Conference Paper
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The paper proposes the metrics for marketing communication in social media. The metrics are based on typical social media engagement measurements, but are calculated in relation to the concepts of content quality, valence and volume. The authors present a social media marketing communication experiment implemented in a real business environment of the e-shop Facebook fan page. The experiment results show that different effects were obtained depending on the content of posts (picture, video, album) related to the same products. In the case of video, the highest level of reach, while in the case of pictures, the highest level of engagement was achieved. The analysis of social media engagement metrics in relation to the published content type, dissemination process and time were proposed. The obtained results clearly show how complicated the analysis of social media communication could be and that the metrics have to be carefully designed to capture the relevant outcomes and aims.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... When a goal is not achieved in any way, action is not efficacious. Therefore, effectiveness is characterized by different degrees of intensity (Chodak, Chawla, Dzidowski, & Ludwikowska, 2019). To understand in depth the effectiveness of the actions of a certain business via social media, it is not sufficient to take into consideration its presence on social media pages or the number of followers. ...
... Shen, Chiou, Hsiao, Wang, and Li (2016) claimed that the effectiveness of communication, in the form of attitudes towards advertising and intention to share messages, is higher when using an interactive format of advertising than a non-interactive one. Based on analysis using EdgeRank, an algorithm dedicated to structuring the flow of information and communication on FB's 'News Feed', researchers have argued that the level to which content is shared depends on its type (Bucher, 2012) and the time it is posted (Chodak et al., 2019;Golder, Wilkinson, & Huberman, 2007;Villamediana, Küster, & Vila, 2019). Previous studies have also shown that the time of publishing content affects its reach, as well as engagement. ...
... However, there is a need to relate the type of content with the time of posting (Dolan et al., 2017). Villamediana et al. (2019), as well as Chodak et al. (2019), on the basis of empirical research in chosen sectors provide various suggestions regarding suitable times for publishing content. However, these results cannot be generalized. ...
Article
Full-text available
The effectiveness of social media marketing is a topic of great interest for researchers as well as marketers. To enrich the literature regarding the effectiveness of various types of posts with a web-link, we designed and conducted an experiment on Facebook (FB). This experiment was conducted in a real business environment, through the FB fanpage of a Polish e-commerce store. The observations were analyzed using multiple linear regression and metrics adapted to this experiment from the literature. The results show that a web-link placed in the comments of an FB post, instead of the caption, is more lucrative. It is also shown that, based on the aims of the campaign, such metrics can give valuable information about the optimal time for posting, as well as the interval between posts.
... To cater to this issue, Chodak et al. (2019) and Chawla et al. (2020a) proposed that each organization should determine what works with their audience on their social media profile with their content direction. The control construct experiment design used by them allows organizations to run experiments with various TPs and determine which post works for particular goals as well as the corresponding best time of publishing. ...
... Such metrics would enable CCOs to interpret the results of the experiment, as discussed in the previous section, in a more productive and accurate manner. Chodak et al. (2019), first presented such metrics, which focused on interaction patterns of social media users, which was then further used by Chawla et al. (2020a). Their metrics fit well with the requirements of the social media plan for CCOs, as the content was being derived through the consumer's point of view. ...
... Hence, volume-based measures, which are the easiest to record, would also enable recognition of the quality of the overall campaign. Table 4 shows the metrics, adapted from Chodak et al. (2019), which would be useful for the CCOs. To clearly understand them, a few terms used in the metrics are elaborated under: ...
Chapter
Climate change is a global phenomenon, as its outcomes affect people and societies around the world. Groups of scientists and environmentalists have established climate change organizations (CCOs) in order to organize collective actions. These organizations carry out communication functions to increase public awareness about the risks of climate change and the importance of mitigating actions. Climate change organizations use various dissemination mediums for spreading information regarding climate action and maintaining public relations (PR), social media being one of those mediums. The phenomenal growth in the number of social media users has rendered its penetration to over 50% of the global population. This chapter elaborates on how social media could be used by CCOs to build stronger PR and build trusted communities. Particular focus was laid on: the PR and the dissemination content; social media communities; various social media platforms, its users and type of content; and metrics to measure the performance of content.
... This can be measured as the level of reaching goals (what is not always easy to evaluate) or the degree of approach to reach them (defined as purposefulness). When the goal is reached partially, the action is also partially effective and, when the goal is not achieved, the action is not efficacious, therefore, the effectiveness can be characterized by a different intensity (Chodak et al., 2019). ...
... The structure of the experiment was adapted from a previous study in the literature, that investigated the effectiveness of marketing communications for various types of promotional content such as graphics, videos, photo album and text (Chodak et al., 2019). We used the E-Store's FB business page, to run the experiment, which enabled us to gather real-time empirical data from the engagement and actions of actual customers. ...
Thesis
Innovations are entering the market so rapidly that managing these innovations and ensuring that consumers are aware of its full potential, is a huge challenge. Energy markets, around the world, have been experiencing significant changes and an influx of innovative technologies, such as Electricity Smart Meters (SM), which are an integral element of Smart Grids (SG). This study explores the consumer willingness and acceptance of SM, their preferred communication channels and recommends a social media management plan that would be effective for enhancing diffusion of SM. Results derived through an empirical survey among social media users, in four countries, show that there is still a lack of knowledge about SM among consumers and more marketing communications are required to facilitate the acceptance of SM. Social media can play a major role in these marketing communications and its effective strategy has also been discussed with empirical evidence and experiments in a real business environment.
... Totally this into suggestions [2], the advantages of non-verbal communication, social networking. It is efficient to brainstorm, to share an information of an event. ...
Article
Full-text available
Blood bank in Malaysia needs a systematic and integrated blood bank management system. Currently, the blood banks are either standalone or else they are limited to integrated among their group of hospitals. This paper is focused on web-based Blood Bank Management System (BBSM) which will be integrated throughout the blood banks in nationwide. This solution is aimed to serve the blood bank managements and as well as the donors. Individual blood bank has their own ways and approach of handling the blood pack stocks. This integrated system is to unite all the approach and the requirements. Integrated BBSM is to benefit both the donor and the blood banks. This system strongly follows the requirements of Health Level Seven (HL7) and World Health Organization (WHO). Donors will be able to keep track of their donation details and also their blood test report. As well as the blood bank management will be able to keep track on the inventory of donated bloods, upcoming donation campaigns and blood bank stock management.
... Although attitude formation or attitude change induced through the peripheral route is temporary, unenduring, and not predictive of behavior [20], individuals who process messages through the peripheral route are inclined to activate positive attitudes toward a brand if they feel positive toward a post on social media [49]. Additionally, videos and images can achieve individuals' engagement on social media [50]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study used the elaboration likelihood model as a theoretical basis to explore the effects of various persuasion strategies on consumer perception and attitude regarding the corporate image of sports organizations that engage in corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. The moderating effects of involvement, sports team identification, and sports fan curiosity were also examined. The multiple-study approach was employed to increase the external validity of the research. Two studies with cross-sectional between-subject pre–post experimental design were conducted with a total of 390 participants. The research setting was the Fubon Guardians baseball team of the Chinese Professional Baseball League in Study I and the Taiwan Beer Basketball Team of the Super Basketball League in Study II. Communication through the central and peripheral routes improved consumers’ CSR perception. Furthermore, under low involvement, weak sports team identification, and low sports fan curiosity conditions, communication through the central route and peripheral route improved the participants’ CSR perception. However, under high involvement, strong sports team identification, and high sports fan curiosity conditions, the different communication methods had nonsignificantly different effects. The findings of this study provide both academic contributions and practical implications.
... The existing studies on corporate marketing mix mainly propose innovative theories and models [10][11][12][13][14]. Kouchaki and Jami [15] sorted out the four major strategies of marketing mix, pointing out that marketing mix is mainly affected by the selection of target market, corporate marketing environment, corporate strategy of marketing development, and situation of corporate resources. ...
Article
Under the boom of market economy in China, marketing mix is being updated constantly to facilitate the all-round development of various industries. To accurate evaluate the effect of corporate marketing mix, this paper designs an effect analysis model for corporate marketing mix based on artificial neural network (ANN). Firstly, a complete evaluation index system (EIS) was created for corporate marketing mix, and the weight of each index was assigned through analytic hierarchy process (AHP). Then, a marketing mix of big marketing + service marketing was proposed, and subject to fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Finally, an FCE model was constructed for the effect of corporate marketing mix, based on three-layer backpropagation neural network (BPNN). The effectiveness of the model was verified through experiments. The research findings provide a reference for the application of ANN in other fields of effect analysis.
... Findings from the literature (see [17]), as well as our findings, showed that there was a very low level of consumer awareness regarding AMI, in general, or SM, in particular, and communication channels had a huge role to play in this part. Social media was especially significant, as over 56% of the Indonesian population was active on social media and the dissemination of information through social media channels is relatively easier, less time consuming, and cost effective [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world and is currently facing some challenges, such as pollution and a growing energy demand. One of the solutions to these problems is upgrading the electricity transmission and distribution system to avoid losses of energy, and encourage consumer engagement in energy saving as well as energy generation. The government of Indonesia has initiated projects for smart grids and advanced metering infrastructure (AMI), but consumer awareness and willingness to accept these new technologies is still uncertain. This study focused on analyzing consumers’ knowledge and willingness to accept one of the key components in grid modernization, being smart meters (SM). An online questionnaire was used to record responses from 518 social media users from different parts of Indonesia. The analysis shows that, among social media users who are seen as early adopters of technology, there is certainly a lack of awareness about SM, but they are largely open towards the acceptance of SM. Based on the findings, we have also drawn recommendations for energy companies, which would help in raising consumer awareness, as well as acceptance of SM in Indonesia.
Article
Full-text available
Emojis have become popular in online marketing communications. Marketers use emojis to humanize brand voice and elicit an emotional response from target audiences. However, little is known about how emojis are perceived and what kind of reactions they evoke. Therefore, this study aims to verify whether exposure to emojis leads to an increased intention to purchase and whether the use of emojis impacts campaign effectiveness in a real‐life environment. In a theory build‐up process, we draw upon the Dual Coding Theory and emotional contagion concept and develop seven hypotheses. We performed two data collection studies to test the hypothesized relations. The first study is based on a questionnaire (N=318), while the second is based on experimental design in a real‐life business environment. Surprisingly, we found that using emojis had a negative effect on purchase intention, while the effect was positive when mediated by positive affect. Emojis increased the effectiveness of marketing campaigns for hedonic products and strongly impacted the return on advertising spent. The findings of this study have both theoretical and practical implications in the observed domains, particularly about the type of products emojis are most effective in promoting, gender differences, and real‐life consumer behavior. This is the first study to use an experimental design in a real‐life scenario to capture the role of emojis on campaign effectiveness and decipher the differences between genders and their perceptions of emojis. Theoretical and practical implications together with future prospects are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
The paper aims to systematise the modifications within the concept of integrated marketing communication, resulting from the usage of social media in the companies’ communication practices. Based on the literature review, the current challenges of integrating social media into marketing communication were identified. They were structured into three groups of tactical, strategic and ethical challenges. These challenges are related to both, the practical issues of marketing communication through the evolving social media and the theoretical discussion on the conceptual framework of integrated marketing communication
Article
Full-text available
Marketers are being inundated with social media metrics, but there is little consensus on what one should be measuring, let alone how these measures inform marketing strategy. This article attempts to bring clarity to the situation by adopting an integrated marketing communications perspective. By screening extant metrics for alignment with social media communications objectives, seven key social media metrics are identified. These metrics are then described and their application to social media marketing from an integrated marketing communications perspective is discussed. Finally, limitations of the metrics are considered to arrive at suggestions for future research.
Article
Full-text available
Social media outlets constitute excellent vehicles for fostering relationships with customers. One specific way to do this is to create brand fan pages on social networking sites. Companies can place brand posts (containing videos, messages, quizzes, information, and other material) on these brand fan pages. Customers can become fans of these brand fan pages, and subsequently indicate that they like the brand post or comment on it. This liking and commenting on brand posts reflects brand post popularity. In this article, we determine possible drivers for brand post popularity. We analyze 355 brand posts from 11 international brands spread across six product categories.Results show that positioning the brand post on top of the brand fan page enhances brand post popularity. But the findings also indicate that different drivers influence the number of likes and the number of comments. Namely, vivid and interactive brand post characteristics enhance the number of likes. Moreover, the share of positive comments on a brand post is positively related to the number of likes. The number of comments can be enhanced by the interactive brand post characteristic, a question. The shares of both positive and negative comments are positively related to the number of comments. Managers of brands that operate brand fan pages can be guided by our research with regards to deciding which characteristics or content to place at brand posts.
Article
Social media brand communities (SMBCs) provide firms with a potential tool to develop brand relationships. The goal of this study is to understand the value of an SMBC to that brand by examining how the community contributes to one of the central brand relationship variables—brand trust. From the perspective of trust transfer, this study considers whether and how consumer trust in a brand can be transferred from other trusted parties in the SMBC, and the mediation of consumer engagement in this process. Based on a survey of 279 SMBC participants, this study demonstrates that consumer-to-consumer trust and consumer-to-marketer trust have positive impact on consumer engagement, which subsequently influence brand trust. Also the device usage was found to moderate the impact of consumer engagement on brand trust.
Article
Social media platforms play an increasingly important civic role as platforms for discourse, where we discuss, debate, and share information. This article explores how users make sense of the content moderation systems social media platforms use to curate this discourse. Through a survey of users (n = 519) who have experienced content moderation, I explore users’ folk theories of how content moderation systems work, how they shape the affective relationship between users and platforms, and the steps users take to assert their agency by seeking redress. I find significant impacts of content moderation that go far beyond the questions of freedom of expression that have thus far dominated the debate. Raising questions about what content moderation systems are designed to accomplish, I conclude by conceptualizing an educational, rather than punitive, model for content moderation systems.
Article
Since the emergence of social media, industrial marketing academics and marketers have also been intrigued by the influence of such media on the discipline. As, social media research in the field of industrial marketing has been of increasing interest, this research attempts to review and assess the advances in social media research in the industrial marketing field. From the literature review conducted, it can be identified that some of the research areas have witnessed steady theory development increases, e.g., sales and marketing communications, while others are clearly lagging behind, e.g., pricing and ethics. Also methodological pluralism is called for instead of more traditional methods (conceptual analysis, qualitative and survey) to establish and solve more nuanced research problems. This research provides a review of the current state of research in the field and suggests directions for future development.
Article
Purpose This study aims to use social media data to identify brand communication strategies on Facebook. The analysis uncovers trends and statistics regarding engagement rates. This research leads to the development of a future research agenda for social media and engagement research. Design/methodology/approach The Facebook Insights data of 12 wine brands over a 12-month period informed this study. Descriptive analysis was undertaken to examine the social media communication strategies of these brands. The impact of these strategies on engagement metrics is also examined. Findings The findings demonstrate a low rate of engagement among the users of the wine brand Facebook pages. A majority of Facebook fans rarely engage with the brands. The results demonstrate that user engagement varies depending on the day of the week and hour of the day of the brand post. Practical implications Wine brands can use these findings as a guideline for effective practice and as a benchmarking tool for assessing their social media performance. The paper provides implications for marketing scholars through the development of a future research agenda related to social media, customer engagement and wine marketing. Originality/value This paper fulfils an identified need by offering practical advice to wine producers on the necessity to explore and understand social media strategy and customer engagement characteristics.
Article
Over the past 15 years, digital media platforms have revolutionized marketing, offering new ways to reach, inform, engage, sell to, learn about, and provide service to customers. As a means of taking stock of academic work’s ability to contribute to this revolution, this article tracks the changes in scholarly researchers’ perspectives on three major digital, social media, and mobile (DSMM) marketing themes from 2000 to 2015. The authors first use keyword counts from the premier general marketing journals to gain a macro-level view of the shifting importance of various DSMM topics since 2000. They then identify key themes emerging in five-year time frames during this period: (1) DSMM as a facilitator of individual expression, (2) DSMM as decision support tool, and (3) DSMM as a market intelligence source. In both academic research to date and corresponding practitioner discussion, there is much to appreciate. However, there are also several shortcomings of extant research that have limited its rel...
Article
This paper looks at the use of online data, especially social media metrics, to assess media audiences, with particular focus on musicians. It shows how audiences are defined by different sets of people, and grounds the use of social media to understand audiences in the history of mass media audience measurement. The second half of the paper focuses on visible social media metrics-likes, followers, and other such counts-outlining their appeal as measures and highlighting their fallibility and ambiguity. Throughout, the paper argues that different people construct information systems to collect, store, analyze, and interpret data, and that these are shaped by value systems. Metric and big data analysis generally serves economic values, while other approaches to data may be more appropriate for assessing social and personal values.
Article
This article explores the new modalities of visibility engendered by new media, with a focus on the social networking site Facebook. Influenced by Foucault’s writings on Panopticism – that is, the architectural structuring of visibility – this article argues for understanding the construction of visibility on Facebook through an architectural framework that pays particular attention to underlying software processes and algorithmic power. Through an analysis of EdgeRank, the algorithm structuring the flow of information and communication on Facebook’s ‘News Feed’, I argue that the regime of visibility constructed imposes a perceived ‘threat of invisibility’ on the part of the participatory subject. As a result, I reverse Foucault’s notion of surveillance as a form of permanent visibility, arguing that participatory subjectivity is not constituted through the imposed threat of an all-seeing vision machine, but by the constant possibility of disappearing and becoming obsolete.
Article
The emergence of Internet-based social media has made it possible for one person to communicate with hundreds or even thousands of other people about products and the companies that provide them. Thus, the impact of consumer-to-consumer communications has been greatly magnified in the marketplace. This article argues that social media is a hybrid element of the promotion mix because in a traditional sense it enables companies to talk to their customers, while in a nontraditional sense it enables customers to talk directly to one another. The content, timing, and frequency of the social media-based conversations occurring between consumers are outside managers’ direct control. This stands in contrast to the traditional integrated marketing communications paradigm whereby a high degree of control is present. Therefore, managers must learn to shape consumer discussions in a manner that is consistent with the organization's mission and performance goals. Methods by which this can be accomplished are delineated herein. They include providing consumers with networking platforms, and using blogs, social media tools, and promotional tools to engage customers.
An Experiment with Facebook as an Advertising Channel for Books and Audiobooks
  • G Chodak
  • G Suchacka
Chodak, G. & Suchacka, G. (2017). "An Experiment with Facebook as an Advertising Channel for Books and Audiobooks", Information Systems Architecture and Technology, Vol 521, pp 221-233.
  • K Kapoor
  • K Tamilmani
  • P Rana
  • P Patil
  • Y Dwivedi
  • S Nerur
Kapoor, K., Tamilmani, K., Rana, P., Patil, P., Dwivedi, Y., Nerur, S. (2018). "Advances in Social Media Research: Past, Present and Future", Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 20, Issue 3, pp 531-558.