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A review of Ginseng species in different regions as a multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese medicine, modern herbology and pharmacological science


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Ginseng is the most famous of the Chinese herbs throughout the world, and has been one of the most valued herb in China. Traditional Chinese medicine as an essential element of alternative and complementary medicine, advanced over thousands of years with its own distinctive arrangement of therapies, diagnostics theories and in Asian countries, particularly China. In most parts of the world, especially western countries, Ginseng has been largely employed in recent decades and has become renowned for its important function in treating and preventing so many diseases. Panax ginseng consisted of a number of active constituents, like ginsenosides, nitrogenous substances, carbohydrates, phytosterol, organic acids, essential oils, amino acids, peptidoglycans, it's repeated, nitrogen-containing compounds, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and other phenolic compounds. Ginsenosides are classified into two main groups known as protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT). Pharmacological activities of ginseng extracts are effects on the central nervous system, antipsychotic action, tranquilizing effects, protection from stress ulcers, increase of gastrointestinal motility, anti-fatigue action, endocrinological effects, enhancement of sexual behaviour, acceleration of metabolism, or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA, and proteins. More clinical studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in ginseng that contribute to public health.
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Vol. 13(10), pp. 213-226, 25 May, 2019
DOI: 10.5897/JMPR2019.6731
Article Number: F890F8B61044
ISSN 1996-0875
Copyright © 2019
Author(s) retain the copyright of this article
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research
Full Length Research Paper
A review of Ginseng species in different regions as a
multipurpose herb in traditional Chinese medicine,
modern herbology and pharmacological science
Mohamad Hesam Shahrajabian1,2, Wenli Sun1,2 and Qi Cheng1,2*
1Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.
2Nitrogen Fixation Laboratory, Qi Institute, Building C4, No.555 Chuangye, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, China.
Received 5 Jan, 2019; Accepted 30 April, 2019
Ginseng is the most famous of the Chinese herbs throughout the world, and has been one of the most
valued herb in China. Traditional Chinese medicine as an essential element of alternative and
complementary medicine, advanced over thousands of years with its own distinctive arrangement of
therapies, diagnostics theories and in Asian countries, particularly China. In most parts of the world,
especially western countries, Ginseng has been largely employed in recent decades and has become
renowned for its important function in treating and preventing so many diseases. Panax ginseng
consisted of a number of active constituents, like ginsenosides, nitrogenous substances,
carbohydrates, phytosterol, organic acids, essential oils, amino acids, peptidoglycans, it's repeated,
nitrogen-containing compounds, fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and other phenolic compounds.
Ginsenosides are classified into two main groups known as protopanaxadiol (PPD) and
protopanaxatriol (PPT). Pharmacological activities of ginseng extracts are effects on the central
nervous system, antipsychotic action, tranquilizing effects, protection from stress ulcers, increase of
gastrointestinal motility, anti-fatigue action, endocrinological effects, enhancement of sexual behaviour,
acceleration of metabolism, or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA, and proteins. More clinical
studies are necessary to uncover the numerous substances and their effects in ginseng that contribute
to public health.
Key words: Ginseng, traditional Chinese medicine, herbology, pharmacological science.
The ancient Chinese have identified 11,146 medicinal
species from 383 families, and more than 400 of which
are widely used throughout the world (Drasar and
Moravcova, 2004; Soleymani and Shahrajabian, 2012;
Ogbaji et al., 2018; Shahrajabian et al., 2018; Soleymani
et al., 2018; Shahrajabian et al., 2019a, 2019b). Panax
ginseng (Giseng) is a well-known herb in traditional
Chinese medicine (TCM) (Hsu et al., 2013; Li et al.,
Panax means cure for all disease, as it combines the
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
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License 4.0 International License
214 J. Med. Plants Res.
Greek words pan meaning all and zxos meaning
medicine (Jeong et al., 2012). In TCM, food and medicine
are understood to share similar origin but with diverse
applications and uses (Chan et al., 2010). Thus, the
Chinese commonly incorporates variety of TCM herbs
into their diet to make a number of healthy food recipes
that are more appealing of better taste, improved texture,
and will most importantly improve one’s health (Guo et
al., 2008). TCM originates in ancient China with a 5000-
year history. Rooted in ancient eastern philosophies such
as Taoism, TCM focuses on a holistic view between
humans and nature. Through the observations of
universal principles within nature, TCM inquire from a
macro level into the microcosm of human physiology and
the mutual relationships between our bodys internal
workings and the external environment (Cheung et al.,
Traditional Chinese medicine is still commonly used in
China. More than half of the population regularly uses
traditional remedies, with the highest prevalence of use in
rural areas. About 5000 traditional remedies are available
in China; they account for approximately one fifth of the
entire Chinese pharmaceutical market. P. ginseng is often
described as the lord or king of herbs (Wen and Zimmer,
1996), which occupies an esteemed spot in TCM and
traditional oriental medicine in most countries (Xie et al.,
Panax quinquefolius is employed in TCM to treat cases
of deficiency connected with symptoms like irritability,
thirst, dryness of the mouth, fatigue, and respiratory tract
(Chen et al., 2004). The most important common names
of ginseng in different parts of the world are American
ginseng, sang, give finger root, redberry, tartar root,
mans health, dwarf groundnut, root of life, garantogen,
ninsin, jinshard, garent-oquen, and little man. The name
ginseng comes from the Chinese words, Jen Sheng
stands for man herb due to the rhizome of the plant or
human-like shape of the root. The word Panax implies
cure all and refer to the traditional belief that ginseng has
healing properties for all bodily disease (Kim et al., 2018).
Till date, fourteen (14) plants, which include 12 species
and two infra specific taxa, have been grouped under the
genus Panax (Shin et al., 2015). The three main types of
commercial ginseng are the Chinese ginseng (Panax
notoginseng (Burk.). F. H.), the American ginseng (P.
quinquefolius L.), and the Korean ginseng (P. ginseng
Meyer), and have been used all over the world as herbal
medicines for thousands of years (Kim et al., 2012).
Ginseng is also part of Sasang Constitution Medicine
(SCM) and Korean Oriental Medicine (KOM) (Choi et al.
Recent researches have revealed that processing of
ginseng modifies its chemical profile and may alter its
pharmacological activities and properties (Xie et al.,
2012; Wan et al., 2015). The origin of ginseng dates back
to prehistory. In China, Shennong (Divine Peasant) also
known as Emperor Yan, the Yellow Emperor, one of the
three Emperors, the Emperor who is said to have
commenced herbal medicine about 5500 years ago, is
reported to have tasted hundreds of plants to as certain
number of medicinal herbs (Zheng, 1985). According to
Yun (2001), three hundred and sixty-five kinds of herbs
are listed and are separated into three groups based on
their toxicity level. The much better ones are non-toxic
and serve to strengthen vibrant energy, and can be taken
on a regular basis.
This is a perennial plant with fleshy roots, grows slowly,
and identifies with the Panax genus in the Araliaceae
family. It is grown in cooler climatic regions of the
Northern Hemisphere, majorly in eastern Siberia, Korea,
and northern China (Komatsu et al., 2005; Chhotaram et
al., 2010; Park et al., 2012; Kim and Yang, 2018).
Ginseng faces an array of stressful conditions, including
biotic attack by bacteria, fungi, and nematodes. Fungi are
the main causative agents of ginseng root rot disease,
among which Cylindrocarpon destructans is the most
culpable pathogen, other important pathogens include
Alternaria panax (spotting disease, Botrytis cinerea
(blight), Rhizoctonia solani (damping off), and Pythium
species (root rot) (Kim et al., 2019).
Plant taxonomy
Kingdom: Plantae
Division= Angiosperms
Sub division= Eudicots
Class= Asterids
Family= Araliaceae
Subfamily= Aralioideae
Genus= Panax
Species= ginseng
Ginseng is cultivated naturally between 33°N and 48°N,
which corresponds to the subarctic and temperate
climate regions in Korea (between 33°7/N and 43°1/N),
Manchuria (between 43°N and 47°N), and the Maritime
province of Siberia (Choi et al., 2007; Ryu et al., 2012).
Different environmental factors like soil and climatic such
as hydrogen ion, nutrients, microbial populations and
moisture content affect plants. Normally, precipitation,
amount of sunshine and air temperature are included
among climatic factors (Ryu et al., 2012).
The physiological characteristics of P. ginseng in
relation to air temperature have been reviewed
comprehensively in the literature (Mahfuzur and Zamir,
2005). Park (1979) studies show that ginseng does not
favour high temperature; hence it was necessary to
develop culture methods that will help avoid the result of
large increases in the air temperature of the arable land.
In deep mountains, wild ginseng is cultivated under trees
and prefers an exceedingly cold climate. The optimal
temperature ranges between 10 and 20°C during the
leafing phase and between 21 and 25°C during the
flowering and fruiting phases (Mork et al., 1981).
High temperature adversely affects ginseng by initiating
photosynthesis cessation, drying of leaves, and early
defoliation (Ohh, 1981). Besides this, root rot, leaf spot
disease, and anthracnose are also consequences that
emanates from high temperature (Mahfuzur and Zamir,
2005). In the case of a temperature above 21°C, there
will be great increase in leaf spot disease incidence (Ohh
and Park, 1980). Among the ginseng species, Korean
ginseng (P. ginseng), Chinese ginseng (P. notoginseng),
and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) are the most
common throughout the world (Lee and Kim, 2014).
Liu et al. (2008) reported that based on the grown
environment and the cultivated method, the commercial
trade ginseng is classified into three grades of ginseng,
Cultivated Ginseng (CG), Mountain Cultivated Ginseng
(MCG), and Mountain Wild Ginseng (MWG), and CG is
cultivated artificially in forms and contributes the major
quantity of ginseng in the current market. There are two
species of ginseng in Canada, the American ginseng (P.
quinquefolius) and the Dwarf ginseng (Panax trifolius).
The Dwarf ginseng does not have economic value since
it does not possess any medicinal qualities. Among the
other species of ginseng, the P. ginseng is also valuable,
but cannot be cultivated in our climates.
Szymanska et al. (2013) reported that as a perennial
herb, American ginseng is native to Eastern North
American, and grows in deciduous and mixed forests in
the northeast of the United States of America and
Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario. With wild
ginseng population decreasing, and P. quinquefolius a
slow-growing plant, ginseng is grown in many regions
and countries: in Wisconsin, Michigan, North Carolina,
and a number of other states in the USA, in Ontario and
British Columbia in Canada (Punja, 2011), and near
Lublin in plant (Kochan et al., 2008).
Siberian ginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus, is the
most commonly used ginseng in the United States. While
not considered to be a true ginseng, it belongs to the
ginseng family and is native to Siberia, Korea, Japan and
China. Siberian ginseng has been shown to have many
properties comparable to those of true ginseng and some
studies indicate that it may improve physical and mental
performance. Wild ginseng is ginseng that has not been
planted and cultivated domestically, rather it is that which
grows naturally and is harvested from wherever it is
found to be growing; wild ginseng is relatively rare and
even increasingly endangered, due in large part to high
demand for the product in recent years, which has led to
the wild plants being sought out and harvested faster so
Shahrajabian et al. 215
that new ones can grow. Wild ginseng can be either
Asian or American and can be processed to be red
ginseng (Seervi et al., 2010).
Asian and American ginseng shows different properties
and medicinal values in pharmacology, even though the
major bioactive ingredients of Asian ginseng and
American ginseng are ginsenosides. In the ginseng
market, American ginseng is more expensive than Asian
ginseng (Li et al., 2010). Optimal light required for
growing Asian and American ginseng (P. ginseng Meyer
and P. quinquefolius L., respectively) is characterized as
follows: too little light, which reduces root yield; and too
much light which leads to photo inhibition of
photosynthesis, photo bleaching and leaf death;
generally, optimal light intensity for Asian ginseng ranged
from 5 to 20% (Proctor and Palmer, 2017). Brazilian
ginseng (Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen,
Amaranthaceae), is a medicinal plant that is largely used
as adaptogenic herb. It commonly grows in Africa and
Americas and is highly considered both pharmaceutically
and commercially, largely due to β-ecdysone
accumulation in its roots.
Brazil remains the greatest supplier of P. glomerata in
the world. Due to the similarity in morphology of its root to
those of P. ginseng (Korean ginseng), the species came
to be known as the Brazilian ginseng (Neves et al.,
2016). In P. glomerata, different substances have been
reported: triterpenoid (glomeric acid), nortriterpenoid
(pfameric acid), ecdysterone, subrosterone, oleanolic
acid and glucopyranosiloleanolate (Shiobara et al., 1993).
Some species have different TCM natures. P. ginseng is
hot while, P. quinquefolius is cool (Schlag and McIntosh,
2013). Modern biochemical and molecular studies have
proved the TCM belief that there exist conflicting effects
between American and Asian ginsengs (Sievenpiper et
al., 2004).
Sengupta et al. (2004) observed that Asian ginseng
roots extracts had higher Rg1:Rb1 ratios compared to
American ginseng and showed that while angiogenesis
results from Rg1 dominance, the opposite effect of
limiting growth of cancer cells is promoted by Rb1
dominance. Brazilian ginseng (P. glomerata) is a plant
native from the countries of South America, particularly of
some states of Brazil, like Sao Paulo, Parana, Mato
Grosso and Goias. Due to the similarity in their
pharmacological effects, it is employed commercially as
an alternative for Asian ginseng (Panax species). The
Brazilian ginseng roots (BGR) are traditionally used in
folk medicine as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, tonic, anti-
diabetic, aphrodisiac, and antiulcer-gastric, with several
researches describing its efficacy (Neto et al., 2005;
Vardanega et al., 2017).
The ginseng products distributed on the market can be
largely classified as fresh ginseng and its primary
processing products in its original shape, red ginseng,
and dried ginseng. In herbal market, ginseng is
commercially obtainable in fresh, red, white and other
216 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 1. Species of Ginseng (Yun, 2001).
Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer (Korean ginseng)
Panax japonicas C. A. Meyer (Japanese ginseng)
Panax major Ting
Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen (Sanchi ginseng)
Panax omeiensis J. Wen
Panax pseudoginsengWallich
Panax quinquefolius L. (American ginseng)
Panax sinensis J. Wen
Panax stipuleanatus H. T. Tsai&K. M. Feng
Panax trifolius L. (Dwarf ginseng)
Panax wangianus Sun
Panax zingiberensis C.Y. Wu&K.M. Feng
Panax vietnamensis Ha et Grushv. (Vietnamese ginseng)
processed products (Sun et al., 2009, 2011). Zhao et al.
(2015) reported that in the market, there is a huge price
variation among the different grades of ginseng; the price
trend is usually as follows: wild American ginseng (WAG)
> cultivated American ginseng (CAG) > Asian ginseng
(ASG). Dried ginseng product is not cooked but dried by
sunlight, hot wind, or other methods (Cho et al., 2014).
The white ginseng is usually prepared by air-drying, the
fresh ginseng is prepared by simple washing, the black
ginseng is generated by an intensive and long steaming
process, the stoved ginseng is prepared by a stoving
process, the frozen ginseng is produced by a freezing
process, and the red ginseng is commonly made by a
moderate steaming or heating process (Kim et al., 2000;
Wang et al., 2006) (Table 1).
P. ginseng comprises 80 to 90% organic, approximately
10% inorganic substances, including several active
constituents like ginsenosides orsaponins, nitrogenous
substances, carbohydrates, essential oils, phytosterol,
fatty acids, organic acids, amino acids, peptidoglycans,
carbohydrate, compounds containing nitrogen, vitamins,
minerals and other phenolic compounds (Attele et al.,
1999; Gillis, 1997; Xie et al., 2005; Guo et al., 2015; Lu et
al., 2017; Beccaria et al., 2018).
Lakshmi et al. (2011) mentioned that more often than
ever, medicinal plants are being used as drugs in
treatment of humans either singly or in combination. Also,
previously unknown vital chemical substances with
potential therapeutic effect can be found among
medicinal plants. It has been shown that the key active
components of P. ginseng are ginsenosides which boast
a number of beneficial effects. Ginsenosides are grouped
into two major groups known as protopanaxatriol (PPT)
and protopanaxadiol (PPD), due to the hydroxylation
pattern at C6 and sugar moieties attachment (Pengelly
and Bennett, 2011; Pace et al., 2015) (Tables 2, 3, 4 and
Patel and Rauf (2017) also mentioned antioxidant, anti-
inflammation, anti-fatigue, antidiabetic, antitumor,
immunomodulation, anti-obesity, cardioprotective,
antimicrobial, neuroprotective and aphrodisiac properties.
They have presented the potential of ginseng as a
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Ginseng
polysaccharides comprised starch-like glucan and pectin
with pectin accounting for around 20% of water-soluble
polysaccharides (Zhang et al., 2009; Sun et al., 2019).
Ginsenosides are distributed in many parts of the ginseng
plant including the root, leaf and berry (Kim et al., 2014).
Different parts of the plant contain distinct ginsenoside
profiles (Attele et al., 1999), which may exhibit different
pharmacological activities (Kim et al., 2014). Shi et al.
(2007) revealed that the leaf and root hair contain higher
ginsenoside levels than the root. Wan et al. (2015)
concluded that the contents of malonyl ginsenosides,
amino acids, and polysaccharides, based on decreasing
order, ranked as follows: fresh ginseng >frozen ginseng
>white ginseng >stoved ginseng >red ginseng >black
ginseng. They have also mentioned that processing
should be paid more attention for the quality control of
ginseng products. A lot of studies have been conducted
on the pharmacological properties of Ginseng extract
such as lipid-lowering, anti-allergic, antidiabetic, anti-
inflammatory, hypoglycaemia and anti-stress, anti-aging,
is repeated, anticarcinogenic, anti-fatigue, anti-adhesive,
antidepressive, hypocholesterolemic and hypolipidemic,
hepatoprotective activities, immune-modulatory activities,
improving working memory and perceptual systems,
stimulation and inhibition of central nervous system, and
inhibiting the growth of tumor cells, especially in female
reproductive system (Kim et al., 2013; Cho et al., 2014;
Sun et al., 2015; Uluisik and Keskin, 2016; Silvestrini et
Shahrajabian et al. 217
Table 2. Panax bioactive phytochemicals and their proven therapeutic roles (Patel
and Rauf, 2017).
P. ginseng (Chinese ginseng)
P. quinquefolius (American ginseng)
Ginsenoside (Rb, Rc, Rd, re, Rf, Rg, Rh)
Anticancer effect
Protection against diabetic retinopathy and cardiomyopathy
Neural stem cell proliferation
Attenuation of β-amyloid generation
Protection from ischemia-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis
Protection from impairment of hippocampal neurons
Attenuation of pathogen virulence factors production
Treatment of erectile dysfunction
Fatigue alleviation in multiple sclerosis
Prevention of atopic dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis
Amelioration of high fat diet-induced obesity
Table 3. Ginsenosides classification in Panax spp. (Leung and Wong, 2010).
Protopanaxadiol group (PPD)
Rb1, Rb2, Rb3
F11 ocotillo saponin (P. quinquefolius only)
Oleanane saponins
al., 2017; Ardalanian and Fadaei, 2018; Zhang et al.,
2018; Balusamy et al., 2019).
Kim et al. (2011) confirmed the use of Ginseng as an
antioxidant supplement. Kim et al. (2018) also found that
P. ginseng might be a potential alternative medicine for
the prevention and treatment of natural aging-induced
osteoporosis in human. Kuo et al. (2003) reported that
glutamine and arginine were the two major free
proteinogenic amino acids in the ginseng plants and
together they constituted over 50% of all the free amino
acids detected in the root. Uluisik and Keskin (2016) P.
ginseng root powder may be useful for hepatic damage
and fibrosis associated with high cholesterol diet. These
beneficial effects of ginseng on liver enzymes is attributed
to its active components knows as ginsenosides. Lee and
Rhee (2017) reported that the potential use of ginseng in
the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammatory
diseases such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and
allergic asthma. Qi et al. (2015) found that ginseng
appears to be a prospective radio-protector that can
potentially attenuate the deleterious effects of radiation
on normal human tissue, and mostly for cancer patients
going through radiotherapy which might be related to its
immunomodulation and antioxidative properties (Tables
6, 7 and 8)..
When fresh ginseng is skinned, and then sun-dried or hot
air-dried without application of steam, white ginseng is
obtained. White ginsengs are separated based on their
final shapes after the drying process into curved, half-
curved, and straight ginseng (Song et al., 2014). While
curved ginseng is obtained by rolling the whole length of
the ginseng root into a round shape prior to drying; and
half-curved ginseng is obtained by folding the roots
upward to condense the entire length to about half the
original length; straight ginseng is skinned and maintains
the original shape from the field.
218 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 4. Different concepts of the Ginseng products between countries.
Country (Region)
Processed product
Health food/New resource for food
Hong Kong
Dietary supplement
Food/Health Food
Food supplement
Table 5. Some pharmacological effects of ginsenosides (Pengelly and
Bennett, 2011).
Pharmacological action
Estrogen-like activity
Antidiabetic, insulin sensitizing
Angiogenesis inhibitor
Neurotropic, neuroprotective
Inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells
Antioxidant, cardioprotective
Neurotropic, neuroprotective
Ligand for glucocorticoid
Suppresses oxidative stress
Promotes angiogenesis
Neuronal Ach inhibitor
Inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells
Activates estrogen receptor
Cytotoxic, inhibits breast cancer cell proliferation
Inhibits proliferation of prostate cancer cells
Assists memory improvement neuroprotective
The one that is not skinned before being steamed or
otherwise heated to be finally dried is red ginseng.
Korean red ginsengs are classified into Yang-sam, Chun-
sam and Ji-samon the basis of their rhizome firmness,
characteristics of body tissues, colors, proportion of main
roots to lateral roots, etc. During the steaming process,
there is gelatinization of ginseng starch, giving rise to
activation of effective ingredients and an upsurge in
saponin. Even though colors and shapes of Korean
ginsengs differ based on processing type, with minimal
variation in ingredients, in the world, their collective
efficacy and advanced properties of each remains the
Shahrajabian et al. 219
Table 6. Essential ginseng effects and their likely actions on different body systems (Radad et al., 2004).
Ginsengs effect
Possible action
Whole body
General tonic and adaptogen
Resistance against adverse conditions (Physical, chemical and biological factors).
Restores body ,s homeostasis
Anti-aging effects
Central nervous system
Neuroprotection either in vivo or in
Potentiates nerve growth factor
Antioxidative and anti-apoptotic mechanisms
Reduces lipid peroxidation
Inhibits excitotoxicity and Ca2+ over-influx into neurons
Maintains cellular ATP levels
Preserves structural integrity of neurons
Glial cells
Prevents astroglial swelling
Inhibits microglial respiratory burst activity and NO production by activated microglia
Increasing cognitive performance
(learning and memory)
Modulates neurotransmission
Direct effect on hippocampal neurons
Cardiovascular system
Relax vascular smooth muscle cells through NO and Ca2+ medicated mechanisms
Inhibits production of endothelin which plays a role in blood vessel constriction
Anti-atherosclerotic effect
Prevents platelet aggregation
Shows antagonistic action for platelet activity factor
Suppresses thrombin formation
Acceleration of wound healing
Promotes functional neovascularisation through endothelial proliferation
Inflammation and allergy
Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic
Inhibits cytokine production such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α
Abrogates cycooxygenase-2 gene expression
Suppresses histamine and leukotrienes release from mast cells
Stabilizes inflammatory cells such as neutronphils and lymphocytes
Antifibroblastic activity
Immune system
Enhances interferon induction, phagocytosis, natural killer cells, and B and T cells
Anticarcinogenic effect
Suppresses malignant transformation
220 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 6. Cont.
Inhibits proliferation of tumor cells
Inhibits tumor invasiveness, metastasis and angiogenesis
Aphrodisiac effect
Enhancement of male copulatory
Relaxes corpus cavernosum smooth muscles via NO mediated processes
Increases serum testosterone levels and reduces plasma levels of prolactin hormone
Direct effects on anterior pituitary and hypothalamic dopaminergic mechanisms
Antihyperglycemic activity
Increases plasma insulin levels, the number of insulin receptors and insulin sensitivity
Table 7. Key points about Panax ginseng (Kiefer and Pantuso, 2003).
Psychologic functioning: effective; conflicting evidence
Physical performance: ineffective
Immune system: effective
Diabetes: modest effect; evidence limited
Adverse effects
Nausea, diarrhea, euphoria, insomnia, headaches, hypertension, hypotension, mastalgia, vaginal bleeding, blood pressure abnormalities
Caution advised about concomitant use with phenelzie (Nardil), warfain (Coumadin), oral hypoglycemics, insulin, or caffeine, and about use in patients with
hypertension or bleeding
Bottom line
A safe, well-tolerated herbal medicine that may be used for a variety of medical conditions
Table 8. Some information of clinical literature regarding interactions.
Interaction with ginseng
P. ginseng increases the clearance of alcohol (Lee et al., 1987)
Anti-platelet agents,
P. ginseng potentiates the effects of various drugs including anticoagulants such as warfarin (Lee et al., 2008), the antiplatelet activity of NSAIDs
such as aspirin, and pentazocine (Mitra et al., 1996)
Antidiabetic agents
Ginseng can reduce blood glucose levels (Reay et al., 2005; Sotaniemi et al., 1995) and therefore the use of both in combination use may lead
to additive effects.
P. ginseng should not be combined with monoamine oxidase inhibitors such as phenelzine, as it may lead to headache, tremor and mania
(Jones and Runikis, 1987)
best (Gui and Ryu, 2014).
In TCM practice, White ginseng and red ginseng are
used for different purposes; white ginseng is used to
supply qi and promote the production fluids of body fluids
as well as enhance physical fitness and disease
resistance, while red ginseng has a warming effect and is
used for boosting yang and replenishing vital essence
(Zhang et al., 2012, 2019).
Xu et al. (2018) reported that both white and red
ginseng is the most widely used in clinical applications
because of their considerable pharmacological activity.
But, red ginseng exhibits more potential anticancer
activity than white ginseng likely because of the abundant
amount of rare ginsenosides generated from processing
such as ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 (Li et al., 2011; Kim
et al., 2014). It is believed that various processing
techniques modify the therapeutic effects of P. ginseng
(Keum et al., 2000). For boosting fluids, white ginseng is
better and is regarded as warmer and stronger for
supplementing Qi. It has been demonstrated that in terms
of chemical compositions, red and white ginseng are
different, hence their different biological effects (Park et
al., 2001). It has been anecdotally considered that white
ginseng, which has a low PPD/PPT ratio, increases body
temperature, whereas red ginseng, which has a high
PPD/PPT ratio, does not (Cho et al., 2017). As white
ginseng and red ginseng possess different bioactivities
and clinical purposes, discrimination of the white one and
the red one are very significant for quality control,
standardizing the processing procedures, as well as the
effective and safe usage of ginseng (Zhou et al., 2018).
Horacek et al. (2010) explained that red ginseng is
steam-cured after harvesting, thus generating a glossy
reddish-brown color, and thereafter dried. It is believed
that to modify its biochemical composition and prevent
the bioactive ingredients from possible breakdown, the
root needs to undergo steaming; hence it remains the
preferred ginseng product. After harvest, white ginseng is
peeled and dried. It is assumed that during drying,
bioactive constituents are broken down by enzymes in
the ginseng root, making white ginseng to contain fewer
bioactive components compared to red ginseng (Horacek
et al., 2010).
In the Chinese pharmacopoeia, ginsenosides Rg1, Rb,
and Re (the main components of Red ginseng and White
ginseng) are still used as chemical markers for quality
control (Zhao et al., 2019). Like Asian ginseng, white
American ginseng (WAG) is prepared by air-drying; if
fresh American ginseng is processed by steaming, from
white color to red, the steamed product is called red
American ginseng (RAG) (Wan et al., 2018).
During the steaming process, extensive conversion of
original ginsenosides in white ginseng to degradation
compounds in red ginseng was observed, leading to
different ginsenoside profiles (Sun et al., 2011). Akhter et
al. (2018) also indicated that polysaccharides are major
active component of American ginseng root which
Shahrajabian et al. 221
showing various biological activities including
anticarcinogenic, anti-aging, immunostimulatory and
antioxidant effects. Chung et al. (2014) reported that of
the two kinds of ginseng, white ginseng is air-dried, and
red ginseng is produced by steaming raw ginseng at 98
to 100°C for 2 to 3 h. Korean ginseng contains saponin,
an element of glycosides; nitrogenous compounds such
as protein, amino acid, nucleic acid and alkaloid; fat-
soluble ingredients such as fatty acid, ethereal oil,
polyacetylene, phenolic compound, phytosterol and
terpenoid; saccharides such as monose, oligosaccharide,
polysaccharide and pectin; vitamins and inorganic
substances; and many other useful ingredients. Thus,
ginseng contains an abundance of diversified chemical
elements hardly found in other medicinal herbs (Proctor
et al., 1990; Vinh et al., 2017) (Tables 9, 10 and 11).
Ginsenosides and phenolics in ginsengs are among the
most important health-beneficial compounds in Asian
ginseng (Chung et al., 2012). More than 25 ginsenosides
including Rb, Rg, Rc and Ro, as well as more than 10
phenolics such as ferulic, gentistic, cinnamic, syringic,
and p-hydrobenzoic acids, have been reported so far,
their amounts differ among cultivars, cultivation
conditions and processing (Shibata, 2001; Choi et al.,
2006; Fishbein et al., 2009; Chung et al., 2012).
Ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, RC, Rg2, etc., are the major
extract constituents at normal temperature (<100°C),
while less polar ginsenosides such as Rg3. Rg6, F4, Rs5,
Rs4, Rg5, and Rk1 are the unique extract constituents at
higher temperatures (>120°C) (Zhang et al., 2017). Wu et
al. (2018) also reported that ginsenosides are usually
divided into three groups: (1) the protopanaxadiol
ginsenosides (PPD), (2) the protopanaxatriol
ginsenosides (PPT), and (3) the oleanonic acid-type
saponins; five major ginsenosides, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Re,
and Rg1, belong to the PPD and PPT types, constituting
more than 80% of all ginsenosides. Others, such as Rg3,
Rg2, F1, Rh2 and Rh4 are minor or rare ginsenosides
which were found to have special physiological activities
(Wei et al., 2011).
Some studies have demonstrated that many
ginsenosides only exist in red ginseng such as
ginsenosides-Rg3, -Rg5, -Rg6, -Rh1, -Rh2, -Rk1 -Rk3 and -
Rs3-Rs7, and fortunately, some of them have remarkable
biological activities (Zhou and Yang, 2015). Kim et al.
(1987) noted that the main ginsenosides are glycosides
that contain an aglycone with a dammarane skeleton, and
include protopanaxadiol-type saponins such as
ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, Rc, and Rd, as well as
protopanaxatriol-type saponins such as ginsenosides Re
and Rg1, constituting more than 80% of the total
ginsenosides. Black ginseng contains some new
ginsenosides (Rg3, Rg5, F4, Rg6, Rk3, Rs3, Rs4, etc.)
222 J. Med. Plants Res.
Table 9. Comparison of protein and free amino acid contents between Korean Ginseng and ginsengs of other countries.
Korean Ginseng
Main root
Lateral roots
Fine roots
Soluble protein (mg/g dry weight)
Thermostable protein (mg/g dry weight)
Free amino acid (mg/g dry weight)
Table 10. Comparison of typical ginsenoside composition of American ginseng (P. quinquefolius L.)
and Asian ginseng (P. ginseng C. A. Meer) (Schlag and McIntosh, 2006).
Chemical composition
American ginseng
Asian ginseng
Total ginsenosides
40-60 g/kg
20-40 g/kg
Major ginsenosides
Rb1, Re, Rd
Rb1, Rg1, Rb2
Pseudoginsenoside F11
1.0-2.0 g/kg
Ginsenoside Rf
1.0-2.0 g/kg
PPD-group to PPT-group
Rb1: Rg1
Rg1: Re
Rb2: Rc
Table 11. Concentration of medical ingredients (Comparison of saponin in ginsengs of various sources).
Korean Ginseng
Korean Ginseng
(American ginseng)
(Chinese ginseng)
(Japanese ginseng)
Red Ginseng
White Ginseng
Total kinds of saponin
which are not present in white ginseng, and exhibits more
potent biological activities than white and red ginseng
(Sun et al., 2009).
Qi et al. (2011) found that ginsenosides are
dammarane-type saponins that naturally occur in many
forms. Rg1, Rb1, Rc, Rd and Re (5, 1, 2, 3 and 4) are the
major ginsenosides that commonly occur in both
American and Asian ginseng. Schlag and McIntosh
(2013) explained that the major ginsenosides are
classified by structural type as protopanaxatriol (PPT)
ginsenosides and have 20(S)-protopanaxatriol (20[S]-
dammar-24-ane-3β,12β,20-triol) glycosides or as
protopanaxadiol (PPD) ginsenosides and have 20(S)-
protopanaxadiol (6α-hyroxy-20[S]-protopanaxadiol)
glycosides. Rg1 (5) and Re (4) are PPT ginsenosides,
whereas Rb1 (1), Rc (2), and Rd (3) are PPD
At room temperature, as fresh ginseng appears to be
easily degraded, it has traditionally undergone processing
into red ginseng through root steaming followed by drying
or into white ginseng through drying of the root (Lee et
al., 2015; Park et al., 2016). In Korea, red ginseng and
other several ginseng products are popularly used as
either nutritional supplements or functional foods. Recent
researches have shown that compared to fresh and white
ginseng, red ginseng has biological benefits while
inducing fewer side effects (Babiker et al., 2014; Lee et
al., 2015). Korean
Red Ginseng is known to havea number of biological
activities which include memoryenhancement, improving
the blood circulation, boosting the immune system,
antioxidant effects, positive effects on menopausal
disorder, and antifatigue effects (Babiker et al., 2014).
Olgun et al. (2016) indicated that Korean red Ginseng
(KRG) has been extracted from the roots of P. ginseng.
KRG has beneficial effects on learning and memory
impairment. KRG has been found to be effective in
various problems that cause hearing loss such as
gentamycin toxicity, age-related hearing loss, or 3-
nitropropionic acid-induced cochlear damage. Ginseng
effectively prevents liver injury, mainly through down
regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory response
(Youssef, 2016).
Oh et al. (2015) reported the influence of ginseng in
enhancing cognitive performance in Alzheimer’s disease
(AD), and improves movement’s deficit in Parkinson’s
disease. Fatmawati et al. (2014) also reported that P.
ginseng might be an important herbal medicine in
preventing diabetic complications. Van Kampen et al.
(2014) discovered that ginseng extract maybe a potential
neuroprotective therapy for the treatment of Parkinson.
Choi et al. (2006) reported that Korean and Chinese
ginseng reduced systolic and diastolic BP, and red
ginseng reduced headache symptoms. American ginseng
showed antihypertensive effect on diastolic BP and
reduced headache symptom.
However, there was no statistical significance in the
between-group analysis. Lee et al. (2013) demonstrated
that ginseng effectively reduces adipose tissue and
prevents obesity in diet-induced obese mice that this
process may be mediated in part through the anti-
angiogenic actions of ginseng. Rocha et al. (2018) found
that P. ginseng is effective in the control of abdominal
pain in irritable bowel syndrome patients, analogous to
trimebutin. Wang and Ng (2004) reported that the
ribonuclease isolated from Chinese ginseng flowers; the
root ribonuclease exhibits antifungal and inhibitory
activities toward HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Shin and
Yoon (2018) demonstrated that ginseng may be able to
prevent obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis in
men with testosterone deficiency.
Gray et al. (2016) found that ginseng protects against
chromatin damage and thus maybe beneficial to
reproductive fitness. Lee and Oh (2015) revealed that
when red ginseng is administered over long periods, age-
related decline of learning and memory is ameliorated
through anti-inflammatory activity. Sharma and Goyal
(2015) also insist on potential role of P. ginseng to
become a pivotal chemo-preventive agent that can
reduce cancer in mammals. Hwang et al. (2017)
concluded that P. ginseng can prevent aging by inhibiting
wrinkle formation and increasing moisture in the human
skin. Park et al. (2017) reported that Korean Red
Ginseng has beneficial effects on chronic liver disease, a
condition encompassing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease,
alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, and
hepatocellular carcinoma. Lee and Son (2011) found the
strong positive potential for glucose metabolism,
psychomotor function, and pulmonary disease, but not for
physical performance enhancement.
In order for Chinese medicine, and in particular, TCM, to
become more integrated into medical practice in the
West, there is a need to bridge the many conceptual and
practical differences between western medicine and
Chinese medicine. Among the ginseng species, Korean
Shahrajabian et al. 223
ginseng (P. ginseng), Chinese ginseng (P. notoginseng),
and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius) are the most
common through the world. Cultivated Ginseng (CG),
Mountain Cultivated Ginseng (MCG), and Mountain Wild
Ginseng (MWG) are three categories of ginseng. Dwarf
ginseng (P. trifolius) is another type of ginseng in Canada.
Siberian ginseng, E. senticosus is also another common
ginseng in the United States. Brazilian ginseng (P.
glomerata Spreng. Pedersen, Amaranthaceae), is a
medicinal plant largely used as adaptogenic herb.
Although, field cultivation of ginseng is occurring in Asia
and Europe, these endeavours are small in scale and
have not made any significant impact on the supply
structure of the market. This versatile medicinal plant is
the unique source of various types of chemical
compounds, which are responsible of the various
activities of the plant. As the public scenario is changing
towards the use of non-toxic plant products having
Traditional Medicinal Asian Crops, development of
modern drugs from P. ginseng should be emphasized for
the control of various diseases.
The authors have not declared any conflict of interests.
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... Traditional herbal medicines have been found as a source of therapeutic remedies [1][2][3][4][5] because the chemical constituents of plants are used to stimulate health and prevent diseases [6][7][8][9][10], and plants are invaluable origins of new drugs [11,12]. Different plants contain various phytochemicals like thymoquinone, a natural compound in the plant Nigella sativa. ...
... Chemical structures of Thymoquinone, Sulforaphane, Phloretin and Epigallocatechin are shown in Figs. (1)(2)(3)(4), respectively. ...
Natural products have a broad range of diversity of multidimensional chemical formation which play an important role, and indicate the crucial nature as a golden source for gaining herbal drug discovery. Thymoquinone performs various functions and has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic, impacts. It shows the significant influence on the treatment of different cancer types, such as bone cancer, bladder cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer. Sulforaphane has anticancer and antimicrobial properties, an anticarcinogenic constituents. Phloretin is a dihydrochalcone flavonoid which indicates a potent antioxidant activity in peroxynitrite scavenging and restraint of lipid peroxidation. The most important health benefits of phloretin are anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity, and impacts on cancer cells. Its antioxidant activity occurs through a reducer of lipid peroxidation, the scavenger of ROS, and its anti-inflammatory impacts happen through declined level of cytokines, adhesion molecules, chemokines, suppression of NF-κβ transcription, and decreased expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Phloretin impacts cancer cells through cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and activation of immune cells against tumor. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the most abundant tea polyphenol, followed by other polyphenols, namely, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, and epicatechin-3-gallate. In this review manuscript, some important medical health advantages and pharmaceutical effects of thymoquinone, sulforaphane, phloretin, and epigallocatechin have been mentioned.
... Drugs derived from natural sources, particularly medicinal plants, attract the interest of scientists and researchers for the production of promising bioactive compounds that can be integrated into pharmaceutical applications [1]. Plants as natural resources provide people with various goods and services, such as food, fodder for animals, textiles, drugs, medicine, and dyes [2][3][4]. ...
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The exploration of bioactive compounds from natural resources attracts the attention of researchers and scientists worldwide. M. longipetala is an annual aromatic herb that emits a pleasant odor during the night. Regarding the chemical composition and biological characteristics, M. longipetala extracts are poorly studied. The current study aimed to characterize the chemical composition of M. longipetala methanol extract using GC-MS and determine its biological potencies, including its capacity for cytotoxicity and antioxidant and antibacterial activities. In this approach, 37 components were identified, representing 99.98% of the total mass. The major chemical components can be classified as oxygenated hydrocarbons (19.15%), carbohydrates (10.21%), amines (4.85%), terpenoids (12.71%), fatty acids and lipids (50.8%), and steroids (2.26%). The major identified compounds were ascaridole epoxide (monoterpene, 12.71%) and methyl (E)-octadec-11-enoate (ester of fatty acid, 12.21%). The extract of M. longipetala showed substantial antioxidant activity. Based on the DPPH and ABTS scavenging, the antioxidant activity of the extracted components of M. longipetala revealed that leaf extract is the most effective with IC50 values of 31.47 and 28.94 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, the extracted plant showed low antibacterial activities against diverse bacterial species, viz., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, and S. aureus. The most potent antibacterial results were documented for leaf and flower extracts against E. coli and S. aureus. Additionally, the extract’s effectiveness against HepG2 cells was evaluated in vitro using the measures of MTT, DNA fragmentation, and cell proliferation cycle, where it showed considerable activity. Therefore, we can conclude that M. longipetala extract displayed improvement in cytocompatibility and cell migration properties. In conclusion, M. longipetala could be considered a potential candidate for various bioactive compounds with promising biological activities. However, further characterization of the identified compounds, particularly the major compounds, is recommended to evaluate their efficacy, modes of action, and safety.
... Ginsenosides can be classified into two main functional groups based on their C-6 position: protopanaxadiols (PPDs) and protopanaxatriols (PPTs). In PPD, sugar groups attach to the C-3 position of the carbon skeleton, while A c c e p t e d m a n u s c r i p t in PPT, sugar groups attach to the C-6 position (Leung & Wong, 2010;Shahrajabian et al., 2019). According to existing research, PPD-derived ginsenosides exhibit more potent cytotoxic properties than PPT-derived ginsenosides (Ahuja et al., 2018). ...
Many ginsenosides have shown positive effects, including anti-cancer potential and anti-inflammatory effects. Of note, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) are not easily absorbed by the body through the digestive tract due to their hydrophilicity. From this point of view, the cytotoxic potencies of the hydrolysates of PPD and PPT on CRC are much stronger than their source compounds. Moreover, several minor ginsenosides that are absent naturally but have high disease ameliorative efficacy can be obtained from major ginsenoside by enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the biotransformation of ginsenosides via enzymatic hydrolysis to improve their bioactivity. Second, the anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects of the raw and bio-transformed ginseng metabolites were determined in vitro. The results suggest that enzymes can effectively biotransform major ginsenosides (i.e., PPD and PPT) into minor ginsenosides (i.e., compound K) by hydrolyzing the β-glucosidic linkage. Moreover, the bio-transformed ginsenosides were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HCT-116 cells and suppressing lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Therefore, the enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenosides can be employed to functionally produce hydrolysates with increased bioactivity.
... The data for this study were retrieved from Scopus because the database provides different h_index ratings for authors who will need them to track citations and determine the impact of their publications (Musa et al. 2021c). The total number of traditional herbal medicine related-publications has been increasing annually since the year 1990, as traditional herbal medicine has gained attractive attention due to easy accessibility, affordability, safety, promising efficacy, and being environmentally bening (Musa et al. 2021d;Shahrajabian et al. 2019). Their essential roles in public health have led many people of different nationalities to rely on traditional herbal medicince (Soleymani and Shahrajabian 2018), as many herbs and plants included in several traditional systems have promising bioactive compounds for modern drug therapy (Fig. 5). ...
Traditional herbal medicine has been playing an essential role in primary health care globally. The aim of this work is to present an overview of traditional herbal medicine research productivity over the past years. The data was accessed from the Scopus database (, while VOSviewer.Var1.6.6, Bibliometrix, and R studio were used for further analysis of the obtained data. The results showed that researches on traditional herbal medicine increased annually after 1990, followed by a corresponding increase in global citations during the period, with a total of 22,071 authors contributing to all the publications. Yiling Wang of Shanghai Institute of Drug Control, Shanghai, China was the most productive author (TNP = 303), while Journal of “Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine”, and “Journal of Ethnopharmacology” were the top ranked journals, respectively. Also, China, Japan, and India were found to be the top Corresponding Author's Countries for researches on traditional herbal medicine, as Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences and China Medical University were top affiliations. Moreover, National Natural Science Foundation of China, National Key Research and Development Program of China, Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, and Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan were top funding agencies, with more than 100 documents. The bibliometric research study has revealed an annual increasing trend in traditional herbal medicine, while also revealing that the topmost ranked authors and funding agencies were from Asia especially China.
... According to Ming Yi Bie Lu (an ancient pharmacological text of the Eastern Han Dynasty of China), Danshen was native to the Tongbai Valley of the Henan Province and Mount Tai of the Shandong Province, from which it gradually spread (Deng et al., 2016). Current cultivation covers a wide range of areas in China, including the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Sichuan, Shaanxi, Anhui, Shanxi, etc. Differences have been reported in herbal medicines originating from different regions, with some areas producing better quality than others (Shahrajabian et al., 2019). In addition, a field investigation also shows the roots and rhizomes of several other Salvia species (Non-Danshen in short) have similar quality parameters and have been used as Danshen medicines to cure cardiovascular diseases in China (Mervić et al., 2022). ...
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The root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen in short) is a well-known herbal medicine used to treat cardiovascular diseases in the world. In China, the roots and rhizomes of several other Salvia species (Non-Danshen in short) are also used as this medicine in traditional folk medicine by local herbalists. Differences have been reported in these medicines originating from different sources, and their quality variation needs to be clearly investigated for effective clinical application. This study presented a comprehensive quality evaluation and monitoring for Danshen from 27 sampling sites and Non-Danshen from other 5 Salvia species based on a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and near-infrared (NIR), with the combination of chemometric models. The results showed that cryptotanshinone, tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, salvianolic acid B, salvianic acid A sodium, dihydrotanshinone I, and rosmarinic acid in these medicines from different sources exhibited great variations. Referring to the standards in Chinese Pharmacopoeia (CP), European Pharmacopeia (EP), and United States Pharmacopeia (USP), Non-Danshen from S. brachyloma, S. castanea, S. trijuga, S. bowleyana , and S. przewalskii were assessed as unqualified, and Danshen in the Shandong Province had the best quality due to the high qualified rate. Based on random forest (RF) and partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), NIR technique could successfully monitor the quality of these medicines by discriminating the species and regions with the accuracies of 100.00 and 99.60%, respectively. Additionally, modified partial least-squares regression (MPLSR) models were successfully constructed to investigate the feasibility of NIR fingerprints for the prediction of the quality indicators in these medicines. The optimized models obtained the best results for the total of tanshinone IIA, tanshinone I, and cryptotanshinone (TTC), tanshinone IIA, and salvianolic acid B, with the relative prediction deviation ( RPD ) of 4.08, 3.92, and 2.46, respectively. In summary, this study demonstrated that HPLC-DAD and NIR techniques can complement each other and could be simultaneously applied for evaluating and monitoring the quality of Danshen medicines.
... It is the perennial/everlasting plant of temperate Northern hemisphere regions of the world. ginseng is composed of about Ninety per cent organic and around ten per cent of inorganic elements (Shahrajabian et al., 2019). ...
Medicinal plants are achieving favour and have shown exponential growth throughout the globe due to fewer side effects in comparison to allopathic medications and innate pharmacological effects and being present naturally. Humans show intimate association with nature and always utilize the components of their surroundings to get medicines and foodstuffs. Around 50% of medications utilized by humans emanated from plant parts. For preliminary healthcare in developing countries, more than 80% of humans rely on herbal drugs. Worldwide, India has been the most extensive developer for herbs that have medicinal importance. So, there is a necessity to review this priceless herbal knowledge. This chapter will assist in furnishing the advantageous usage of herbs in various infections. It is a big challenge to conserve biodiversity because of the involvement of political difficulties and social demurs. There is a requirement to conserve these plant species and nurture their farming.
... It also serves in the treatment of acne, eczema, psoriasis and internal and external wounds. It can be applied topically by mixing a few drops of oil with coconut oil and applying it directly to the affected area [5]. ...
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The results shown in the research above indicate the clear moral effect of lemongrass extract in inhibiting and hindering the growth and development of some common bacterial strains that cause major problems in the human body. The above research is of high scientific feasibility and great benefit in order to highlight the use of this new plant introduced into Iraq in medical and therapeutic aspects, and the trend to expand the use of medicinal plants in the prevention and inhibition of bacterial infections.
Black ginseng is a novel manufactured ginseng product, and the application of black ginseng products in market is increasing in recent years. Black ginseng is prepared by steaming and fermentation, but not as mature as processing red ginseng. Therefore, complete proposals for preparation techniques are firstly presented. Additionally, there are also abundant chemical components in black ginseng, including ginsenosides, polysaccharides, amino acids, polyphenols, flavonoids, etc. Among them, ginsenosides, polysaccharides and phenolic compounds are the main ingredients, making health benefits of black ginseng stronger than other ginseng products. Therefore, black ginseng as a functional food has come to the market in various forms, such as candies, tea, porridge, soup, etc. The improvement in nutrition, flavor, and safety has exhibited a broad prospect for black ginseng products in food industry. Accordingly, preparation technologies, phytochemistry, health benefits and application of black ginseng are comprehensively evaluated.
Aim: There was no qualitative study found in which individuals diagnosed with mental illness explained their views in detail about the use of medicinal plants. It is therefore thought that this study will fill this gap in the literature and guide mental health nurses in the field. The research was carried out to determine the use of medicinal plants by individuals diagnosed with mental illness. Method: This research was a qualitative study conducted using the case study design. Ten individuals diagnosed with mental illness for at least 10 years, determined by the purposeful sampling method were interviewed. The data were collected between March-April 2022 with information form and semi-structured interview form and analyzed with the content analysis method. Findings: Four of the participants had depression, four had anxiety and two had mood disorders. Themes were determined to be a source of healing (ointment for the soul, body tonic and organic & nature's miracles) and cultural accumulation (faith and inheritance, counseling helpline). Conclusion: Participants described medicinal plants as a source of healing, stating that medicinal plants are good for bodily and mental health, and provide purification. Individuals stated that the information about medicinal plants represent cultural accumulation as an inheritance, they applied them as a counseling helpline in case of illness. Implications for practice: The positive effects of medicinal plant use can be supported by mental health nurses. Considering that medicinal plants may interact with the drug treatment, the use of medicinal plants should be evaluated in detail by mental health nurses.
Aims: This study investigated the efficacy of Limosilactobacillus fermentum-fermented ginseng for improving colitis and the gut microbiota profiles in rats and explored the benefits of the Limosilactobacillus fermentum fermentation process to ginseng. Methods and results: Ginseng polysaccharide and ginsenoside from fermented ginseng were analysed by UV and HPLC. Antibiotic-fed rats were treated with fermented ginseng and a Limosilactobacillus fermentum-ginseng mixture. Histopathology- and immune-related factors (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10) of the colon were assayed by using pathological sections and ELISA. After treatment, fermented ginseng relieved the symptoms of antibiotic-induced diarrhoea and colon inflammation, and the expression of colon immune factors returned to normal. The gut microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results showed that the alterations in the gut microbiota returned to normal. In addition, the gut microbiota changes were correlated with immune factor expression after treatment. The fermented ginseng had better biological functions than a Limosilactobacillus fermentum-ginseng mixture. Conclusions: Fermented ginseng can relieve diarrhoea and colon inflammation and restore the gut microbiota to its original state. The process of Limosilactobacillus fermentum fermentation can expand the therapeutic use of ginseng. Significance and impact of the study: This research suggested the potential function of fermented ginseng to relieve diarrhoea and recover the gut microbiota to a normal level and explored the benefits of the Limosilactobacillus fermentum fermentation process to ginseng.
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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) has been used as a spice and medicine for over 200 years in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is an important plant with several medicinal, and nutritional values used in Asian and Chinese Tradition medicine. Ginger and its general compounds such as Fe, Mg, Ca, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds (gingerdiol, gingerol, gingerdione and shogaols), sesquiterpenes, paradols has long been used as an herbal medicine to treat various symptoms including vomiting, pain, cold symptoms and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumour activities, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-tumourigenic, anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant anti-diabetic, anti-clotting and analgesic properties, cardiotonic, cytotoxic. It has been widely used for arthritis,
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Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) as an important component of complementary and alternative medicine, evolved over thousands of years. Ginger and its general compounds such as Fe, Mg, Ca, vitamin C, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, sesquiterpenes, paradols has long been used as an herbal medicine to treat various symptoms including vomiting, pain, cold symptoms and it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor activities, anti-pyretic, anti-platelet, anti-tumourigenic, anti-hyperglycaemic, antioxidant anti-diabetic, anti-clotting and analgesic properties, cardiotonic, cytotoxic. It has been widely used for arthritis, cramps, sprains, sore throats, rheumatism, muscular aches, pains, vomiting, constipation, indigestion, hypertension, dementia, fever and infectious diseases. Ginger leaves have also been used for food flavouring in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Pharmacological activities of ginseng extracts are effects on the central nervous system; antipsychotic action; tranquilizing effects; protection from stress ulcers; increase of gastrointestinal motility; anti-fatigue action; endocrinological effects; enhancement of sexual behaviour; acceleration of metabolism; or synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, RNA and proteins. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, ginseng can help to maintain a healthy immune system. The obtained findings suggest potential of ginger extract as an additive in the food and pharmaceutical industries to have on organic life.
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Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been used for thousands of years by different generations in China and other Asian countries as foods to promote good health and as drugs to treat disease. Goji berry (Lycium barbarum), as a Chinese traditional herb and food supplement, contains many nutrients and phytochemicals, such as polysaccharides, scopoletin, the glucosylated precursor, amino acids, flaconoids, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals. It has positive effects on anitcancer, antioxidant activities, retinal function preservation, anti-diabetes, immune function and anti-fatigue. Widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, Goji berries can be sold as a dietary supplement or classified as nutraceutical food due to their long and safe traditional use. Modern Goji pharmacological actions are improving function, enhances the body ,s ability to adapt to a variety of noxious stimuli; it significantly inhibits the generation and spread of cancer cells and can improve eyesight and increase reserves of muscle glycogen and liver glycogen which may increase human energy and has anti-fatigue effect. Goji berries may improve brain function and enhances learning and memory. It may boost the body ,s adaptive defences, and significantly reduce the levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride, it may help weight loss and obesity and treats chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Today they are considered functional food with many beneficial effects, which is why they have become more popular recently, especially in Europe, North America and Australia, as they are considered as superfood with highly nutritive and antioxidant properties. Geographical origin of Goji berries are one of the most important quality parameters in TCM since the differences in climate, soil, and cultivation methods cause differences in the chemical composition of the plants. Goji berry has huge health benefits that attract good international markets. Goji berry which is as knows as the super fruit and super food in TCM for the claimed health benefits and it should be part of daily diet.
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Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a well-known traditional herbal medicine that plays a protective role against microbial attack. Several studies have revealed its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and immune-modulatory effects. Ginseng contains several components that vary according to the year of cultivation and the processing method used, such as heating, drying, and steaming, which induce different degrees of pharmacological activities. This review discusses the antibacterial effects of ginseng against pathogenic bacterial infections. We describe how ginseng regulates pathogenic factors that are harmful to the host and discuss the therapeutic potential of ginseng as a natural antibacterial drug to combat bacterial infectious disease, which is a global public health challenge. The components of ginseng could be novel alternatives to solve the growing problem of antibiotic resistance and toxicity.
Cytochrome P450 genes as the one of the largest superfamily genes mediate a wide range of plant biochemical pathways. In this study, a full-length cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (CYP736B) cDNA was isolated and characterized from Panax ginseng. It was revealed that the deduced amino acid of PgCYP736B shares a high degree of sequence homology with CYP736A12 encoded by P. ginseng. Expression of PgCYP736B was differentially induced not only during a Pseudomonas syringae infection (7.7-fold) and wounding (47.3-fold) but also after exposure to salt (7.4-fold), cold (8.3-fold), and drought stress (3.24-fold). The gene transcription was highly affected by methyl jasmonate (476-fold) in the ginseng, suggesting that PgCYP736B was elicitor-responsive. Furthermore, we overexpressed the PgCYP736B gene in Arabidopsis and found that PgCYP736B is a transmembrane protein. Overexpression of PgCYP736B in Arabidopsis conferred enhanced resistance to salt stress via decreased H2O2 accumulation, increased carotenoid levels, and through abscisic acid biosynthesis gene expression. Our results suggest that the induction of ginsenoside biosynthetic pathway genes along with PgCYP736B by an exogenous supply of 10–100 μM of squalene most likely affects the metabolite profile of ginsenoside triterpenoid. Overall, our findings indicate that PgCYP736B protects ginseng from salt stress and may contribute to triterpenoid biosynthesis.
Red ginseng (RG) and white ginseng (WG), two processed products of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, are in high demand due to their unique features. In this study, some of these unique features were identified and confirmed as biomarkers of RG by using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, data mining, support vector machine, and artificial neural network. Principal component analysis showed clear separation between the RG and WG extracts, indicating the presence of potential discriminators. In addition, 20 features that are dominant in RG were found by data mining. Samples of Panax quinquefolium (PQ) and Panax notoginseng (PN), close relatives of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, were investigated and it was found that 17 features which were absent in PQ and PN samples, were present in RG and WG. Five of these markers were identified as nitrogen-containing compounds that have not been previously reported. Finally, we found that RG can be identified among different ginseng medicinal herbs including RG, WG, PQ, and PN samples, by loading four feature markers corresponding to nitrogen-containing compounds into a discriminating model, based on a support vector machine or an artificial neural network. Thus, this study provides an efficient tool to identify RG during pharmacological research.
Rare ginsenoside Rh4 and its aglycone are present in low levels in Panax ginseng. This study focused on achieving ginsenoside Rh4 and its aglycone by microbial transformation of the total saponins of stems and leaves of P. ginseng (TSSLG). A total of 78 fungal strains isolated from the rhizosphere soil of P. ginseng, and one of them, Aspergillus tubingensis, was found to be capable of biotransformation of TSSLG to ginsenoside Rh4 and its aglycone with high efficiency, especially the content of ginsenoside Rh4 aglycone was enhanced 100 folds over than that in the original TSSLG. Compared with ginsenoside Rg3 (named ShenYi capsule as antitumor drug in China), ginsenoside Rh4 aglycone exhibited stronger antitumor activity against human cancer cell lines SGC-7901, KB-A-1 and HT-1080. The possible biotransformation pathways of ginsenoside Rh4 and its aglycone were speculated according to the chemical structures. The anticancer binding-target, myeloid cell leukemia 1 protein (MCL-1), was explored using molecular docking analysis and the possible combination mechanism was discussed.
Rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) domains were isolated from ginseng pectin by alkali saponification and endo-polygalacturonase hydrolysis, then purified by anion-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Monoclonal antibody detection indicated that ginseng RG-I contained →4)-α-GalpA-(1→2)-α-Rhap-(1→ repeating units as backbone, with arabinan, galactan and type II arabinogalactan (AG-II) as side chains. The use of galactose- and arabinose-releasing enzymes, mass spectrometry analysis of the oligosaccharides generated by rhamnogalacturonan hydrolase, and glycosidic linkage analyses provided evidence that ginseng RG-I contains both single galactose-branched subunits and highly branched subunits with arabinan and AG-II side chains. RG-II was analyzed by sequential acid hydrolysis followed by mass spectrometry. Ginseng RG-II contains 9 galacturonic acid units as backbone. Side chain A is an octasaccharide with 0 ∼ 1 methyl ether group. Side chain B is a nonasaccharide with 0 ∼ 1 acetyl group. These results provide useful information for further investigation of structure-activity relationship of ginseng pectin.