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Między historią a pamięcią. Antologia

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... The claims of false victims create the sense of artificiality of trauma, and while they do not necessarily trivialize the memory of the Holocaust, they do give arguments to those who deny it. Assmann (2013) speaks of two types of memory: individual and collective. The former is a collection of personal memories, firmly anchored in emotions, including stories, objects, impressions, and relationships with a given situation. ...
... Collective memory, according to Assmann (2013), is the effect of a set of remembered things, the aim of which is to be uniform and unambiguous. Many researchers deny the existence of collective memory, based on its fictional and mythical nature and hidden ideology involved in the process of memory production (Assmann, 2013). ...
... Collective memory, according to Assmann (2013), is the effect of a set of remembered things, the aim of which is to be uniform and unambiguous. Many researchers deny the existence of collective memory, based on its fictional and mythical nature and hidden ideology involved in the process of memory production (Assmann, 2013). ...
Article
This article describes the phenomenon of editorial kitsch trends around the Holocaust literature and its impact on the Holocaust memory. "Holo-polo" is a way of dealing with the “discomfort” of the horrors of war and violence, by creating a more comfortable version of it. The article problematizes the ways of representation of a frequently debated and controversial issue, the Holocaust. By analyzing individual publications, the article addresses the issues of memory, forgetting, objectivity and truth of historical representation, and, inevitably, the ethical issue of historical fiction. The article argues that embellishing the history of the Holocaust is not only inappropriate, but also indecent. Instead of describing the horrors of the Holocaust, Holo-polo trivializes and misrepresents its significance, depicting melancholy, sentiment, and nostalgia in the light of a pop-cultural emotional trap. Or maybe is it just being moved by our own emotions. Kitschy clichés are misused and certainly do not serve memory, literature, or respect for Holocaust victims and survivors.
... After the passing of witnesses to history, events from the past live as cultural memory in the consciousness of societies and at the same time as the subject of the historian's research. Certain points from the past, according to Assmann, are recorded and transformed into a sacred myth (Assmann, 2013). The cultural memory includes storage memory and functional memory. ...
... The cultural memory includes storage memory and functional memory. With the help of those instruments the community selects from among all the events of the past those most important for it: historical facts, museums, monuments or school textbooks (called products of functional memory culture) (Assmann, 2013). In the 20 th century, a new ethical dimension of memory appears in the context of the totalitarian victims. ...
... She recognized the pursuit of Europeanization of national memories, i.e. their mutual complementation, with the goal and challenge of the present. According to Assmann, shared transnational memory should therefore have the character of a dialogic memory (Assmann, 2013). ...
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By the concept of dialogical memory we understand the process of creating transnational memory in the course of complementing individual national memories. In the opinion of its inventor, the German memoryologist Aleida Assmann, dialogical memory is particularly important for the nations with a difficult past. A responsible and empathic narration of a shared history can lay the foundation for a normal relationships in the future. The purpose of the article is to analyze the phenomenon of dialogical memory as exemplified by the Pol- ish-Lithuanian debate on the common past and its impact on the current political relations. In recent times we can observe the organized anniversary celebrations by the governments of both countries related to the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a common state that existed between the 16th and 18th centuries. A special historical celebration took place in Vilnius in November 2019. With the participation of the delegations from Poland, Belarus and Ukraine, the remains of the heroes who took part in the anti-Russian January Uprising in 1863-1864 were buried with honours. These celebrations mark a characteristic change that took place in the Lithuanian politics of memory in relation to the assessment of the traditions of the common Polish-Lithuanian state. A community of interests in the sphere of security, economy, and politics is deepening this process. Membership in the Eu- ropean Union and the Atlantic Pact are platforms joining Poles and Lithuanians in the 21st century. This membership provides opportunities for both states to cooperate and develop common interests and values. Common neighbourhood with the Russian exclave in Kalin- ingrad and a sense of threat from Russia deepens mutual Polish-Lithuanian understanding.
... Cultural heritage is subject to the constant processes of remembering and forgetting, destroying and building, losing and finding, meeting and parting (Karpińska, 2004). The observations of particular heritage objects' level of topicality enable studying the interactions between the layers of the palimpsest of collective memory, which, unlike individual memory, has a public, official and generalized relationship with the past (Assmann, 2013;Brockmeier 2002). The theoretical basis for this article are the concepts of communicative and cultural memory created in Aleida and Jan Assmann's theories. ...
... The subject of this article is the Polish heritage in contemporary Lithuania, understood as an important material heritage which is the embodied Polish collective memory in the territory of modern Lithuania. For this analysis, there were selected examples of the most canonical sites of memory for Polish culture, from the three main areas of active cultural memory distinguished by Aleida Assmann, i.e. history, art, and religion (Assmann, 2013). The first area is represented by objects related to Józef Piłsudski, the second one by the Pohulanka Theatre (now The Russian Drama Theatre) in Vilnius and objects related to Adam Mickiewicz, and the third one by objects related to the cult of Divine Mercy. ...
Article
The last century of Lithuanian history and the resulting dynamics of political and demographic change have radically transformed the role, meaning and forms of interpretation of Polish heritage in Lithuania. The purpose of the article is to observe the main directions of changes taking place within the cultural memory of Poles living in Lithuania - the largest national minority group in Lithuania. The report presents the processes of changing topicality of Polish heritage in Lithuania in three main areas of active cultural memory: history, art and religion. The first area is represented by objects related to Józef Piłsudski, the second one by the Pohulanka Theatre (now the Russian Drama Theatre) in Vilnius and objects related to Adam Mickiewicz, and the third one by objects related to the cult of Divine Mercy.The article analyses official communication of these memory objects (published by the objects’ owners or official managers) as well as memory practices and rituals carried out in these objects and described on social media and in news articles published in Lithuania in 2017-2019. Observing various types of storage media, in this case, some selected objects of cultural heritage and rituals and texts accompanying them, it is possible to notice processes of variability, exchange, erasing, redefining memory and hence the dynamics of changes in the Polish collective identity in modern Lithuania.The analysis of the formal ritualization and communication of these objects has enabled noticing several interesting trends, above all an occurrence of the phenomenon of polylogue of narratives and the process of universalization of Polish heritage in Lithuania and thus Lithuanian and Polish collective memory approaching each other.The following analysis is valuable as a starting point for reflection on the transformation of the ethnic identity of Poles in Lithuania. The article is one of the first attempts to show the processes of Lithuanian Poles identity transformations through observations of their collective memory dimension. The article presents the main trends and indicates the further potential research directions.
... Włączenie do analizy warstwy graficznej zachowanych zabytków nie jest przypadkowe. Rękopis jako medium przechowujące praktyki komemoratywne, a w szerszym kontekście tekst jako przejaw kultury pamięci poprzez wspomniany wyżej symbolizm, ikoniczność uświadamiały lokalnej społeczności, czytelnikom znaczenie księgi w kształtowaniu tożsamości wspólnoty (Assmann, 2019). Statut został nadany przez biskupa Hieronima Ustrzyckiego, a zatwierdzony ponownie przez jego następcę Onufrego Szumlańskiego, czego świadectwem jest autograf oraz biskupie pieczęcie. ...
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Prezentowany artykuł został poświęcony praktykom komemoratywnym w eparchii przemyskiej w XVII–XVIII w., odtworzonym na podstawie rękopiśmiennych i drukowanych źródeł reprezentujących dwa główne typy – statutów bractw cerkiewnych oraz pomjanyków. Do analizy wybrano statuty bractw w Chotyńcu, Bortiatyniu, Żurawcach oraz Zapałowie. Gatunek pomjanyka reprezentowany jest przez nielokalizowany pomjanyk datowany na XVI w. w formie pergaminowego zwoju, pomjanyk bractwa cerkiewnego z Kormanic (1685), prywatny pomjanyk biskupa przemyskiego Innocentego Winnickiego (1693) oraz pomjanyk ze wsi Witoszyńce (1688). Przeprowadzona analiza pozwoliła nakreślić ich ramy gatunkowe, w tym elementy treściowe o charakterze perswazyjnym, których celem było uświadomienie czytelnikom istotnej roli pamięci dla zachowania tożsamości kulturowo-religijnej, a przede wszystkim znaczenia wspominania zmarłych w kontekście soteriologicznym. Z praktykami komemoratywnymi ściśle związane były praktyki pogrzebowe regulowane w statutach bractw cerkiewnych inicjujące proces pamiętania. Porównanie z zabytkami sąsiedniej eparchii chełmskiej uwypukliło zróżnicowanie regionalne praktyk komemoratywnych oraz praktyk religijnych, którego istota polegała na dostrzegalnym wpływie języka polskiego i katolickiej kultury religijnej na terenach eparchii chełmskiej.
... Agreeing with A. Assmann, "an European historical memory, which evolves around human rights, lacks credibility, if it points at the lesser evil and subsequently entirely minimizes or represses East European memory." She claims that by solely cultivating the victim status the east European countries will drift away from a common European identity and might become indifferent for other victims, which might cause danger for minorities such as Roma, who live in those countries 67 . A possible solution for counteracting this scenario was the European Parliament resolution from 2 April, 2009 on European conscience and totalitarianism. ...
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The tragic events of World War II play an important role in the collective memory of all European nations. Since 1945, many initiatives devoted to the coming-to-terms with the traumatic past have been launched. One of the challenges for actors involved in the creation of historical and educational policies is to keep the memory of the Holocaust alive. In the last years, a significant number of initiatives have been organized on the occasion of anniversaries. The paper presents an analysis of 3 different initiatives connected to the official ceremonies of three international remembrance days in Poland, Germany and France. These are the Holocaust Remembrance Day, the International Holocaust Remembrance Day and the European Day of Remembrance for the Righteous. The selected countries represent different historical experiences of war and circumstances, in which the process of collective memory took place. The need for reconciliation between France and Germany was one of the basic reasons for European integration. The reconciliation process between Poland and Germany started much later and Poland joined EU just in 2004. These factors have had an important impact on the creation of the memory culture in those countries. The paper gives an indication on who is involved in commemoration activities and which factors are decisive for the question of whether at all and how the selected anniversaries are celebrated in the three chosen countries. It shows, in how far national goals regarding historical policy are still prevailing and in which places and occasions a more universal and international narrative has been developed.
... According to the interlocutors, the Yugoslavian identity, apart from its political understand-ing as to the national identity of the inhabitants of Yugoslavia, inscribed in the idea of Titoism, is the identity with which many Serbs identified, and still identify. The memory of Yugoslavia, recognized also as a part of the Serbian collective memory, should also be understood in terms of the communicative memory(Assmann 2008;Assmann 2013;Kaźmierska 2012). The generation of "carriers" of this memory is, therefore, the main condition for itsexistence. ...
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The subject of the article concerns the issue of constructing and reconstructing national identity. The object of interest here is a sociological case study of Serbian national identity. It includes reconstruction and interpretation of in-depth interviews conducted in Serbia with the representatives of Serbian symbolic elites. The concept of symbolic elites is approached in the discussed research from Teun van Dijk's perspective. Thus, they are individuals and groups directly involved in the production of public opinion, who have an impact on the content of publicly available knowledge, and the creation and legitimization of public discourse. The work is embedded in the methodological framework of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) and is based on the assumptions of the Discourse-Historical Approach (DHA). In this optics, the most important thing is the historical and social context of the studied process of the discursive construction of national identity. Therefore, the conclusions also touch upon the historical , political, and social perspective of the formation of Serbian national identity. The reflection also aims at presenting the analysis from the contemporary perspective (mainly in 2008-2020). Thus, paying attention to the political divisions in Serbia and the country's road to democratization and European integration , the discussed research study shows the comprehensive specifics of the studied national identity.
... In terms of the methodology adopted for the analysis, the aim is to make more extended and direct use of the analytical methods developed in the context of anthropological and socio-historical studies of oral, or partly oral, traditional cultures. Thus the argument seeks here to augment and reinforce the traditional Lord and Parry approach of oral-formulaic studies as practiced in the medieval context in the work by Mark Amodio (1994;, M. Borroff (1962), and E. B. Vitz (Vitz 1999) with the anthropological approach developed in cultural socio-cultural studies by W. J. Ong (1995), Jan Assmann (2008;, Aleida Assmann (2013), Paul Connerton (2006, and Eric A. Havelock (1986). A very vital part of the adopted methodology is here to establish a connection between this critical tradition and the scholarly work on the cultural context of the medieval approaches to textuality as developed in the work of R. Morse (Morse 1991), W. Ryding (1971) and M. Carruthers (1992). ...
Book
The argument in the book is aimed at illustrating how the fantasy fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien and George R. R. Martin is influenced by the legacy of medieval heroic literature, and also how the secondary worlds created by the respective authors enter into dialogue with the medieval ideas concerning artistic creativity and the psychological and cognitive habits which constitute an inherent element of the imagery of medieval heroic literature and of the medieval civilisation in general.
... Confino, 1997Confino, , 1386Confino, -1403Connerton, 1989;Cubitt, 2000;Nora, 1989, 7-24;v. też Assmann, 2008;Assmann, 2013;Erll, 2018). Finalna część omawianej rozprawy została bowiem poświęcona pamięci i topice, a ściślej rzecz ujmując, upamiętnianiu (memorializacji) świętych/świętości i wyrażaniu zjawiska przemijania/doczesności za pomocą repertuaru stałych obrazów, motywów i struktur retorycznych stanowiących świadectwo ciągłości i wspólnoty tradycji, a dodatkowo -jak się zdaje intencjonalna -ekspozycja Curtiusowskiego pojęcia topiki służyć ma nie tyle ujawnieniu lokalnego, rodzimego, ile ukazaniu nade wszystko koneksyjnego, uniwersalnego wymiaru staroserbskiej kultury (Curtius, 1997). ...
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The article briefly presents a series of problems discussed in the dissertation entitled Свето и пропадљиво. Тело у српској хагиографској књижевности (Holy and Worldly. Body in Serbian Hagiographic Literature) by Smilja Marjanović-Dušanić. Dedicated to a wide professional and non-professional audience, the book in question is a significant scientific work since it refers not only to the historical, but also to the anthropological and culturological description related to the activity of decoding of such essential socio-cultural category like body. Considered as a highly complex phenomenon, body is a sign generated by the realm of various traditions and discourses which render different cultural modes or primary and secondary contexts; it might be also conceived as a distinctive signature of given time-space, community and cultural system. It will not be an exaggeration to say that the dissertation is an extremely interesting and indeed outstanding study of the subject which impresses with its high cognitive value and research rank. What is more, it offers a serious and objective view of the convoluted and multidimensional cultural phenomenon and identity construct.
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The photographs of Jakub Smolski constitute important documentation of the customs and habits of the Belarusian minority in Podlasie in the interwar period. Most of the photos were taken by Smolski in his home village of Łuka. The article presents the image of the peasant world of the Narew, Orthodox villages. A photographer from Łuka took pictures that showed the private world of the peasants. What was captured in the photographs proves the strength of the rites of passage, which were of great importance in the peasant community as they strengthened family and neighborhood ties. They expressed the stages of a person’s life in a specific order in a closed cycle of births, weddings and funerals. The collected photos are also an important testimony to the micro-history of the Belarusians of Podlasie. Photographs are of great value for historical, cultural and social reasons. They can be of great importance in popularizing Belarusian culture in Podlasie as an example of its strength and values, as well as in encouraging a return to its roots.
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The article analyses the content and availability of audio-visual archives of Polish Public Television regarding TV shows devoted to film and cinema productions broadcast between 1989 and 2020. This study allows general conclusions to be formulated that concern the research opportunities that this particular archive generates mostly for film and media scholars. Apart from presenting the results of in-depth analysis of archives, the text inscribes these reflections into the latest studies on archives, as well as into discussions on contemporary TV film criticism.
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P.P.Grzybowski, Śmiech z edukacji. Komiczny obraz edukacji w polskiej kulturze śmiechu. Tom 1 Założenia, idee i analizy, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego, Bydgoszcz 2022, 418 s. ISBN 978-83-8018-502-9 Monografia „Śmiech z edukacji. Komiczny obraz edukacji w polskiej kulturze śmiechu.” zawiera charakterystykę polskiej kultury śmiechu pod kątem występowania w niej wątków dotyczących edukacji – szczególnie szkoły i systemu oświaty. Na TOM PIERWSZY składa się wprowadzenie teoretyczne na temat kultury śmiechu, komizmu, wspólnot śmiechu i wspólnot nienawiści; analizy dotyczące kultury ludowej i popularnej jako źródeł komicznych motywów i wzorców osobowych w literaturze; charakterystyki działalności pionierów literackiego śmiechu z edukacji; uwagi o komicznych wzorach osobowych występujących m.in. w kulturze śmiechu PRL oraz twórczości teatralnej, estradowej, radiowej i telewizyjnej. Część analityczną wieńczy przegląd badań polskich pedagogów zajmujących się zjawiskiem śmiechu w kulturze szkoły, charakterystyka komicznych zjawisk w akademickiej kulturze śmiechu oraz analiza tekstów zawartych w drugim tomie. TOM DRUGI zawiera chronologiczne zestawienie ponad 700 przykładów komicznych utworów dotyczących edukacji z lat 1496–2017. Jest to pierwsze w Polsce opracowanie tego rodzaju. Jest to pierwsze w Polsce opracowanie tego rodzaju.
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The text discusses the social understanding of the film canon. The analyses is based on the results of the social research “Poles about Polish films. Opinions of Poles on Polish cinema and their attitudes towards Polish film production” conducted in 2019. The research findings show how Polish audiences think about the Polish film canon and how they define it, referring to their own film experiences, attitudes towards Polish productions and to beliefs about the influence of Polish cinema on culture.
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The purpose of this article is to present how the concept of conflict of memories can be understood (referring to Poland after 1989), and to show what are the main directions of narratives in this conflict, formulated within the framework of several areas fundamental to Polish public discourse. It was also of great importance to discover what types of narratives construct each of the narrative trends about a particular past event. This made it possible to formulate conclusions concerning the shape of the featured conflict, its course and potential for permanence.
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The Symbolic Sphere in the Transformation Processes of the former Yugoslavia. Monuments The article focuses on the ways of treating the monumental memory of the past in the states that were established after the disintegration of Yugoslavia. These examples, which are not exhaustive, show that the process of transformation in the symbolic sphere does not create a uniform image in all countries. It oscillates between the destruction of the monuments of the past period in Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but also the different intensity of the events of the tragic war of the last decade of the 20th century. Breaking such a description, Serbia protects the monuments of the Yugoslavian era, while at the same time recalling the memory of the Serbian liberation struggle in the anti-Turkish uprising of 1804. The protection of the monuments of the NOB (struggle for national liberation) period in Montenegro not only proves the connection with the federal Yugoslavia, but also reflects a kind of Yugonostalgia. In turn, the monuments of this period on Macedonian territory, preserved in various states, gave way to a “flood of monuments” referring to the ancient and medieval history of this land. The changes in the monumental sphere in all countries, however, prove the willingness to justify the ideological existence of independent state entities embedded in the native tradition confirming their sovereignty.
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The monograph presents various aspects of the situation and activities of women in Central and Eastern Europe, both in the past and at present, featuring profiles of outstanding women and topical or forgotten histories of social movements and organizations. In so doing, it engages in a dialogue with the culturally-defined stereotypical roles of women, which often cause their “Hamletian” tear between the social expectations and their own systems of values.
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The Politics of Memory, Historical Populism and the Crisis of Democracy. Hungary and Poland Against the Backdrop of Central and Eastern Europe Firstly, the author analyzes those resources of historical memory that distinguish Hungary and Poland from the other states of Central and Eastern Europe. On the one hand, these resources most strongly associate them with the West, and on the other, they allow them to oppose it to justify their alternative development path. Secondly, he analyzes the cases of populists of various types across the region since 1989, highlighting those who campaigned with interpretations of the past to delegitimize political opponents, mainly from the left. Finally, and thirdly, he presents policies of memory of the right-wing governments of Hungary and Poland. In his opinion only they meet the criteria for the definition of historical populism. This term is what he calls a consistent governmental policy aimed at liberal elites and globalization as embodied by the West. It is conducted by changing the sense given to the entire past following the ideology of ethnocentrism and neo-traditionalism. This ideology is addressed to people-nation (lat. populus) to whom it assigns the role of an heir of a unique history and national tradition.
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Historical prose as a component of national literature is an essential part of the cultural life of modern nations. One of its tasks is to form the cultural memory of large groups that create national communities, structure the past and preserve its integrity and uniqueness. The historical prose of Ukrainian emigration eloquently demonstrates mutual projections of memory and the formation of national conscience and identity. The prose of emigration as an exile can serve as a relief and expressive evidence of the formation and interpenetration of the main ideas and concepts, ideological and aesthetic figurative paradigm, formed on the border of memory, history, and literature. This is how historical prose is seen as a purposeful policy of memory. For societies where the state tradition was interrupted, historical prose can be considered an important factor in restoring/maintaining national memory, as well as a means of creating national myths, projecting the past on the modern problems of a stateless nation, and preserving the national traditions. Historical prose of Ukrainian emigration had these tasks in mind, taking responsibility for the national philosophical perspective rooted in the past in order to preserve and increase it in the future. The idea of self-discovery through one’s own history is, in particular, an important element in the existence of Ukrainian emigration: in this case, we talk about national self-knowledge in a community that tries to preserve its national identity and fix it not only in oral tradition but also in scholarly historical research and historical prose. Historical fiction of the 20th-century Ukrainian emigration was a means of discovering the sources of traditions in the past that directly influences modernity, and an attempt to build a historiosophical literary model that would reveal the forgotten past, show the causes of current problems, and point out the way to future.
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The main research problem of the study is the question whether a culture that is already absent from the social space of a local community is the community’s cultural heritage. Has such a culture been remembered by the inhabitants of a small town and how does it fit into the context of regional education? The axis of the article is the Jewish culture that was present until World War II in two shtetls – “Jewish towns” – in the Świętokrzyskie region: in Włoszczowa and Chmielnik. These are two opposite examples of building a town’s cultural and social identity in the context of the almost complete absence of the Jewish culture and, in the second case, its extensive revitalization. The presented sociological and anthropological research shows that this context is socially and politically conditioned, and (above all) that in order to recall an absent culture from the controversial past, the emergence of social leaders, called leaders of cultural heritage, is desirable. They are organizationally able to initiate activities supported by a sound ideological basis.
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This article looks at the idea of the “Clean Wehrmacht”, as opposed to the SS, who were implicated in the mass executions of Jews and other civilians in the East. This narrative is proven wrong in Ulla Hahn’s Unscharfe Bilder wherein an exhibition on the Wehrmacht exposes the crimes of its soldiers. The main protagonist in Ulla Hahn’s novel Unscharfe Bilder recognizes in one of the photos a character strikingly similar to her father, and so she starts questioning him about his past. He insists that the Wehrmacht was a regular German army and tries to put individual cases into perspective. It turns out that the historical of the Wehrmacht is not so clear.
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The aim of the article is historical, political analysis and analysis of scientific discourse on the direction of decommunization transition since Ukraine’s independence. The main research question concerns the effectiveness of the process. When describing the decommunization of public space in Ukraine, it should be stressed that it was characterized by varying intensity and regionality. The process can be divided into two main phases – 1990- 2014 and after 2015. The first period was determined by the historical policy pursued by the presidents of Ukraine. During the presidency of Yushchenko, with the increasing interest in historical politics, and especially the theme of Holodomor 1932/33, the names and monuments in honor of those responsible for these events were removed. The last phase of decommunization involves four acts passed in April 2015. The pace and consistency with which the laws were implemented, especially 317-VIII on communist symbolism, was linked to the Ukrainian-Russian conflict. It determined the need for radical steps towards the Ukrainian state taking control of its own symbolic space. A parliamentary majority and a social atmosphere have made the implementation of the laws effective and today Ukraine can be considered to have decommunized public space. This does not apply, of course, to occupied areas.
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The monograph analyses literary images of difficult childhood from the end of the 19th century to modern times. The authors look at different subject matters from various perspectives. The most important of them are: the problem of establishing identity in times of turmoil or individual crises, the influence of social and political events on the image of childhood and childhood in war literature (which concerns World War II and subsequent conflicts, including the current one in Ukraine).
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W artykule zaanalizowano teksty polskich autorów Igora Ostachowicza i Sylwii Chutnik oraz rosyjskiego pisarza Andrieja Turgieniewa (pseudonim Wiaczesława Kuricyna), zrodzone perspektywę postpamięci, wcześniej czy później odsłaniającej i wypełniającej „białe plamy” – przez poczucie, że adekwatny dyskurs nie został wypracowany lub też istniejący już dyskurs nie funkcjonuje. Teksty literackie odnoszą się do tej części traumy historycznej, która nie została dostatecznie przepracowana albo została wyparta ze względu na haniebny lub przynajmniej nieheroiczny charakter doświadczenia, co uniemożliwia włączenie go do wielkiej narracji. Głównym pytaniem, na które stara się odpowiedzieć autorka artykułu, jest psychologiczno-artystyczny powód posługiwania się groteską, sarkazmem, czarnym humorem w odniesieniu do tematów sakralizowanych przez samą skalę ludzkiej tragedii – doświadczenie Holokaustu i oblężenie Leningradu.
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Museums and art are both phenomena strongly connected with collective identities. During the process of development of modern nations in the 19th and 20th centuries, museums were actors (or tools, depending on the context) of the process of the construction of collective representations. This relates to a certain link between collectivities and objects, in which the latter contribute to the emergence of social roles and the organization of social worlds. Artworks as collective representations, and memory carriers significantly participate in these processes. Since 1989, the importance of local identities has been growing. Local actors undertake organized activities to develop a sense of community and attract the attention of outsiders. Museums also participate in these processes, yet in the changing context the question arises as to whether they play a role similar to the national ones or, perhaps, different situations introduced new ways of museum involvement. The paper examines the practices during which representations of a locality are constructed to be displayed in the museum context. We are interested in how art pieces contribute to this process and how they are used in comparison to non-aesthetic artifacts. The study is based on 50 in-depth interviews collected during two projects conducted in the Subcarpathian Voivodeship in Poland and in the Kosice Region in Slovakia. Concentrating on the practices of collection building, exhibition designing, and interpretation, we discuss different classes of objects used in the process, analyze their effectiveness in representing the original context – the main topic of museum narratives – and indicate some of them as boundary objects around which arenas emerge.
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Izdevumā publicēti 11 raksti, kuru pamatā ir referātu materiāli, kas nolasīti 2020. gada 27. un 28. novembrī Valmieras muzeja un Latvijas Universitātes Latvijas vēstures institūta interneta vidē rīkotajā konferencē “Jauno vēsturnieku zinātniskie lasījumi”. Krājumu izdod Latvijas Universitātes Latvijas vēstures institūts sadarbībā ar Valmieras pilsētas pašvaldības Valmieras muzeju. Krājuma sagatavošanu un izdošanu finansē Izglītības un zinātnes ministrijas finansētā Valsts pētījumu programma “Latvijas mantojums un nākotnes izaicinājumi valsts ilgtspējai”, projekts “Indivīda, sabiedrības un valsts mijiedarbība kopējā Latvijas vēstures procesā: vērtību konflikti un kopīgu vērtību veidošanās vēsturiskos lūzumu punktos”, projekta Nr. VPP-IZM-2018/1-0018.
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The aim of this paper is to investigate the ways of presenting the problem of the 1920 plebiscite’s defeat in the Polish reports by Melchior Wańkowicz and Leon Sobociński. It attempts to show the indicators of change in the interpretation of this event during the decade filled with the censorship of World War II in the reportages of these authors. It describes how the Polish narratives tried to neutralize the situation of defeat and what lessons were learned from it. This paper asks questions about the dramaturgical potential of this experience of defeat and the mechanisms of both remembering it and erasing it from memory
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My Father’s Story: I’ll Play You Right Away… So How Do the Second Generation Remember? The aim of the article is to discuss the life story of the survivor, Majer Jesion and the joint work of daughter and father on discovering memory and the past, as well as to analyze the result of this work: the spectacle 121 023 J (dir. Ariel Goldmann, Sao Paulo), including the construction of the history and stage spaces with the usage of props to visualize the difficult past. In 2002, Renata Jesion decided to put on stage the traumatic story of her father in which she embodied him on stage. The theater medium serves her in the intergenerational transmission of the memory of the Holocaust. This monodrama will be analyzed in the light of the theory of post-memory (M. Hirsch), testifying through the medium of the theater (G. Niziołek, F. Rokem), and Self-Revelatory Performance (R. Emunah, A. Volkas).
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“Lines of flight are dragged behind you all your life.” Post-Memory, Old Age, and Forgetting in Ulrike Draesner’s Novel Sieben Sprünge vom Rand der Welt (2014) In contemporary German literature, particularly in the family novels that are key to the post-memory discourse of the past, there is a marked interest in the dysfunctions and deformations of memory associated with ageing processes. Demographic changes lead researchers to consider the determinants and the existing dominant themes and categories of interdisciplinary memory studies. Ulrike Draesner’s 2014 novel, Sieben Sprünge vom Rand der Welt, the subject of this paper, probes the meanders of memory and forgetting, examining their configurations in intergenerational relations. I am interested here in the threads that have been marginalized in the popular discourse on the flight and resettlement of millions of Germans from the eastern provinces of the Reich, which emerge along with the progressive dementia of one of the novel’s main characters.
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This research paper discusses the evolution of the attitude of Stefan Bathory (1576–1586), king of Poland, towards the University of Krakow. Being aware of the university’s obsolete structures and its functioning, the king planned to create an elite royal college, in which foreign scholars, especially Italians, were to provide education. Due to the failure of his plan, Batory changed his attitude towards the University, and became its important patron and benefactor. At the same time, however, he also contributed to the establishment of the Jesuit Vilnius University (1578/1579). The author analyses the monarch’s relations with the Krakow Alma Mater over ten years of his reign, trying to explain the circumstances and motives of his conduct towards Krakow’s university elites.
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Before coming out of the closet and publishing a series of successful gay novels, Patricia Nell Warren was known as Patricia Kilina, wife of a Ukrainian émigré writer George Tarnawsky. Her early poetry, written in Ukrainian, includes numerous references to non-traditional gender roles which she further explored in her anglophone novels. The Front Runner (1974) was published when Warren had already divorced her husband and came out of the closet. It was met with commercial success and became the first contemporary American bestseller about gay love. In this paper, I focus on the mixed reader-response of The Front Runner in the LGBTQ+ community, as well as the role of homophobia and misogyny in Patricia Nell Warren’s novel. I argue that The Front Runner provides readers with a thought-provoking literary representation of the changing social attitudes towards non-binary gender roles and non-heterosexuality right after Stonewall and before the AIDS epidemic.
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The final element in a commemoration process is often considered to be a memorial plaque, monument, or museum. However, what precedes the creation of these material forms, or what happens to their message after they disappear or are transferred to the periphery of public interest, is often the most interesting for a researcher. The purpose of this article is to systematize and classify different forms of memorial sites by treating them as material and imaginary historical phenomena. By referring to the concept of functional and storage memory, as well as to Aleida Assman’s concepts of the canon and the archive, the article presents the stages in the production of memorial sites: from the first idea, through creation, to the moment when they cease to exist or are obliterated from the collective consciousness.
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Celem artykułu jest namysł nad kulturą ludową w kontekście wiedzy o pamięci i wiedzy o przeszłości, pogłębiony o refleksję nad mechanizmami zawłaszczania przeszłości podrzędnych przez dyskursy grup dominujących. Autorka stawia tezę, że tradycyjna kultura ludowa (zwana też chłopską) jest obecnie kulturą bez podmiotu, a ideologiczne sito selekcji i procesy globalizacyjne przyczyniły się do zapomnienia/wyparcia całych jej obszarów, zachowując wybiorczo jedynie to, co łatwo może podlegać jej instytucjonalnej restytucji. Wskazując na uwikłania procesu restytuowania w polityki pamięci zawłaszczającej, podejmuje też polemikę ze stanowiskiem Barbary Fatygi, której zdaniem kultura ludowa jest współczesną kulturą popularną. Folk Culture – Restitution or Appropriation? The objective of the article is reflection on folk culture in the context of knowledge about the memory and knowledge about the past, deepened by the contemplation of mechanisms that appropriate the secondary pasts through the discourses of the dominating groups. The author argues that the traditional folk (or so-called peasant) culture is nowadays a culture without a subject and the ideological selection sieve and processes of globalisation only contributed to its whole areas falling into oblivion or being denied, while selectively keeping only those aspects which can easily undergo its institutionalised restitution. Pointing to the process of restitution being embroiled in the appropriating politics of memory, the author argues with the opinion of Barbara Fatyga who views folk culture as the modern popular culture.
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Collective memory as a set of beliefs held by members of a community about some past events is a valuable source of knowledge on the cultural and communicative condition of individuals and whole societies. At the beginning of the article, in order to point out its distinguishing features, the author presents various attempts to define collective memory. Next, he describes changes in the Poles’ collective memory from the end of World War II to the present. Moreover, he concentrates on the relationship between collective memory and the media, which impart a shared meaning and cultural dimension to past events. The aim of his analysis is to answer the question how the current German media discourse shapes the German culture of memory and impacts on the relationships between Poland and Germany. The analysis covers selected German television films. They confirm the belief, popular in Poland for the last few years, that the Germans are becoming reluctant to take responsibility for their crimes committed during World War II.
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This article presents an analysis of one of the short stories authored by Czech writer – Milada Součková: the short story Rok šestašedesátý included in the collection entitled Neznámý člověk (published in 1962, written in 1943). The introduction addresses the issues related to the clarification of the concept of a memory archive and the concept of the archive itself. Its characteristics, i.e. a certain arrangement of the collection, its permanent structure and three essential aspects of archiving are indicated: searching, saving and storing. These aspects are also typical of the structure of the analysed prose authored by Milada Součková. The next part of the article (Neznámý člověk as a private archive of memory) pertains to the entire above-metioned volume of the stories whose characteristic motif is the motif of memory linked with space, time and history. In the further parts of the article, the author goes on to the structural and interpretative analysis of the story she is interested in. She draws attention to such aspects as memory figures, i.e. time and space, thematic associations, memory carriers and memory traces and places. In conclusion, she draws attention to three components of the Milada Součková’s private memory archive: the memory of the language, the memory of the father and the memory of the historical events taking place in 1866.
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The article examines the autobiographical memory of the 1970s generation about the Soviet era. This generation, born in 1970–1979, is interesting for research because of its socialization in two different social and political systems: its childhood and adolescence date back to the Soviet period, while the beginning of adulthood coincides with the collapse of socialism and the restoration of democracy. Based on an analysis of life stories of the 1970s generation, the article explores features of memory of this generation, how it corresponds to the discourse of autobiographical memory of the Soviet era, as well as the generation’s role in the intergenerational transmission of Soviet-era family memory.
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This article introduces the concept of transculturation of collective memory and the politics of memory in the Polish-German borderland. The role of the 1990 German reunification in that process is studied using the example of the Lubusz region. Reunification made it possible for cooperation between local governments, associations and individuals, which – consequently – led to the creation of a new, trans-border collective memory.
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The article presents and discusses the interdisciplinary, collaborative and participatory research project Bieżenki. Thematically, the project is devoted to the history of the so-called bieżeństwo – a migration of people from eastern Poland during the First World War, forced by the retreating Russian Army, when the Germans broke through the eastern frontline in 1915. The stories of those refugees, among whom were a number of Rus’ peasants, and within that group, women with children (the term bieżenki signifies female war refugees), make up a crucial part of the regional history that has been largely absent from public knowledge and historical discourse. Methodologically, the project is based on participatory theatre that engages non-artists both as content providers, and on-stage performers. Theatrical practice has been used to collect the marginalised memories of bieżeństwo (as they are often kept and transmitted within family circles), and present them to the wider public in the form of theatrical performance. The project has also resulted in a theoretical concept of the assemblage of memory, inspired by and grounded in the creative process, which is briefly sketched out at the end of the article.
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The article discusses the reluctance of some Polish representatives of the humanities towards the dictatorship of the Reason that underlies the scientifi c paradigm. The work of Jarosław Marek Rymkiewicz, especially from the later period, is used as an example of such an attitude. A renowned poet, essayist, and scholar of Polish Romanticism, Rymkiewicz presents a suggestive anti-rationalist diatribe in his discursively heterogeneous works, situated on the verge of an essay, an academic dissertation, and fi ction. The main goal of the article is to reconstruct this diatribe (inspired by the specifi c Rymkiewicz’s reading of Heidegger’s philosophy) the elements of remain scattered among numerous books by Rymkiewicz.
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Kashubian Post-memory. Some Contemporary Examples The article contains analyses of several contemporary literary texts concerning the category of post-memory written in the background of the Kashubian culture. It mainly interprets prose works (Drewz, Bunda, Drzeżdżon) as well as the novel on which the film Kamerdyner was based. The analyses led to determining the phenomena defined by Sigmund Freud related to psychoanalysis and referring to the works by A. and J. Assmann, M. Hirsch and D. LaCapra. Thus Kashubian literature, written in Polish and Kashubian, shows post-memory mechanisms in the form of crowding out, transferring, repeating and overcoming the trauma of World War II.
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The author analyzes the narrative of the Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk using the category of moral capital, which is defined as a supply of moral stories influencing the moral status of the collective entity described as perpetrator or victim of a given event. The author considers that the decision, in 2008, to create the museum was one of the most important initiatives of Polish historical policy. From the beginning, the idea of the museum was the source of disputes, primarily concerning the shape of the Polish narrative about the war. Discussions on the subject and divisions in the political scene led to a spectacular “takeover” of the museum shortly after its opening in 2017. The management was changed and numerous alterations to the main exhibitions were made. The first version of the exhibition stressed the universalism of the experiences of civilians, including Poles, as victims of war-time terror, poverty, fear, occupation, forced labor, or extermination. After analyzing the narrative content of the exhibition opened in March 2019, the author of the article claims that in the modified version we can observe the (re)construction of a heroic narrative, aimed at reinforcing the moral capital of Poles.
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This is a study of the methods by which anthropologists create specialist archives and of how those archives are used, with particular attention to the relations between scholarship and politics and the latter’s influence on the shape of anthropological knowledge. The issue is directly connected with the ways in which materials from fieldwork are used. The author relies on a media science approach, which emphasizes the role of users’ practices in articulating and ascribing meaning to both the documents and to the institution of the archive. On the basis of an analysis of the discourse connected with the working of ethnographic archives, the author advances twelve theses concerning their status and functioning in anthropology. At the same time, the author calls attention to the phantasmatic nature of archives, and to the apparent passivity, reactionariness, oppressiveness, and conventionality of using and commodifying archival materials. In addition, the author defines ethnographic archives.
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Kształtowanie pamięci społecznej jako zadanie polityczne jest rozpięte pomiędzy dwoma biegunami – biegunem siły i biegunem sprawiedliwości. Przy pierwszym krańcu pamięć staje się sposobem na pomnożenie mocy politycznej. Przy drugim pamięć staje się rejestracją tego, co odmawia jakiegokolwiek spożytkowania a nawet – usensownienia. Pomiędzy tymi biegunami możliwe jest dokonywanie rozstrzygnięć na drodze sporu – trucizny, która służy ozdrowieniu społeczności politycznej. Poszczególne rejestry pamięci będą analizowane z wykorzystaniem refleksji Friedricha Nietzschego, a także tekstów Pawła Śpiewaka poświęconych interpretacjom trudnej dwudziestowiecznej historii.
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This work deals with the problem of the self-identity of the inhabitants of Central and Eastern Europe, and their self-determination in relation to the Austria-Hungary. An important element of this issue is the mythologization of history, also cultural memory about the past that can be shown through the certain fragment of the anthropology of everyday life-cuisine and culinary culture. The Austro-Hungarian myth fixed in culture through cuisine becomes the material of regional identity. The paper contains main conclusions of the master thesis On the search of self-identity in Central and Eastern Europe. The role of cuisine in the construction of Austro-Hungarian myth.
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The Ongoing Existence of Partition Borders in Practices, Collections and Landscape: In Search of Common Points of Sociology, Museology and Landscape Architecture The subject of this paper is the phenomenon of the so called phantom borders – former political borders, presently non‑existing, however influencing the social environment. Concentrating on practices, collections and landscape we attempt to integrate three disciplines: sociology, museology and landscape architecture to study today’s manifestations of these boundaries separating the territories of Poland for 123 years. Recognizing the perspective of borderscaping we assume (phantom) borders as complex and multilevel phenomena thus requiring holistic approach reflected in the application of aforementioned disciplines during intensive ethnographic studies of former Kingdom of Poland and Kingdom of Galicia borderland communities. We argue that successful integration of methods can be based on the assumption of materiality as a common element of interactions, collections and space, making possible – in the second step – a study of meanings invoked by these tangible components and then a recreation of material‑symbolic systems shaping everyday life and festive times of phantom‑borderlands communities.
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P.P.Grzybowski: Postśmiech, postpamięć i postprawda a edukacja do (post)pamięci. [w:] „Przegląd Pedagogiczny”, nr 1/2019, s.79-92. Autor przedstawia okoliczności uwikłania zjawisk postśmiechu, postprawdy i postpamięci we współczesnej edukacji. Wypowiedź jest przyczynkiem do dyskusji o przygotowaniu nauczycieli do edukacji o miejscach pamięci. W nawiązaniu do sondażu przeprowadzonego wśród studentów i nauczycieli oraz wyników badań dotyczących uczestnictwa uczniów w zajęciach organizowanych w placówkach muzealnych byłych hitlerow-skich obozów koncentracyjnych, autor przedstawia założenia pedagogiki pamięci oraz wyzwania stojące przed osobami zajmującymi się realizacją zajęć w jej duchu. Artykuł zawiera również studium zjawiska postśmiechu dotyczącego drugiej wojny światowej i okupacji, wraz z przykładami komicznych dzieł sztuki literackiej, filmowej i dowcipów. Autor zwraca szczególną uwagę na kontrowersyjne treści komiczne doty-czące wojny i okupacji oraz ich recepcję przez uczniów. Słowa kluczowe: edukacja, śmiech, pamięć, okupacja, Holokaust, postpamięć, postprawda Jedni umierają, inni chcą się bawić. Zawsze tak było. No, może nie na taką skalę. Ludzie zrobią wszystko, byle zapomnieć. Byle znowu odnaleźć siebie w śmiechu Ryszard Marek Groński W listopadzie 2018 roku pracownicy Muzeum Auschwitz złożyli doniesienie do prokuratury o moż-liwości popełnienia przestępstwa przez włoską neofaszystkę, która na publicznym spotkaniu działaczy ruchu Forza Nouva, pojawiła się w koszulce z napisem "Auschwitzland" do złudzenia przypominającym logo Disneylandu (PAP, 2018). Takie koszulki są sprzedawane w sklepach z zabawnymi przedmiotami, a widniejąca na nich grafika pojawia się jako element krążących w Internecie prześmiewczych reklam
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