNA copies was
triggered by the ambient geomagnetic EMF background of VLFs related to the Schumann reso
n-
ances, specifically the 7.8 Hz band. In humans, physiologica
l rhythms and global collective behaviors
are not only synchronized with solar and geomagnetic activity, but disruptions in these fields can
also invoke adverse effects upon human health and behavior [54]. It is well established that the r
e-
sonant frequencies of geomagnetic Ultra Low Frequencies (ULF) (0.006 -
0.2 Hz) overlap closely
with the frequencies of the cardiovascular system (0.002 Hz - 0.2 Hz),
while Schumann resonances
(7.8 - 51 Hz) directly overlap with those waves of the human brain (Theta 4 - 7 Hz, Alpha 8 -
12 Hz,
Beta 12 - 30 Hz, and Gamma 30 -
100 Hz). As stated above, to get a collective performance of water
CDs, which can give rise to r
esonance with intrinsic VLF rhythms, would require a uniform rate of
energy loading from, e.g., a magnetic field for all involved CDs. A plausible interaction with ge
o-
magnetic ULF can affect the human cardiovascular system, because several ULFs are in a compar
a-
ble range with those of the human heartbeat and its rhythms [55]. The external non-local bac
k-
ground load of conditioned EMF photons in water CDs
is in resonance with, e.g., the frequency of
ULF geomagnetic field pulsations that can be biotropic [56], specifically, stable continuous puls
a-
tions.
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molar terms and total mass in living systems makes water the apparent element
that can give rise to a non-linear self-regulative quantum
super-coherent
state,
and to a nest of CDs of water [31], whose properties overlap to some extent
those of interfacial water EZs, or 4th phase of water, proposed by Pollack and
colleagues [62], by inducing coherence among CDs forming a systemic axial co-
herence, such as the biological water state of the human body.
At charged surfaces, water super-coherent layers are called Exclusion Zones
(EZs may be regarded as long-range ensembles of CDs), as solutes are excluded
from them [63] [64].
EZ interfacial water is electrically charged with respect to bulk water, which is
well known to be neutral. If EZ interfacial water,
in vitro
, is close to a surface
bearing a net negative charge, it acquires a negative charge, too, whereas it ac-
quires a positive charge near a surface bearing a positive charge. It is interesting
to observe that when EZ interfacial water becomes negatively charged near a
negative surface, positive charges (protons) appear beyond EZ interfacial water
on the side of the EZ layer facing bulk water. On the contrary, negative charges
appear on the side of the layer facing the bulk water when EZ interfacial water is
positively charged. It is also interesting to realize that no electric opposite
charges have been detected in the interstice between the solid-like surface and
the aqueous surface, suggesting that the attraction water-solid surface underly-
ing the hydrophily of the surface is not produced by electrostatics but by a dy-
namic collective attraction such as the one produced by QED coherence [65].
The properties of EZs have been widely investigated by the group led by G.H.
Pollack [66] [67] [68]. By using dyes dissolved in water as a probe, his team was
able to detect the existence of extended regions in the boundary between the liq-
uid and the wall of the container, where the dyes were prevented from entering
(EZs), provided that the wall was an hydrophilic surface. The depth of EZs could
reach a length of some hundreds of microns (with macroscopic thicknesses up to
about 500 µm), much longer than the estimates of conventional studies on liquid
water. For instance, in the computational scheme presented by Buch
et al
. [69]
the interfacial layers are defined to contain 60 molecules, whose total size cannot
exceed a couple of hundreds of Å, a length smaller than the observed depth of
the EZ layer by four orders of magnitude.
However, the established physical properties of EZ interfacial water are sum-
marized as follows [63] [70]:
EZ interfacial water is considerably more viscous than bulk water (about
10-fold) [65].
EZ interfacial water has a negative electric potential (up to 200 mV) with re-
spect to the neighboring normal bulk water; thus the pair EZ interfacial wa-
ter-bulk water is a
redox pile
. This property of EZ interfacial water could ac-
count for the source of electron excitations.
Protons concentrate at the boundary between EZ interfacial water and bulk
water.
EZ interfacial water exhibits a peak of light absorption at 270 nm; it emits
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fluorescence when excited by light having this wavelength.
The illumination of EZ interfacial water by light (especially IR radiation) in-
creases the depth of the layer.
EZ interfacial water cannot host solutes.
The above list of properties appears quite mysterious in the frame of conven-
tional ideas about liquid water (monophasic liquid), while is well explained in
the frame of QED (biphasic liquid).
Biological EZ interfacial water is always negatively charged at the periphery
close to or at the surface of its boundary, and the amorphous enclosed molecules
are always positively charged. Interfacial water is ubiquitous in all biological en-
vironments and involved in all major cellular processes, implying that it might
be a common target for the known effects (e.g. the killing of bacteria, changing
the growth rate of plants and insects, various physiological and behavioral
changes in animals including humans) of atmospheric electricity (positive and
negative atmospheric ions). Generally speaking, negative atmospheric charge is
believed to promote good health, whereas positive charge compromises health
[71]-[76]. Nature provides a reasonably balanced supply of air ions; however
more negative ions are found at places such as waterfalls and forests [77], which
often elicit sensations of well-being. The question arises whether these effects are
largely psychogenic or whether some physical mechanism exists to explain the
effects. However, there is still no agreement to date on the mechanism of how
the charged air ions affect biological system. According to recent studies [78]
beyond a threshold concentration the ill effect of atmospheric positive charge on
interfacial water, which is found to have a net negative charge, may become ap-
preciableeven wiping out the negativity of interfacial water and replacing it
with the many positive ions in the water (this phenomenon can potentially ex-
plain the “refreshing” sensation that people often feel when stepping out of a
crowded room with positive ions from exhalation, and/or with positive ions
produced from an air conditioner, and into fresh air. Once the inhibiting posi-
tive ions are removed, the interfacial water structure can easily and quickly re-
build. In terms of health impact, this suggests that restoration of function can
occur rapidly once the positive air ions are removed. When the conditions are
right, enough air ions could be produced to change the electrical properties of
the interfacial water.
5. The Grotthuss Mechanism and the H+ Eightfold Path
Both biomolecules and isolated water molecules are not electron donors, since
electrons are tightly bound to parent molecules with binding energies of several
eVs. In the conventional theory of liquid water, this paradox cannot easily ap-
pear, since the existence of the liquid is taken for granted (no description is pro-
vided for the dynamics of the phase transition vapor-liquid and the consequent
large increase in density) [70].
Starting from an ensemble of molecules, which are already close enough to
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stay within the range of static interaction, the computer simulation calculates the
shape of the network formed by a small number of molecules (at most one
thousand). Hence, the probability of the movement of protons along the net-
work is estimated through computer simulation; in this way it has been found
that it is possible to recover the mechanism introduced by Grotthuss 200 years
ago. In the conventional approach the importance of the collective effects has
been recognized. The difference between the conventional approach and the
QFT approach is just in the size of the aggregates of molecules. The aggregates
emerging from the
ab initio
calculations, which use static interaction, only have
a size of a few tens of Å at the most, whereas the water CDs, according to QED,
span over 0.1 µm and include millions of molecules. The conventional approach
introduces the
a priori
not unreasonable approximation that only the static part
of the interaction is relevant. The QFT approach includes also the non static in-
teraction, which has a much longer range than the static one, namely the EMF,
which is the field that modern quantum physics considers responsible for the
interaction between particles, in this case the molecules are not at rest but are
subjected to quantum and thermal fluctuations.
Furthermore, water electricity is special in that it also involves, as we have
seen early, the movement of positive charges associated with protons. According
to QED not only do electrons of the hydrogen bonds fail to conform to the clas-
sical electrostatic model, the protons also are quantum mechanical. Changes in
the redox potential or proton transfer equilibria of a chemical species can influ-
ence each other, thereby these two chemical reactions often occur in association.
This fundamental concept of chemistry is best exemplified by the Nernst Equa-
tion which relates the variation of the aqueous oxidation/reduction potential of
chemical reactions with the pH when protons are involved. It is known that cells
can exist and perform particular functions in complex environments within a
particular range of temperature and pH conditions [79]. The pH level is different
for different parts of the body. Thus for example, in order to decompose food to
basic components, the stomach maintains an acidic environment. The cells,
covering inner walls of stomach, must be resistant to these extreme conditions
and the proteins and receptor-ligand complexes within should be able to per-
form their functions. Another example are immunocompetent cells, such as
monocytes and neutrophils. While being activated, they produce reactive oxygen
species that acidify the environment. Thus, the change in pH is used as a power-
ful weapon against pathogen organisms. In addition, these cells perform phago-
cytosis, at which monocytes and neutrophils capture the pathogens inside pha-
gosomes inside cells. Furthermore, the pH value is not constant throughout the
cell, compartments of the cells can have widely differing pH.
In a more general sense, the thermodynamic correlation between electron and
proton transfer establishes that the redox potential (oxidation state or electronic
configuration) of a chemical species can affect its acid-base equilibria, that is, its
pK(a) (or
protonation state
) [80]. This concept constitutes the thermodynamic
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basis of
proton-coupled electron transfer
(PCET) reactions [81] [82], also called
Concerted proton electron transfer
(CPET), in which proton and electron
movement are intercorrelated.
Most widespread chemical substance in the living body is liquid water, which
consists primarily of a mixture of clusters of water molecules with different de-
grees of hydrogen bonding in an equilibrium. Under thermal fluctuations some
hydrogen couplings are broken but other arise. On average, the equilibrium dis-
tribution of different cluster sizes is maintained. In this fluid medium, the hy-
dronium ion, H3O+, is a carrier of protons, that is hydrogen ions H+. Proton ex-
ceeds the electron mass on about 2000 times. It means that proton is a more in-
ertial particle than electron, and, consequently, more robust for thermal fluctua-
tions. For that reason, hydrogen ion can be adopted as the unit of thermal mo-
tion [83]. The hydrogen bond is strong enough to maintain the coupling of
atoms during some time under thermal fluctuations. The strength of the H-bond
has important implications for
proton transfer
(PT) kinetics since it correlates
with the proton free energy profile and the PT energy barrier. Very weak
H-bonds are typically associated with asymmetric (different donor and acceptor
moieties) single-well proton free energy profiles and high PT barriers. Progres-
sive increase of the H-bond strength changes the proton free energy profiles to-
wards
asymmetric double-well
, to
symmetric double-wells
with a concomitant
decrease of the PT barrier. The unusual case of very strong H-bonds, features
symmetric single-well proton free energy profiles. In this particular case the
energy minimum corresponds to the proton centered in the middle of the
H-bond and therefore no PT transfer barrier exits [84] [Figure 1; Figure 1(a)].
Thanks to the
hydrogen-bonded chain mechanism
[85] [86], called the
Grot-
thuss mechanism
, protons tunnel from one water molecule to the next via hy-
drogen-bonding [87]. Surprisingly, excess protons can create their own path-
ways,
water-wires
, before protons can migrate along [88].
According to the Grotthuss mechanism in the context of transition to the su-
perconductivity, once a hydrogen ion has passed in one direction, the other ion
cannot pass. However, the latter can go along the same water-wire in the oppo-
site direction, meaning that the Grotthuss mechanism switches the water-wire in
backward and forward directions after each was passed by the H+. It turns out
that there can be such an organization of water, when the Grotthuss mechanism
is able to support a long-living hydrogen ion current. This organization is due to
the
hexagonal circuits
characterizing the coherent (ordered) organization of wa-
ter EZ [89], the hexagonal skin or layer of hydrogen and oxygen molecules
which surround an amorphous arrangement of water molecules.
The EZ network of hexagonal layers is so densely packed (liquid crystalline
layers), and the symmetry is so uniform, that no other particles than hydrogen
and oxygen are allowed to penetrate. These properties provide favorable condi-
tions for the Grotthuss mechanism. The negative charge of EZ indicates the ex-
istence of many holesempty seats with a negative charge where the hydrogen
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(a)
(b)
Figure 1. (a) Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonds (L-BHBs). Image source:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low-barrier_hydrogen_bond. (b) The importance of strong
H-bonds in chemical kinetics. Credit: Gastone Gilli University of Ferrara Department of
Chemistry and Centre for Structural Diffractometry. Image source:
https://slideplayer.com/slide/7249780/.
ion may hop. Hence we can consider the Grotthuss mechanism as coun-
ter-movements of the hydrogen ions and their holes.
Long-lived current can exist due to realization of the
eightfold path
of the H+
in the paired hexagonal circuits [Figure 2]. In this organization all hexagonal
circuits form a giant hexagonal packed circuit, where the currents circulate
around the hexagonal circuits by the Grotthuss mechanism and by the
torque
generation mechanism
[90] [Figure 3], showing some meaningful analogies
with the spiraling
eightfold path
of the
Twisted-Pinched Hysteresis Loop
[91]
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Figure 2. The eightfold path. (a) According to the Grotthuss mechanism, by hopping a
hydrogen ion bypasses the hexagonal circuits around A and B and changes the direction
of the bypass on the bifurcation nodes a and b; (b) a conditional diagram showing the
journey of the hydrogen ion along the hexagonal circuits marked by A and B. The path
bifurcates on the nodes a and b each time as soon as the hydrogen ion reaches them (the
dotted lines conventionally depict also a shift in time). Credit [83]. Image source:
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Quantum-consciousness-in-warm%2C-wet%2C-
and-noisy-brain-Sbitnev/0a71d78bd4c5f30bb895fb1216366e1bfa32c06f.
Figure 3. During ATP synthesis, the ion motive force across a mitochondrial, bacterial, or
thylakoid membrane drives the
c
-ring of FO ATP synthase to rotate. Top view of the
c
-ring (yellow) and stator
a
-subunit (green) of FO, showing equipotential surface
cross-sections (curved lines) perpendicular to the electric field emanating from the
half-channels (blue and red circles) in the
a
-subunit. Black arrows represent forces due to
tangential field components (red arrows) acting on protonated (blue circles) and depro-
tonated (light circle) sites on the
c
-ring. The figure shows cross-sections of the resulting
equipotential surfaces (black lines) and tangential electric field components (red arrows),
superimposed on an idealized cross section of the
c
-ring (yellow) and
a
-subunit (green).
The proton channel cross sections in the
a
-subunit are colored to depict the differences
in potentials, with dark blue and red representing the channels coupled to high- and
low-potential sides of the membrane, respectively. The protonated sites on the
c
-ring
are shown as dark blue circles, while the light circle represents a deprotonated site. The
black arrows represent tangential forces due to the field acting on protonated and depro-
tonated sites. Crucially, both can make positive contributions to the torque since opposite
field directions are counterbalanced by opposite charges. Credit [90]. Image source:
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074978.
C. Messori
DOI:
10.4236/oalib.1105435 21 Open Access Library Journal
[Figure 4] and with the
vortex-antivortex pairs
of
superfluid vacuum
[92] [93]
[94].
The H+ travels on the water-wire passing through two hexagonal circuits, in
such a way that an open path for the ion always exists.
A model of proton-conducting water chain or
proton-wire
has come from a
further unexpected source: studies on carbon nanotubes [95] [96] [97].
The fast exchange of protons in the interfacial water (remember all water in
living organisms can be considered as interfacial water) may also be an indica-
tion of a non-classical
proton jump-conduction
extending throughout the inter-
facial water. Water “jump” conducts protons down a chain of water molecules
connected by hydrogen bonds, in which a proton leaps on at one end of the
chain, and a second leaps off<