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Til (Sesamum indicum L.) - An Underexploited but Promising Oilseed with Multifarious Applications: A Review

  • ICAR- National research centre for Orchids
  • ICAR-National Institute of Natural Fibre Engineering & Technology

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Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), called as ‘the queen of oilseeds’, is an annual flowering plant of Pedaliaceae family. Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed, which is known for properties of good health consists of a plethora of nutrients viz., proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, essential amino and fatty acids, and other micronutrients. With a rich and nutty flavour, it is a common ingredient in cuisines across the world. India is the largest producer of sesame. Benefits of this enigmatic crop include properties of anticancer, antioxidative, anti-immuno regulation and anti-hypersensitivity. Covering wide agro ecological regions of the world, different varieties of sesame seeds are available. They are seen growing in different parts of the world, where India being one of the major producers. The oil from this seed can be extracted by simple processes of solvent extraction and expelling or advanced supercritical extraction. Sesame which is considered as an extremely beneficial medicine has inherent power to cure many diseases. Sesame has a ray of health benefits in lowering cholesterol, controlling blood pressure, dermatological disease management and many more areas. Even in the industries, sesame oil can be utilized as biodiesel and other uses. Despite having tremendous potential, sesame remain under-estimated due to certain constraints which must be properly identified and solved for better exploitation of this wonderful oil seed. This review gives an overall impact about sesame, properties and its role in various sections.
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International Journal of Bioresource Science
Citation: BS: 5(2): 127-139, December 2018
DOI: 10.30954/2347-9655.02.2018.8
©2018 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved
Til (Sesamum indicum L.) - An Underexploited but Promising
Oilseed with Multifarious Applications: A Review
Sritama Biswas1, Suman Natta2, Deb Prasad Ray3, Prithusayak Mondal4* and
Urmi Saha5
1Department of Agronomy, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741252, Nadia, West Bengal, India
2Department of Biochemistry, Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari - 736165, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
3ICAR-National Institute of Natural Fibre Engineering & Technology, 12, Regent Park, Kolkata-700040, India
4Regional Research Station (Terai Zone), Uttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Pundibari - 736165, Cooch Behar, West Bengal, India
5Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Mohanpur - 741252, Nadia,
West Bengal, India
*Corresponding author:
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), called as ‘the queen of oilseeds’, is an annual owering plant of Pedaliaceae
family. Sesame has one of the highest oil contents of any seed, which is known for properties of good
health consists of a plethora of nutrients viz., proteins, carbohydrates, antioxidants, lignans, essential
amino and fay acids, and other micronutrients. With a rich and nuy avour, it is a common ingredient
in cuisines across the world. India is the largest producer of sesame. Benets of this enigmatic crop include
properties of anticancer, antioxidative, anti-immuno regulation and anti-hypersensitivity. Covering wide
agro ecological regions of the world, dierent varieties of sesame seeds are available. They are seen
growing in dierent parts of the world, where India being one of the major producers. The oil from this
seed can be extracted by simple processes of solvent extraction and expelling or advanced supercritical
extraction. Sesame which is considered as an extremely benecial medicine has inherent power to cure
many diseases. Sesame has a ray of health benets in lowering cholesterol, controlling blood pressure,
dermatological disease management and many more areas. Even in the industries, sesame oil can be
utilized as biodiesel and other uses. Despite having tremendous potential, sesame remain under-estimated
due to certain constraints which must be properly identied and solved for beer exploitation of this
wonderful oil seed. This review gives an overall impact about sesame, properties and its role in various
Keywords: Sesamum indicum, edible oil, antioxidants, nutraceutical, health benets
Sesame or Gingelly (Sesamum indicum L., 2n=26) is
commonly known as ‘Til’ (Bengali, Hindi, Punjabi,
Assamese, Marathi), ‘Tal’ (Gujarati), ‘Nuvvulu/
Manchi nuvvulu’ (Telugu), ‘Ellu’ (Tamil, Malayalam,
Kannada), ‘Tila/ Pitratarpana’ (Sanskrit) and ‘Rasi’
(Odia) in dierent parts of India. Belonging to the
Pedaliaceae family, it is the most ancient indigenous
oil seed known and used by man. In the world,
India ranks first in the area and production of
sesame seeds, and it is grown in dierent seasons
covering practically all agro-ecological zones. This
herbaceous annual plant is thought to be originated
in Africa. Sesame is called ‘Queen of Oilseeds’
due to its high quality polyunsaturated stable
fay acids those restrain oxidative rancidity. It is
also stable due to the natural antioxidants such as
sesamin, sesamol, sesamolin and sesamolinol that
reduce the rate of oxidation. It is widely preferred
for its quality of high drought tolerance and has
been extensively used for thousands of years as
a seed of worldwide significance for edible oil,
paste, cake, confectionary purposes and our due
to its highly stable oil contents, nutritious protein
(rich in methionine, tryptophan and valine) and
savoury nuy roasted avour (Anilakumar et al.
2010; Prakash and Naik, 2014; Pathak et al. 2017).
Biswas et al.
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About 70% of the world’s sesame seed is processed
into oil and meal. Total annual consumption is
about 65% for oil extraction and 35% for food. The
food segment includes about 42% roasted sesame,
12% ground sesame, 36% washed sesame, and 10%
roasted sesame seed with salt. There mainly two
distinct types of sesame seeds are popular, viz.
white and black though a few other varieties from
red to rose coloured or from brown to grey are
also available. White sesame seed is imported from
Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador, while black
one comes from China and Thailand. Sesame oil
is also referred to as benne oil and is a pale yellow,
oily liquid and almost odourless with a bland taste.
The oil consists of glycerides with about 43% oleic
and linoleic each, 9% palmitic, and 4% stearic fay
acids. The present review highlights sesame seed/
oil composition and their multipurpose uses in
food/nutritional, medicinal, pharmaceutical and
other industries.
Plant morphology and habitat
Sesame is an annual shrub of Pedaliaceae family
having white bell-shaped owers with a hint of
blue, red or yellow with or without branches (Martin
and Leonard, 1967). It is grown for the production
of seeds that are rich in oil content. It comes in a
variety of colours, creamy-white to charcoal-black.
In general, the paler varieties of sesame seem to be
more valued in West and Middle East, while the
black varieties are prized in the Far East. Sesame
is found in tropical, subtropical, and southern
temperate areas of the world, particularly in India,
China, South America and Africa. It has utmost
economical importance and is primarily grown by
small farmers in developing countries. The plant,
1-2 m tall, having an unpleasant odour, grows best
in tropical climates, sandy, well-drained soil with
hot climate and moderate rainfall. It is propagated
by seeds sown in spring and it takes about four
months for the seeds to ripen fully. The leaves vary
from ovate to lanceolate and are hairy on both
sides. The owers are purple to whitish, resembling
foxglove, followed by3 cm capsules/fruits containing
numerous seeds (McCormick, 2001). Each plant
may bear 15-20 fruits, which contain 70-100 seeds.
It matures in 80–180 days, when the stems are cut
and hung upside down for the ripe seeds to fall
out to be collected on mats. Mechanical harvesting
is also used, with total worldwide production of
almost four billion pounds annually.
Taxonomic hierarchy of Sesamum indicum Linn.
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Viridiplantae (Green plants)
Superdivision Embryophyta
Division Tracheophyta (Vascular plants)
Subdivision Spermatophytina (Seed plants)
Class Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons)
Superorder Asteranae
Order Lamiales
Family Pedaliaceae
Genus Sesamum
Species indicum
Cultivation under Indian condition
The crop is grown in almost all parts of the
country. India is the largest producer of sesame
in the world. It also ranks first in the world in
terms of sesame-growing area (about 1.95 million
hectares) accounting for 25 % of the total sesame
cultivated area in the world with a total production
of 0.87 million tonnes and productivity of 413 kg/
ha (NMOOP, 2018). More than 85% production
of til comes from West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh,
Rajasthan, Uar Pradesh, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana. Necessary conditions for sesame
cultivation are mentioned in Table 1.
Sesame Products
Sesame is grown for its seeds and the primary
use of these same seed is as a source of oil for
cooking. The young leaves may also be eaten in
stews and the dried stems may be burnt as fuel
with the ash used for local soap making but such
uses are entirely subordinate to seed production
(Table 2). The crop of sesame is commercialized
in a number of forms. Most sesame seeds are
processed directly into oil by the grower or within
the producing region but are also sold in various
stages of processing,for various uses, such as meal,
paste, confections and bakery products (Salunkhe et
al. 1991). Once harvested, the seeds are cleaned and
dried to about 8% moisture and then stored before
crushing. The seeds are typically crushed intact for
the oil. This,however, yields a meal that is bier
and somewhat indigestible due to the presence of
Til (Sesamum indicum L.) - An Underexploited but Promising Oilseed with Multifarious Applications:
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the brous husk. As such the meal is only useful
as cattle feed. The quality of the meal can be
improved by removing the seed coat, dehulling,
before crushing (Morris, 2002). In India, where
sesame meal is an important food, this process is
a standard feature of an oil extraction plant. The
meal is remarkable for its high protein content,
which again is rich in methionine and tryptophan.
Since these amino acids are missing from a number
of other sources of vegetable protein, such as soy,
sesame meal or our can be added to recipes to give
a beer nutritional balance to health food products
(Prakash, 1985; Quasem et al. 2009).
Dehulling is also important for the production
of the ground seed pastes such as tahini and
for confectionery uses. The dehulled seeds are
extensively used in the ground form where they
comprise the base material of tahini, a paste
used as an ingredient in Eastern Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern foods. The seeds, hulled or
dehulled, roasted or raw are now widely used
in the European and North American bakery
industry as a garnish on bread products. The
oil is also useful in the industrial preparation of
perfumery, cosmetics (skin conditioning agents
and moisturizers, hair preparations, bath oils,
hand products and make-up), pharmaceuticals
(vehicle for drug delivery),insecticides, and paints
and varnishes. However, all of these uses are
comparatively insignicant in terms of the quantities
used (Chakraborthy et al. 2008).
Sesame seeds
Flavourful, crunchy sesame seeds are widely
considered as healthy foods. Carbohydrates in
sesame seed are composed of 3.2% glucose, 2.6%
fructose and 0.2% sucrose while the remaining
quantity is dietary bres. The seeds are especially
Table 1: Necessary conditions for cultivation of til
Parameters Indian scenario
Season Kharif in arid and semi-arid tropics and rabi/summer in cooler areas
Climate Semi-arid climate of Western India, Central, Eastern and Southern part of India including lower
Varieties For upland cultivation, varieties with long duration of 100-110 days and for low land, varieties with
duration of 80-99 days are preferred
Guj. Til-1, TKG-21, RT-46,
AKT-64, Sekhar, Nirmala,
RT-54, Smarak Rama, Savitri,
Varaha, Gautama,
Guj. Til-10, PKDS-8, Co-1,
Paiyur-1, VRI-1, Prachi,
Amrit, DS-1
(White seeded) (Light brown/
golden yellow
(Brown seeded) (Dark brown/ black seeded)
Soil Well drained light to medium textured soils having pH 5.5-8.0
Seed rate 5 kg/ha
Seed treatment For prevention of seed borne diseases, seeds are treated with Bavistin @ 2 g/kg seed.
Wherever bacterial leaf spot disease is a problem, seeds need to be soaked for 30 minutes in 0.025%
solution of Agrimycin-100 prior to seeding.
Sowing spacing 30-45 cm × 10-15 cm (most common); 22.5 cm × 22.5 cm
Table 2: Products of sesame and its uses
Parts used Products Description
Seeds Confectionery and
Fried seeds bound together with sugar syrup, whole seeds baked into Biscuits,
popular in northern Europe either incorporated into breads or as decorative toppings,
a paste of sesame seeds is used as an ingredient in eastern Mediterranean and Middle
Eastern foods
Oil Varied uses To treat ulcers and burns, low grade oil is used in making soaps, paints, lubricants,
and illuminants
Cake Food and feed Protein rich useful supplement, used in some Indian cooking
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rich in mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid,
which comprises of up to 50% of fay acids in them.
Oleic acid helps lower LDL or ‘bad cholesterol’ and
increases HDL or ‘good cholesterol’ in the blood.
The seeds are also very valuable sources of dietary
protein with sulphur containing amino acids that
are essential for growth, especially in children.
Just 100 g of seeds provide about 18 g of protein
(Table 3).
Table 3: Nutrient composition of sesame seeds
Sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum), whole, dried, Nutritional
value per 100 g
(Source: USDA National Nutrient date base)
Proximate Principles Nutrient
Energy 573 Kcal 29%
Carbohydrates 23.45 g 18%
Glucose 3.20 g
Fructose 2.60 g
Sucrose 0.20 g
Dietary Fiber 11.80 g 31%
Protein 17.73 g 32%
Fat 49.67 g 166%
Saturated Fay Acids (% in oil) 14.00 g
Monounsaturated Fay Acids (% in
39.00 g
Polyunsaturated Fay acids (% in oil) 46.00 g
Cholesterol 0 mg 0%
Folates 97 mcg 25%
Niacin 4.515 mg 28%
Pantothenic acid 0.050 mg 1%
Pyridoxine 0.790 mg 61%
Riboavin 0.247 mg 19%
Thiamin 0.791 mg 66%
Vitamin A 9 IU <1%
Vitamin C 0 0%
Vitamin E 0.25 mg 2%
Sodium 11 mg 1%
Potassium 468 mg 10%
Calcium 975 mg 98%
Copper 4.082 mg 453%
Iron 14.55 mg 182%
Magnesium 351 mg 88%
Manganese 2.460 mg 107%
Phosphorus 629 mg 90%
Selenium 34.4 mcg 62.5%
Zinc 7.75 mg 70%
β-carotene 5 mcg
*RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance based on 2000 Kcal
Sesame seeds contain many health benefiting
compounds such as sesamin, sesamol (3,4-methylene-
dioxyphenol), sesaminol, furyl-methanthiol, guajacol
(2-methoxyphenol), phenylethanthiol, furaneol,
vinylguacol, and decadienal (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1: Chemical structure of bioactive compounds obtained
from sesame
Sesamol and sesaminol are phenolic anti-oxidants.
Together, these compounds help stave o harmful
free radicals from the human body. Sesame is among
the seeds rich in quality vitamins, and minerals.
They are very good sources of B-complex vitamins
such as niacin, folic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine
and riboflavin.100 g of sesame contains 97 µg
of folic acid. Folic acid is essential for DNA
synthesis. When given to expectant mothers, it
may prevent neural tube defects in the new-borns.
The seeds are incredibly rich sources of many
essential minerals. Calcium, iron, manganese, zinc,
magnesium, selenium, and copper are especially
concentrated in sesame seeds. Many of these
minerals have a vital role in bone mineralization,
red blood cell production, enzyme synthesis,
hormone production, as well as regulation of cardiac
and skeletal muscle activities. Sesame seeds are also
the store house of various amino and fay acids
(Table 4) that are considered vital to us.
Extraction of oil from sesame seeds
The industrialization of sesame oil is very important
for food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.
Final product quality and environmental aspects
are the desired considerations for an adequate
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extraction process. Several processes for sesame oil
production include mechanical milling followed by
solvent extraction using organic liquids and solvent
recuperation by distillation.
Table 4: Amino acids and fay acids composition in
sesame seeds
Amino acids and fay acids prole of sesame seeds
Source: Indian Council of Medical Research (1991)
Amino Acids Composition
Contents Amount (mg/ g N)
Arginine 750
Histidine 170
Lysine 170
Tryptophan 080
Phenylalanine 370
Tyrosine 230
Methionine 180
Cystine 120
Threonine 230
Leucine 500
Isoleucine 250
Valine 290
Fay Acids Composition
Contents Amounts (%)
Palmitic acid (16:0) 11.7
Stearic acid (18:0) 05.2
Oleic acid (18:1) 41.4
Linoleic acid (18:2) 39.4
Linolenic acid (18:3) 00.4
Arachidic acid (20:0) 00.4
Behenic acid (22:0) 00.6
Super critical extraction is an alternative process
which uses pressurized uids, minimising the use
of liquid organic solvents (Corso et al. 2010). Sesame
seed gives about 45-50% by weight of highly stable
oil aer extraction. Lignan content contributes to
32.23% in the extract by solvent extraction. Whereas
in case of supercritical extraction, the lignan content
is found to be 1.5-3.5%. The main lignans account
for about 10% of unsaponiable maer in sesame
oil (Reshma et al. 2010). By products obtained from
sesame are rich sources of dietary bres (Elleuch et
al. 2007).
Expelling: It is the simplest method of oil extraction
by crushing, without the intervention of any
chemicals. The desired quality of seeds for crushing
is got by naturally drying, cleaning and grading
the seeds. Cleaning and grading removes physical
impurities. Clean seeds are later crushed in expellers
and rotary machines by adding palm jaggery. Raw
sesame oil obtained is stored in tanks. The sesame
cake is packed and sold in the market as animal
feed. Using lter press, raw sesame oil is ltered
for ne particles. The oilcake sludge from the lter
press is added along with the sesame cake and
Solvent extraction: Distribution of the solute
between two immiscible liquid phases which are
in contact with each other, due to the density
dierence is the principle behind solvent extraction
(Kamal-Eldin and Appelqvist, 1995). In the process,
unroasted seeds are first extracted by simple
mechanical pressing followed by solvent extraction.
Solvent extraction of sesame seeds with polar
solvents and eective seed crushing generates more
stable oil than nonpolar solvents and pressed seeds.
Compared to n-Hexane, Heptaneisopropanol proves
to yield more stable oil. Oxidative stability of the
oil is inuenced by the extraction method. Solvent
extraction can yield approximately 52-55 % oil from
the seeds (Alam, 2007). The disadvantages related
with solvent extraction are complex extraction
process, high cost and not suited for small scale
processing. Management of organic solvents is one
of the major problems (Doker et al. 2009; Morris,
2002; Penalvo et al. 2006).
Supercritical extraction: The principle behind
supercritical extraction is that, near the critical
point of the solvent, its properties change rapidly
with slight variations in the pressure involved
(Nakabayashi et al. 1995). Supercritical extraction of
sesame is usually carried out using carbon dioxide
and propane as solvents. Extraction of oil using
carbon dioxide includes 313 to 333 K temperature
range, pressure variation of 19 to 25 MPa and
constant flow rate of 3cm3/min and that using
propane includes 303 to 333K range of temperature,
pressures from 8 to 12 MPa and a constant ow rate
of 0.8cm3/min (Reshma et al. 2010). As the pressure
and the supercritical CO2 ow rate is increased, the
extraction yield can be improved and the time of
the extraction process can also be reduced (Hamada
et al. 2009). The sesame seeds used in the process
are required to be dried and milled with specied
particle diameter (Reshma et al. 2010). This process
is more environmental friendly and the analytes can
Biswas et al.
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be extracted faster (Nakabayashi et al. 1995). The
disadvantage in this process includes the toxicity
of the solvent and diculty in the understanding
the phase behaviour between the solvent and oil
(Reshma et al. 2010).
Multifaceted benets
About 70 % of the World’s sesame seed is processed
into oil and meal. Total annual consumption has
been estimated to be about 65% for oil extraction
and 35% for food. The meal le aer oil extraction
contains 35-50% proteins which make a rich
feed for poultry and livestock. Several industrial
uses have been identified in sesame. African
people have used sesame to prepare perfumes
and cologne that have been made from sesame
owers. Sesamin has bactericidal and insecticidal
activities and it also acts as an antioxidant which
can inhibit the absorptionof cholesterol and the
production of cholesterol in the liver. Sesamolin
also has insecticidal properties and is used as a
synergist for pyrethrum insecticides(Simon et al.
1984). Sesame seeds are described as the ‘seeds of
immortality’ perhaps for its resistance to oxidation
and rancidity even when stored at ambient air
temperature (Bedigianand Harlan, 1986). Oil is used
for both dietary and therapeutic applications. List
of dierent til products that are used worldwide
are mentioned in Table 5.
Table 5: Culinary uses of sesame seeds in dierent
Food Country
Breas stick, cracker, salad and cooking oil World wide
Sesame cakes, wine and brandy Babylon
Raw, powdered and roasted seeds India
Confectionary China
Salad and sh oil Japan
Substitute for olive oil Europe
Cakes Greece
Soup, spice and seed oil Africa
Sesame seed buns, chips USA
Bread Sicily
Food, Feed and Nutritional Applications
Sesame seeds feature delicate nuy avour. Their
avour indeed becomes more pronounced once they
are gently toasted under low ame heat for a few
minutes. Aqua hulled, double washed and dried
sesame seeds are used on hamburger buns. Roasted
natural sesame seeds are used in the preparation
of bread, breadsticks, cookies, chocolates and ice
creams. The seeds are ground with olive or any
other vegetable oils to prepare semi-solid, avourful
paste, which is then added to dierent recipes. Dry,
toasted sesame seeds and vegetable oil are mixed
into a thin light brown paste called tahini. It is one
of the main ingredients in famous middle-eastern
food items like dip, hummus etc. Roasted seeds
are sprinkled over sandwiches, biscuits, breads,
cakes, salads, stir fries, desserts, particularly
sundaes and other confectionary preparations.
The seeds are largely employed in the production
of margarine in Europe. The seeds used in many
traditional south-Indian sweet delicacies, often
mixed with roasted peanuts, almonds and jaggery.
Gomashio is a Japan’s specialty, which uses ground
sesame seeds. Sesame seed sprouts, sesame broccoli
rice, ginger sesame chicken, sesame granula, sesame
spread, tangerine and sesame, sesame seed sauce
and sesame pastries are a few recipes of sesame.
Sesame oil obtained from the seeds is one of the
most sought aer cooking oil in Malaysia, Indonesia
and southern states of rural India. The antioxidant
property of rened sesame oil contributing for its
greater shelf life makes it suitable for food industry.
Rened sesame oil has a very pleasant avour and
taste and is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids
where the fay acids composition is 14% saturated,
39% mono-unsaturated (MUFA) and 46% poly-
unsaturated fay acids (PUFA). It shows synergistic
activity with insecticides, such as rotenone and
pyrethrum, in reducing the concentration of the
insect toxin required to produce 100% mortality
(Morris, 2002). The anti-oxidant and synergistic
properties are provided by sesamolin and sesamin
contained in the seed. They constitute about 0.3 to
0.5% and 0.5 To 1.0%, respectively.
The de-oiled meal obtained from extraction of
sesame oil is mainly utilized as cale and poultry
feed (Reshma et al. 2010). Sesame can be a promising
alternative to sh meal. It has been reported by
Emadi et al. (2014) that substituting a part of
shmeal by sesame proteins led to the increased
final weight gain, specific growth rate, protein
eciency ratio, as well as decreased food conversion
ratio as compared to the control treatment. Sesame
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meal can be used as an alternative protein source
in feeding diets of carnivorous sh at least in a
half rate osh meal protein (without amino acid
supplementary) without any reduction ingrowth
rate of rainbow trout ngerlings (Nang Thu et al.
2010). In addition, substituting a part of sh meal
with sesame meal would result in a reduction
involuntary food take in common carpngerlings,
ngerlings of merigal sh (Cirrhinus merigala) and
rahosh, Labeorohita (Hossain and Jauncey, 1990).
Alternating sesame cake meal in feeding diets
of tilapia sh to the level of20%, decreased food
expenditure without any harmful effect on fish
growth rate (Ofojekwu and Kigbu, 2002).
Sesame is rich in sulphur containing amino acids and
limited in lysine and contains signicant amounts of
oxalic (2.5%) and phytic (5%) acids (Kapadia et al.
2002). Decorticated sesame seeds have the following
composition:45-63% oil, 19-31% (averaging about
25%) proteins, about 14%carbohydrates and about
3% ash. Unlike many oilseeds, sesame meal is
devoid of anti-tryptic compounds. Sesame oil is
very rich in polyunsaturated fat used in margarine
production and cookingoils. Sesame seeds contain
two unique substances, sesamin and sesamolin,
whence during refinement the two phenolic
antioxidants, sesamol and sesaminol, are formed.
Both of these substances belong to lignans and have
been shown to possess cholesterol-lowering eect
in humans (Ogawa et al. 1995; Hirata et al. 1996)
and to prevent high blood pressure and increase
vitamin-E supplies in animals (Yamashita et al.
1992; Kamal-Eldin et al. 1995). Sesame seeds are an
excellent source of copper and calcium. It is also rich
in phosphorous, iron, magnesium, manganese,zinc
and vitamin B1. The total phytosterol content in
sesame seeds is ~400 mg/100 g, which is higher as
compared to English walnuts and Brazil nuts (113
mg/100g and 95 mg/100 g, respectively) (Phillips et
al. 2005). Just a quarter-cup of sesame seeds supplies
74.0% of the daily value (DV) for copper, 31.6% of
the DV for magnesium and 35.1% of the DV for
calcium. This rich assortment of minerals translates
into many medicinal properties. Like many other
vegetable oils, sesame is decient in vitamin A, but
rich in vitamin E.
Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Applications
Sesame seeds, being a rich source of various
nutrients and many other nutraceutical components
pose numerous health benefits that have been
experienced for thousands of years. Sesame oil is
known since Vedic times and is the most esteemed
oil in Ayurveda. Sesame oil is known for its healing
properties and has a reputation as a sedative in
Tibetan medicine and also used for millennia in
Chinese system of medicine (Moazzami and Kamal-
Eldin, 2006; El Tinay et al. 1976). In Ayurveda, sesame
is known to cure Tridoshas. During Abhyanga, a
form of massage, the oil is rubbed externally on
the skin to improve energy ow and help free the
body from impurities. In Ayurveda, sesame oil is
regarded as an anti-bacterial mouthwash and it can
also be applied to nostrils to relieve anxiety and
insomnia. The pain associated with premenstrual
syndrome (PMS) can be overcome by applying
the oil on to the abdomen region. According to
traditional system of medicines, sesame is known to
cure bleeding dysentery, burns, ear pain, headache
and impotency.
Diabetes management: Magnesium and other
nutrients present in sesame seeds, especially
in sesame oil have shown promising results to
combat diabetes. According to Sankar et al. (2010),
sesame oil improves the eectiveness of the oral
anti-diabetic drug glibenclamide in type 2diabetic
patients. Another study concluded that substitution
of sesame oil as the sole edible oil has an additive
eect in further lowering blood pressure and plasma
glucose in hypertensive diabetics (Sankar et al. 2006).
Fig. 2: Different sesame products
Biswas et al.
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Blood pressure and cholesterol management:
Sesame seed oil can also boost cardiovascular
health by preventing atherosclerotic lesions. High
PUFA, sesamin and vitamin E content in sesame
oil greatly reduces hypertension when compared
to the blood pressure lowering drugs. Sesamin
feeding signicantly decreases the wall thickness
and area of aorta and superior mesenteric artery.
It also decreases histological renal damage such
as the thickening of tunica intima and fibrinoid
degeneration of the arterial wall, a feature not
observed in normal diet (Costa et al. 2007). Sesamin
is valuable for prophylactic treatment to ght the
development of cardiac hypertrophy and renal hyper
tension (Chaveli et al. 1998). Dietary sesamin and
episesamin has shown signicant increase in the gene
expression of mitochondrial and peroxisomal fay
acid oxidation enzymes such as carnitinepalmitoyl
transferees, acyl-CoAdehydrogenase, acyl-CoA
oxidase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase,enoyl-
CoA hydratase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase thus
increasing the hepatic activity of fay acid oxidation
which is due to enhanced ketonebody production.
This hepatic fatty acid metabolism accounts
forlowering the serum lipid level (Kita et al. 1995;
Hemalatha and Ghafoorunissa, 2004). Sesamin
also increases the activity and gene expression of
malic enzyme which has lipogenic activity (Kita et
al. 1995). Alpha-tocopherol greatly accentuates the
hypo cholesterolemic action of sesamin, although
which alone does not aect the concentration of
serum cholesterol (Yamada et al. 2008). Karatzi
et al. (2013) reported that daily consumption of
sesame oil by hypertensive men results in positive
eect on endothelial dysfunction. Recently it has
found that consumption of sesame oil improves the
endogenous antioxidants in ischemic myocardium
(Saleem et al. 2012). Sesamol, which also harnesses
anti-atherogenic properties, is thought to be one
reason for the beneficial effects; sesamol has
been shown to possess over dozens of benecial
pharmacologically active properties, many of which
may contribute to improving cardiovascular health.
Antioxidant and dermatological use: The important
antioxidants sesaminol, sesamolinol, sesamolin and
sesamin maintain the fats including Low Density
Lipoproteins (LDL) which cause arteriosclerosis
and are believed to promote the integrity of body
tissues. These antioxidant lignans have shown
hypocholesterolemic and immuno-modulatory
eect (Chavali et al. 1997). Vitamin E, a fat soluble
antioxidant, protects the body from harmful
oxidizing compounds. Sesame seed oil contains
gamma to copherols along with sesaminol and
sesamin which possess Vitamin E like activity.
Sesamol a compound found in sesame seeds and
sesame oil, has been shown in some studies to
protect against DNA damaged caused by radiation
(Kanimozhiand Prasad, 2009; Ramachandran,
2010). UV light produces various reactive oxygen
species (ROS) in the skin causing skin damage
such as sunburns, wrinkles and skin cancer (Balan
et al. 2009). The antioxidants, mainly α-tocopherol,
present in sesame act as a defence against these
Oral health: One of the most prominent benets
of sesame seeds and sesame oil revolves around
removing dental plaque and boosting oral health.
They are involved inan activity known as oil pulling,
which involves swishing oil around in your mouth
hereby you can boost oral health and even whiten
up your teeth. One of the study showcase the oil
pulling benets on the oral level, where oil pulling
with sesame oil was shown to reduce the amount
of Streptococcus mutants in both teeth plaque and
mouth saliva, and boost overall health(Ashokan et
al. 2008).
Respiratory ailments management: The mixture
of sesame seeds with Trachyspermum ammi Linn. is
used to treat dry cough, lung diseases and common
cold. It has been reported that the young leaves are
used as medicine for respiratory diseases and seed
oil produces soothing eect for chest complaints
(Ogunsola and Fasola, 2014). High magnesium
content in sesame seeds is ableto prevent asthma
by and other respiratory disorders by preventing
airway spasms.
Pain and inammation management: Sesame oil
and its lignan sesamol have proved to be potent
anti-inammatory agents. They have an excellent
protective effect against endotoxin-associated
inflammatory damage because they inhibit the
release of inammatory mediators. Sesamol also
inhibitsendotoxins from binding to its receptor;
this reduces inammatory transcription factor NF-
κB activation. Sesame oil is abundant in copper,
which is known for reducing pain and swelling
associated with arthritis. Additionally, this mineral
Til (Sesamum indicum L.) - An Underexploited but Promising Oilseed with Multifarious Applications:
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helps provide strength to blood vessels, bones and
joints (Hsu, 2013).
Skin and bone health: Sesame seeds are rich in zinc,
which is an essential mineral for producing collagen
and giving skin more elasticity. Zinc also helps in
repairing of damaged tissues in the body. Sesame oil
is also popularly used to sooth burns and prevents
skin related disorders. In addition to promoting
healthy skin, zinc has also been shown to boost
bone mineral density and bone health as a whole.
A study by Hyun et al. (2004) found a correlation
between zinc deciency and osteoporosis in the hip
and spine area. Moreover, sesame seeds are a great
source of calcium a known trace mineral that is
essential for bone health and preventing related
Digestive health: Sesame seeds are rich in ber,
which is known to pave way for a healthy digestive
system and a healthy colon. Sesame seed coats have
high total dietary bre content (42 g/100 g seed
coat dry maer) of which insoluble bre was the
largest fraction, more than 26%. Compared with
cereal derivatives (corn bran, wheat bran, oat bran,
and rice bran), the soluble dietary bre content of
sesame seed coats is considerably higher (0.4 and
Wound healing: Externally it is used to treat
haemorrhoids and ulcers. The major component
of sesame oil i.e. sesamol having anti-oxidative
properties can be used for rapid wound healing
(Fukuda et al. 1981) It was found that sesamol
has both antioxidant activity and anti-clastogenic
activity(Parihar et al. 2006). In a study by Shenoy
et al. (2011) found that sesamol is a capable entity
which encourages wound healing,but it’s oral
consumption requires higher doses because of poor
oral absorption.
Effect on nervous system: When sesamin
and episesamin (stereoisomer of sesamin) are
ingested, sesamin is metabolised by cytochrome
P40 to SC1 (2-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6-(3,
4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,7-dioxabicyclo Octane)which
is then metabolized to SC2. Similarly episesamin is
metabolized to EC1 and then EC2. These compounds
are further metabolized toSC-1m, SC-2m EC-1m and
EC-2m by catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT).
The primary metabolites of this cycle exhibit the
most potentneural dierentiation activity (Collinge,
Cancer prevention: Sesame can inhibit the growth
of malignant melanoma in vitro and the proliferation
of human colon cancer cells. Not only do sesame
seeds contain an anti-cancer compound called
phytate, but the magnesium in sesame seeds also
possess anti-cancer properties. According to Wark
et al. (2012), it was found that the risk of colorectal
tumours decreased by 13% and the risk of colorectal
cancer decreased by 12% with consumption of every
100 mg of magnesium. Sesame seed consumption
increases plasma γ-tocopherol and enhances vitamin
Eactivity, which is reported to prevent cancer and
heart diseases (Cooney et al. 2001).
Anti-fungal and anti-viral activity: A chlorinated
red naphthoquinone pigment possessing antifungal
activity, named chlorosesam one has been reported
from sesame root (Hasan et al. 2000). Three
anthraquinones, Anthrasesamones A, B and C
were isolated from the root of sesame (Furumoto et
al. 2003). In 2006, Shiu, L.A.J. and his co-workers
mentioned antiviral and antifungal activities found
in sesame. The decoction of both leaves and roots
was found to be eective against chicken pox and
measles (anti-viral) and used as hair shampoo for
Taenia capitis (antifungal).
Industrial and other applications
Biodiesel: Today, energy demand is increasing
while world fossil energy resources are increasingly
depleted. The vegetable oil is potentially able to
replace mineral oil in future. In the early days of
diesel engines, vegetable oils were tested (their
original compositions unchanged) as a possible
motor fuel but the idea never took hold owing to
incompatibility problems such as deterioration of
the oil with time, high viscosity, and fouling of
the engine. Recently the biodiesel route has been
reactivated for a number of reasons like: (a) it has
been found that vegetable oil can be transformed
via esterication into a product that is much more
adequate as a diesel fuel than the original oil itself;
(b) a wide variety of vegetable oils can be used as
raw material for trans-esterication; this has led to
the idea that biodiesel production could be a way
to extend the role of agriculture (more jobs created
and reduced nancial burden for petroleum imports
in developing countries).
Ahmad et al. (2010) has prepared biodiesel from
sesame oil by its trans-esterication with methanol
Biswas et al.
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in the presence of NaOH as catalyst and maximum
yield of 92% was achieved at 60°C. The fuel
properties of sesame biodiesel (100%) such as
specic gravity @ 60/60°F was 0.887, ash point
110°C, pour point -18°C, kinematic viscosity @
40°C 5.77, cetane number 53, and sulphur contents
0.0083. Engine fueling with sesame biodiesel and
its blends (B20%, B10%, and B5%) in terms of
fuel consumption, eciency, and power outputs
appeared to have equal performance compared to
mineral diesel. There is no obvious change in engine
power output even at 100% biodiesel. It was also
observed that the environmental performance of
sesame biodiesel was superior to that of mineral
diesel. This study supports the production of
biodiesel from sesame seed oil as a viable alternative
to the diesel fuel. Biodiesel yield from sesame is
around 807 barrels per year per square mile.
Table 6: Industrial, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical
Purpose Phyto chemicals
Antifungal Cholorosesamone
Bactericidal and insecticidal
(synergist for pyrethrum insecticides)
Sesamin and
Cosmetics and soap Myristic acid
Antioxidant and Inhibiting
cholesterol production
Lecithin and
Reducing hepatic steatosis Lecithin
Haemostatic activity Cephalin
Decreased dermatitis Lecithin
Cardioprotective Fiber and sesame
Enhanced Hepatic (mitochondrial
andperoxisomal) fay acid oxidation
Sesamin and
Skin soener Sesame oil
Treatment of nasal mucosa dryness,
blurred vision, dizziness, anxiety,
headache, insomnia, menstruation
Sesame oil
Oleaginous vehicle for drugs and
Sesame oil
Hypoglycaemia avonoids
Cancer preventive Myristic acid
Inhibition of malignant melanoma Linoleate in
triglyceride form
Several industrial, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical
uses have been compiled for sesame (Table 6).
African people use sesame to prepare perfumes
and cologne has been made from sesame owers.
Myristic acid from sesame oil is used as an
ingredient in cosmetics. Sesamin has bactericide
and insecticide activities plus it also acts as an
antioxidant that can inhibit the absorption of
cholesterol and the production of cholesterol in the
liver. Sesamolin also has insecticidal properties and
is used as a synergist for pyrethrum insecticides
(Morris, 2002). Sesame oil is used as a solvent,
oleaginous vehicle for drugs, skin soener and used
in the manufacture of margarine and soap.
Constraints and future scope
The sesame production volume amounted to about
660 thousand metric tons in the country during
scal year 2018, down from 780 thousand metric
tons in scal year 2017. The poor production is in
consequence of the detrimental climatic conditions
in the sesame producing regions of India. The
adverse climate in terms of heavy rainfall and
oods in the said areas has apparently retarded the
sesame production and limited the estimated yield
to a considerable extent. Nevertheless, demand for
Indian sesame seeds is seamlessly escalating on the
global as well as domestic spheres. Sesame seed has
a potential application as a source nutraceuticals
for human to prevent malnutrition as well as
global food security. Besides, there is also enough
scope for development of dierent value added
sesame products. Various eective strategies should
be adapted to produce climate ready planting
material to t the current global environment using
modern breeding techniques such as development
of varieties resistant to biotic stresses, drought-
tolerant varieties with enhanced water use eciency,
developments of hybrids, increase in national
breeding capacity etc.
The cultivation practice for sesame crop is simple
and appropriate for various ecological conditions
ranging from tropical to sub-tropical area. Sesame
is an auent source of nutritive and therapeutic
properties. Sesame is a rich source of macro and
micro nutrients including proteins, dietary lignans,
vitamins, calcium, phosphorous and others but not
many value added products other than sesame oil
has been developed. When analyzed, it is found that
Til (Sesamum indicum L.) - An Underexploited but Promising Oilseed with Multifarious Applications:
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the by-products obtained extraction of oil contains
comparatively high nutritive value and in future,
can be consumed as a supplement for protein
rich food. With the advancement in technology
sesame oil when blended with rice bran or Soya
or other oil can be of a great advantage with
respect to nutritional aspects. Nutraceuticals and
pharmaceutical products of sesame can decrease
the risk of neurological, dermatological, cancer and
heart disease. The ethno-botanical and medicinal
uses of this commercially important, nutritionally
rich oilseed need to be explored for beer utilization.
Sesamin possess the capacity to increase the fat
burning process and decrease the storage of fat
in the body by modifying the gene expression of
the fay acid oxidation enzymes. It has potential
application in the development of nutraceuticals for
weight reduction. O-late, the work has also been
oriented towards the production of biodiesel from
sesame seed oil as a viable alternative to the diesel
fuel. This article gives review on multipurpose use
of sesame crop and points the need for further
investigation on the phytochemical prole of the
same. This kind of the study can increase the
tendency of using sesame in health care and other
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... As one of the top four sesame producers, China has accounted for 9.7% of the world's total sesame production in the past 10 years (2011-2020, FAO). Sesame seeds have the highest oil content, containing 45% to 63% oil [1], and are also rich in protein, vitamins, and unique antioxidant compounds, such as sesamin and sesamolin, which make it a healthy and nutritious food [2]. ...
... A total of 705 sesame accessions were resequenced to identify sequence variations, and 549 associated loci were found for 56 agronomic traits [44]. Based on these data, several analyses have been carried out: 1 In total, 490 accessions were selected for revealing the genetic variants leading to salinity and drought tolerances at germination stage. A total of 13 and 27 potential candidate genes were observed for drought and salt tolerance indexes, respectively [45]. 2 A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed for traits related to drought tolerance through 400 accessions, and it was found that SiSAM conferred drought tolerance by modulating polyamine levels and ROS homeostasis [46]. ...
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Sesame is one of the important traditional oil crops in the world, and has high economic and nutritional value. Recently, due to the novel high throughput sequencing techniques and bioinformatical methods, the study of the genomics, methylomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabonomics of sesame has developed rapidly. Thus far, the genomes of five sesame accessions have been released, including white and black seed sesame. The genome studies reveal the function and structure of the sesame genome, and facilitate the exploitation of molecular markers, the construction of genetic maps and the study of pan-genomes. Methylomics focus on the study of the molecular level changes under different environmental conditions. Transcriptomics provide a powerful tool to study abiotic/biotic stress, organ development, and noncoding RNAs, and proteomics and metabonomics also provide some support in studying abiotic stress and important traits. In addition, the opportunities and challenges of multi-omics in sesame genetics breeding were also described. This review summarizes the current research status of sesame from the perspectives of multi-omics and hopes to provide help for further in-depth research on sesame.
... Sometimes, the grain is lost because of the higher pressure of wind, and a limited supply of packaging material at this stage contributes to a 3.184% average grain loss [21]. However, some other sources reported 0.46% losses, as shown in Table 1 [30,31]. ...
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Current postharvest activities in the sesame value chain are prompting colossal losses, which reduce overall global productivity. This review portrays losses in sesame during various processing stages, from grain harvesting to marketing and transformation of crop seed into oil. Such losses in sesame not only reduce yield but also have an impact on the economy of its production territories. The loss in productivity is because the majority of farmers don't use adequate harvesting, packaging, or handling technologies to manage on-farm produce. Also, there is a lack of knack for minimizing postharvest losses. Therefore, the study penlights the inevitability of increasing production by raising productivity and quality while giving mitigation strategies to reduce postharvest losses. Elevating standardized productivity with accurate postharvest management is the only substitute for the gap between the global productivity average and the overall production potential of sesame.
... Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is the oldest oilseed crop known to man. It is regarded as the "Queen of oilseeds" because of its excellent quality of edible oil (Biswas et al., 2018). Sesame is extensively cultivated in tropical to temperate regions in the world. ...
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In Assam Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is grown as a minor oilseed crop and it occupies only 3.8 % of the total area under oilseed crops in the state. Considering the enormous gap between the potential and realized yields, there is ample scope for enhancement of its productivity through breeding efforts. Therefore, a study was carried out to assess the genetic variability and character association for twelve morpho-physiological traits including seed yield in 32 sesame genotypes of Assam, India. Genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation (GCV & PCV) was recorded highest for biological yield and capsules per plant. All other traits under study except days to maturity, harvest indexand relative leaf water content exhibited moderate values of GCV and PCV. Heritability estimates were observed above 80 per cent for all the traits except seed yield, plant height and primary branches per plant. Seed yield per plant exhibited a lower magnitude of GCV, heritability and genetic advance. Comparatively a higher magnitude of GCV coupled with higher heritability and genetic advance as per cent of mean was observed for harvest index, biological yield and capsules per plant. Selection for these traits would, therefore, be meaningful. Correlation estimate revealed that the characters viz., days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, leaf area index, relative leaf water content, chlorophyll content and harvest index exhibited a significant positive correlation with seed yield. Path coefficient analysis revealed that the characters viz., days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches per plant, number of capsules per plant, leaf area index, relative leaf water content, total chlorophyll content, biological yield and harvest index had a positive direct effect on seed yield, while days to 50 per cent flowering and 1000-seed weight showed a negative direct effect. Hence, direct selection for the traits showing a positive direct effect would bring about improvement in seed yield in sesame.
... Seasame (Sesamum indicum L.) is considered "queen of oilseeds" as its oil has high nutritional and therapeutic value (Biswas et al., 2018). Sesame oil is very stable having a sweet flavor. ...
... Sesame is called as the queen of oilseeds for the reason of its top notch polyunsaturated stable fats that limit oxidative rancidity and contains high oil content (up to 60%). Sesame is a rich wellspring of nutritive and medicinal properties [4]. Sesame seed oil contains unsaturated fats (83-90%), protein (20%), traces of micronutrients (nutrients and minerals) and a lot of trademark lignin, (for example, sesamin, sesamol, sesamin and tocopherol) [5]. ...
Aims: Sesame is grown in the country since antiquity. Sesame has high nutritional benefits and is utilized in numerous cooking styles everywhere globally. Sesame is called as the queen of oilseeds for the reason of its top notch polyunsaturated stable fats that limit oxidative rancidity and contains high oil content (up to 60%). Sesame is cultivated in summer in the North Telangana in turmeric and rice fallows. Low productivity in sesame is primarily due to rainfed planting on sub-marginal and marginal lands with poor management and low investment. To solve the upcoming challenges and in view of the improving yield and acquire higher returns, precised water management strategies need to be formulated. Hence the present investigation is proposed to study the effect of deficit and optimum irrigation at various growth stages on yield and economics of sesame crop grown in summer. Study Design: The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design. Methodology: A field experiment was conducted at Agricultural college, Polasa, Jagtial district during summer 2021 to study the effects of water deficit and optimal irrigation at various growth stages on yield and economics of summer sesame. The study is conducted with eight deficit and optimum irrigation treatments (T1 to T8) and replicated thrice. Results: The results of this experiment manifested that scheduling irrigation at vegetative, prebloom, flowering, capsule initiation and capsule filling stages (T8) registered highest yield attributes, yield and economic parametersviz., no of capsules plant-1 (45),capsule weight (0.32 g) and no of filled seeds capsule-1 (55), seed yield (1150 kg ha-1), stalk yield (1999 kg ha-1), gross returns (128499 ha-1), net returns (94391 ha-1) and benefit cost ratio (2.76).
... Zinc also helps in repairing of damaged tissues in the body. Sesame oil is also popularly used to sooth burns and prevents skin related disorders [53]. Sesame oil or sesamol is rich in calcium (approx. ...
Spices, which is key ingredient in every household products not only used for adding aroma to food but however, has health promoting and protective activity against foreign pathogens. Different spices used in day to day life boosts the immune system that leads to healthy and prosperous life. The commonly used spices not only have antimicrobial or antiviral activity, but also serve as a rich source of various vitamins, minerals, antioxidants etc. The medicinal importance of spices dates from ancient Ayurveda and many studies indicating the potential of spices as immunoboosting agent had been carried out in the recent years. Therefore, this review highlights the medicinal importance of commonly used spices in North-East India as immunobooster against the current coronavirus pandemic.
Sesame is the oldest oilseed crop known to humanity, though it contributes a small share in the global vegetable oil production. Sesame oil contains nutrients, including lignans, tocopherols, phytosterols, natural antioxidants, and bioactive compounds. It provides various health benefits such as anti-lipogenic, hypo-cholesterolemic, anti-degenerative, and neural health-promoting properties. Being an under-utilized minor crop, it has not received enough research attention for its food and nutraceutical potential. The sesame crop is a potential candidate to maintain the diversity of food oils and harness its benefits for improving human health. The present review will provide detailed research on sesame oil contents, health effects, nutraceuticals, oil quality, and value addition strategies. Also, the sesame oil nutritional quality was compared with other vegetable oils, highlighting the potential health and nutrition-related benefits. The way forward for further sesame improvement through value addition traits was also discussed.
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an important but underexploited oilseed crop of tropical and subtropical region having potential to sustain agriculture under changing climatic conditions. Sesame oils have high nutritional and industrial values due to its desirable fatty acid compositions and high amount of antioxidant components, viz., sesamin and sesamolin. Despite this, still sesame is not grown on large acreage due to unavailability of high-yielding cultivars with inbuilt resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Therefore, serious efforts are necessary to develop cultivars having high adaptive potential to the diverse climatic situations along with high yield potential. Classical plant breeding methods impart considerable improvement in sesame, but still a huge gap is left between realized and actual yield potential of sesame. Therefore, efforts should be made toward modern molecular techniques like marker-assisted plant breeding and omics and modern bioinformatics tools to develop climate adaptive, high yield potential along with excellent oil quality cultivars in sesame.
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The antimicrobial activities of a neglected indigenous vegetable plant, Sesamum indicum Linn. were investigated. Ethanol and aqueous leaf extracts were screened for anti-microbial activities on some pathogens: Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhii, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using different concentrations (100mg/ml, 200mg/ml and 400mg/ml). The ethanolic extract (400mg/ml) strongly inhibited the growth of E. coli while it mildly inhibited the growth of K. pneumonia and S. typhii. Staphylococcus aureus growth was not inhibited or restricted from growing as the extract had no activity against the microorganism. The aqueous extract had no inhibition on the micro-organisms tested. Key words: Antimicrobial activities, Sesamum indicum, Pathogenic bacteria, indigenous vegetable
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Sesame is important oilseed crop of tropical and sub tropical region, renowned for its high oil content (up to 60% oil), hence sesame is known as the king of oil seeds. Sesame seed oil contains 83% - 90% unsaturated fatty acids, 20% proteins and various minor nutrients such as vitamins and minerals, large amount of characteristic lignans, such as sesamin, sesamol, sesamolin and tocopherols. Sesame seeds with high amounts of nutritional components are consumed as a traditional health food for its specific antihypertensive effect, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity. Besides food, sesame also finds its uses in application areas such as pharmaceutics, industrial, and as biofuel. Sesame is used as active ingredients in antiseptics, bactericides, viricides, disinfectants, moth repellants, and anti-tubercular agents. In spite of being a good source of “healthy oil” in terms of presence of high amounts of PUFA and high antioxidant content, it is not grown on a large extent due to very poor yields. Therefore, serious efforts are necessary for selecting varieties of good quality and high adaptive potential to the diverse climatic situations. There should be effective strategies adapted to produce climate ready sesame variety using modern biotechnological approach.
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Concern about the rising prevalence of antibiotics resistant strains pathogenic micro-organisms has been expressed in the last three decades. However, intensive studies on extracts and biologically active compounds isolated from medicinal plants have also doubled in the last decade. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Sesame radiatum leaves were studied for in-vitro antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion method. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) phytochemical screening showed the presence of essential oils mainly the phenolic and carboxylic acids groups. The ethanolic extract mildly inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Candida albicans, while there was no inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aurogenosa and Escherichia coli. However, aqueous extract exhibited no inhibitory effect on all the five tested micro-organisms.
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Background: Allergic asthma is one of the most common chronic inflammatory diseases of airways. Severe asthma may lead to hospitalization and death. Sesame oil is a natural product with anti-inflammatory property. However, the effect of sesame oil on allergic asthma has never been studied. Objective: We investigate the effect of sesame oil on pulmonary inflammation in allergic asthma model. Methods: Allergic airway inflammation was induced by sensitizing with two doses of 10 mg ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with 1% OVA nebulizer exposure (1 h/day) for 3 days. Sesame oil (0.25, 0.5, or 1 mL/kg/day) was given orally 30 min before each challenge. Samples were collected 24 h after the last challenge. Results: Data showed that sesame oil inhibited pulmonary edema and decreased interleukin (IL)-1 β and IL-6 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in OVA-treated mice. Sesame oil also decreased pulmonary nitrite level, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and neutrophil infiltration induced by OVA. Further, sesame oil decreased serum IgE level in OVA-treated mice. Conclusion: Sesame oil may attenuate pulmonary edema and bronchial neutrophilic inflammation by inhibiting systemic IgE level in allergic asthma.
Rainbow trout is the most important species of cold water fishes in Iran and the feeding diets which improve the quality and growth of this fish are of great importance. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (n=360) specimens with approximate weight of 2±0.02g were fed with different concentrations of sesame seed in their diet instead of fish meal for 120 days. Feeding diets were prepared in 3 sesame seed concentration levels (10, 15, 20 percent compared with control (normal diet), completely random design was used for all triplicate experiments. The greatest rate of weight gain (74±0.04g.), length gain (18.5±0.01cm), specific growth rate (0.59), protein efficiency rate (2.55) and food conversion ratio (0.9) were obtained in treatment 3(20% sesame seed).The lowest rate of weight gain (59±0.04g.), length gain (16.5±0.01cm), specific growth rate (0.46%), protein efficiency (1.72%) and food conversion ratio (1.3) was obtained in the control treatment. Results indicated presence of highly significant differences among the treatments (p<0.01). There was no significant difference between the composition of the carcasses of these fish fed with diet of 20 percent sesame and that of control treatment fish. These results demonstrated that sesame seed can be used as an alternative ingredient in its feeding diet instead of fish meal.
The effect of two processing methods, aqueous extraction and autoclaving (120°C, 1·2, 2 hours) for detoxifying linseed (Linum usitatissimum.) and sesame meals (Sesamum indicum) on their nutritive value as a protein source for common carp was evaluated. Growth and feed utilization of carp fed diets with 25% of the total protein replaced by linseed or sesame seeds, which are either untreated, heat treated or aqueous extracted, were compared to a control diet with fishmeal as the sole protein source. The s even diets were made isonitrogenous (40% protein) and isocaloric (4.4 KcaJ.g·1) and were fed to carp initially weighing 3.3 g in three replicate tanks. Both methods of processing did not alter significantly the proximate and amino acid composition of the meals. Phytic acid contents were reduced by 48.2-71.8% and 50.8- 7 4.0% in linseed .and sesame meals, respectively with heat treatment resulting in greater reduction. Hydrocyanic acid content in linseed meal was reduced by 34.4-53.1%, with aqueous treatment resulting in the greater reduction. The results of the feeding trial showed that use of detoxified meals in diets significantly (P < 0.05) improved growth performance and food utilization of carp compared to those fed untreated meals but not to a level of performance obtained with a fishmeal based control diet.
The addition order of reagents affected remarkably on the formation of nitrosodimethylamine in the study of the effect of erythorbic acid on the formation of nitrosodimethylamine from dimethylamine and potassium nitrite. The reactions of dimethylamine with potassium nitrite and erythorbic acid with potassium nitrite occurred in a moment and the following addition order of reagents had most Significant inhibitory effect on the formation of nitrosodimethylamine: acetic acid, erythorbic acid, potassium nitrite and dimethylamine.
This work is aimed to investigate the extraction of sesame seed (Sesamun indicum L.) oil using supercritical carbon dioxide and compressed propane as solvents. The extractions were performed in a laboratory scale unit in a temperature and pressure range of 313–333 K and 19–25 MPa for carbon dioxide and 303–333 K and 8–12 MPa for propane extractions, respectively. A 22 factorial experimental design with three replicates of the central point was adopted to organize the data collection for both solvents. The results indicated that solvent and density were important variables for the CO2 extraction, while temperature is the most important variable for the extraction yield with propane. The extraction with propane was much faster than that with carbon dioxide due to the fact that propane is a better solvent for vegetable oils compared to carbon dioxide. On the other hand, characteristics of extracted oil, its oxidative stability determined by DSC and chemical profile of constituent fatty acids determined by gas chromatography, were similar to both solvents. The mathematical modeling of the extraction kinetics using a second order kinetic presented good results for the extraction with both solvents.
Nutraceutical aspects of sesame oil (SO) are well reported. However, an efficient process for commercial production has not yet been reported. In this study we have aimed at separating lignans from SO aiming at use as nutraceuticals. SO was subjected to sequential extraction with methanol under selected conditions of temperature (70°C), time (100min) and solvent:oil ratio (1:1). Under the optimised conditions, the yields of pooled methanolic extract concentrate and residual oil were 10.09±1.0g and 89.2±1.0g, respectively. On HPLC analysis, the methanol concentrate showed a total lignan content of 9.32±0.19% (6.54±0.12% sesamin and 2.78±0.31% sesamolin). The concentrate was subjected to low temperature crystallization (4°C) for the separation of lignan crystals and 51% of the lignans in the oil with 94.4% purity. The crystal-removed methanolic concentrate was saponified and purified; the total lignan content (sesamin and sesamolin) in the unsaponifiable matter (USM) was 64%.The distribution of sesamin and sesamolin in the purified USM was in the proportion 46:54, unlike that in the pure crystals (84:16). Lipid classes (triglycerides, TG; free fatty acids, FFA; diglycerides, DG; monoglycerides, MG; polar lipid, PL) in SO, methanolic extract concentrate and residual oil were separated using thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The amounts of lipid classes were determined by relating the total area of the fatty acid peaks to the area of the peak for internal standard (methyl heptadecanoate), using gas chromatography (GC). The process reported here describes a simple and less cumbersome procedure to produce lignans with high yield and purity for nutraceutical applications.
Dietary magnesium might be related to colorectal tumor risk through the pivotal roles of magnesium in cellular metabolism, insulin resistance, and systemic inflammation. We evaluated the hypothesis of whether higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with reduced colorectal tumor risk. A case-control study on colorectal adenomas (768 cases; 709 polyp-free control subjects) and a meta-analysis of colorectal adenomas (3 case-control studies) and carcinomas (6 prospective cohort studies) were conducted. Dietary magnesium was estimated from food-frequency questionnaires in the case-control study and most studies in the meta-analyses. Data analysis comprised multiple logistic regression analysis (case-control study) and fixed- and random-effects meta-analyses. The case-control study showed a nonsignificant inverse association between dietary magnesium intake and risk of colorectal adenomas (OR for every 100-mg/d increase: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.06). However, inverse associations were observed only in subjects with BMI (in kg/m²) ≥25, in subjects aged ≥55 y, and for advanced adenomas. Associations did not vary by the calcium-to-magnesium intake ratio. In the meta-analysis, every 100-mg/d increase in magnesium intake was associated with 13% lower risk of colorectal adenomas (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.00) and 12% lower risk of colorectal cancer (RR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.97). Our findings support the hypothesis that higher intakes of dietary magnesium are associated with lower risk of colorectal tumors. The consumption of magnesium-rich foods may be a new avenue to explore further in the search for cancer-prevention strategies.