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More-Than Human Centred Design: Considering Other Things

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Abstract

This paper responds to contemporary design contexts that frequently contain complex interdependencies of human and non-human actants. To adequately represent these perspectives requires a shift towards More-Than Human Centred Design. The Internet of Things (IoT) is one context that demonstrates this need. The ‘things’ within such networks transcend their physical forms and extend to include algorithms, humans, data, business models, etc. and each imports independent-but-interdependent motivations and perspectives. Therefore, we use the IoT to clarify our proposition and to convey our three contributions. First, we review the expanding corpus of contemporary Human–Computer Interaction research that seeks to expand the notion of Human Centred Design by moving beyond the dominant anthropocentric perspective. Second, we introduce a novel design metaphor, ‘constellations’, which allows both the interdependencies and independent perspectives to be considered. Third, we provide an account of a speculative design to demonstrate how it may be put into practice.

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... The origins of the term More-than-Human appears to originate in the field of cultural geography (Whatmore, 2006) where it has been employed to promote a shift from largely anthropocentric perspectives to one that acknowledges our relationships to and within complex ecological assemblages. As Coulton & Lindley (2019) argue, designers need to acknowledge humans are rarely the centre of things but rather we exist within complex interdependences of human and non-human actants which are emotionally, economically and morally independent of each other. This creates the need for MtHCD. ...
... This means to broadening of design considerations is behind Coulton and Lindley's (2019) introduction of constellations which seek to expose the independent and interdependent perspectives that exist throughout networked assemblages. We build upon this concept in Figure 2. Our Defuturing Ontography illustrates the defuturing potential of such human/nonhuman design assemblages and places particular emphasis on the impacts relating to the production, operation and disposal of our current IoT products and related services. ...
... Defuturing Ontography (building uponCoulton & Lindley, 2019). ...
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A more-than-human right-Abstract: Whilst the recent introduction of the Right-to-Repair to European citizens is undoubtedly a step forward in tackling planned obsolescence, and the resultant deluge of electronic product waste-the efficacy of this new legislation is reliant on consumers availing themselves of this right. Given that repairing and maintaining devices will often require specialist knowledge and skills, it is difficult to assess how effective this right may prove to be in practice. To address this concern, we draw from the expanding infusion of datafication and Artificial Intelligence into everyday products and services via the Internet of Things to consider alternative futures whereby the Right-to-Repair is granted to the device itself. Building upon More-than-Human-Centred Design approaches, we explore the potential embodiment for such a perspective and present two Speculative Designs that concretise this consideration: the Toaster for Life and The Three Rights of AI Things.
... Whilst the term HDI might suggest an alignment with the approaches associated with Human Centred Design (HCD), which seeks to maintain the perspective on the human-being as the central consideration, we instead align this research with more-than HCD considerations, which see the human as just another 'thing' within hyper-connected and data-mediated assemblages (Coulton & Lindley, 2019). For example, this approach sees the things within such networks as much more than their physical forms and extend to include algorithms, humans, data, business models, regulations, climate, nefarious actants, etc. ...
... This manifests as the proposition that perspectives derived by human minds and bodies are not the only ones worth considering. It is particularly challenging for many technology designers because of the ubiquity and dogmatic predilection for HCD in commercial settings and education alike (Coulton & Lindley, 2019). Although we are in effect problematising HCD, our argument is primarily against how it manifests itself in designed artefacts, and we do this to promote equality for outcomes that address the common good as well as outcomes which promote the interests of the individual. ...
... This perhaps indicates could be due to the setting in which the experience takes place or perhaps the beguiling nature of voice which may present a problem for future IoT systems in that, if their security is compromised, voice may present nefarious hackers a highly effective means of phishing. The need to 'design in' negotiability is also made clear when considering 'More-Than Human Centred' theory (Coulton and Lindley, 2019). Most designed things, and the components that make them up, operate familiarly and there is no need to negotiate consent around their use. ...
Conference Paper
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... The origins of the term More-than-Human appears to originate in the field of cultural geography (Whatmore, 2006) where it has been employed to promote a shift from largely anthropocentric perspectives to one that acknowledges our relationships to and within complex ecological assemblages. As Coulton & Lindley (2019) argue, designers need to acknowledge humans are rarely the centre of things but rather we exist within complex interdependences of human and non-human actants which are emotionally, economically and morally independent of each other. This creates the need for MtHCD. ...
... This means to broadening of design considerations is behind Coulton and Lindley's (2019) introduction of constellations which seek to expose the independent and interdependent perspectives that exist throughout networked assemblages. We build upon this concept in Figure 2. Our Defuturing Ontography illustrates the defuturing potential of such human/nonhuman design assemblages and places particular emphasis on the impacts relating to the production, operation and disposal of our current IoT products and related services. ...
... Defuturing Ontography (building uponCoulton & Lindley, 2019). ...
Conference Paper
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... The shift has also highlighted the relational character of design demanding to position intelligence neither in the machine nor in the human, but in their relations [36,41]. Lastly, it has required designers to expand the scope of their inquiry from a single archetypical user with an archetypical product to multiple products, services, and stakeholders with various roles and relations to each other, which in turns, questions the adequacy of human-centered design [11,18,20,28]. ...
... The first line of work consists of theories and concepts that help us understand what it means to have a MTH approach in design. So far, the theoretical ground for MTHD has been established by introducing and discussing the design relevance of various post-humanistic theories and concepts to the field (see the seminal work of [11], [16], [18], [28], [42]), which refers to various theories including Actor-Network Theory [29], Object-oriented Ontology [25], New Materialism [5], Agential Realism [2], and post-Phenomenology [27]. These pioneering works paved the way for studying and discussing the values and principles underlying a MTH approach to design. ...
... Scholars have also highlighted the politics and ethics of MTHD, with issues of participation [10], supporting values such as equality and justice, and including perspectives (humans and nonhumans) that have been traditionally ignored in design processes [1,16]. Some of these issues were highlighted in various design fictions [11,34,35,38,39]. ...
Conference Paper
The last decade has witnessed the expansion of design space to include the epistemologies and methodologies of more-than-human design (MTHD). Design researchers and practitioners have been in- creasingly studying, designing for, and designing with nonhumans. This panel will bring together HCI experts who work on MTHD with different nonhumans as their subjects. Panelists will engage the audience through discussion of their shared and diverging vi- sions, perspectives, and experiences, and through suggestions for opportunities and challenges for the future of MTHD. The panel will provoke the audience into reflecting on how the emergence of MTHD signals a paradigm shift in HCI and human-centered design, what benefits this shift might bring and whether MTH should become the mainstream approach, as well as how to involve nonhumans in design and research.
... To move beyond a limited perspective around objects, some researchers have articulated the importance and challenges of constellation design. Researchers have used constellation as a metaphor to describe the complex relationships where people, objects, environments, and data are entangled [14,31]. While recent studies mainly focus on a theory-driven exploration to provide a conceptual or theoretical understanding of constellations [20,30,31], there is a lack of studies exploring a practical approach and tool to support designers to investigate constellation design in everyday practice. ...
... Another line of research seeks to expand thing-centred design towards a broader view and emphasize the needs of constellation design where people, objects, data, algorithms, and the environment are entangled [14,20,31]. Recent work puts much effort into shaping the notion of constellations through a theory-driven exploration [14,20,31]. ...
... Another line of research seeks to expand thing-centred design towards a broader view and emphasize the needs of constellation design where people, objects, data, algorithms, and the environment are entangled [14,20,31]. Recent work puts much effort into shaping the notion of constellations through a theory-driven exploration [14,20,31]. Coulton and Lindley used a constellation metaphor to encompass the interdependent and independent relationships between humans, non-human actants, and environments. ...
Preprint
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Designing future IoT ecosystems requires new approaches and perspectives to understand everyday practices. While researchers recognize the importance of understanding social aspects of everyday objects, limited studies have explored the possibilities of combining data-driven patterns with human interpretations to investigate emergent relationships among objects. This work presents Thing Constellation Visualizer (thingCV), a novel interactive tool for visualizing the social network of objects based on their co-occurrence as computed from a large collection of photos. ThingCV enables perspective-changing design explorations over the network of objects with scalable links. Two exploratory workshops were conducted to investigate how designers navigate and make sense of a network of objects through thingCV. The results of eight participants showed that designers were actively engaged in identifying interesting objects and their associated clusters of related objects. The designers projected social qualities onto the identified objects and their communities. Furthermore, the designers changed their perspectives to revisit familiar contexts and to generate new insights through the exploration process. This work contributes a novel approach to combining data-driven models with designerly interpretations of thing constellation towards More-Than Human-Centred Design of IoT ecosystems.
... Recent years have seen a rise in human-computer interaction (HCI) research aimed at improving our understanding of the interactions between nature and humans to support more sustainable interactions with our environment [2,3]. The concept of non-anthropocentrism in HCI [4][5][6] encourages alternate design paradigms that can respond to the environmental crisis and sustain both human and non-human life. Lawrence and Philips [7] propose that whale watching is a crucial example of economic activity emerging from the radical changes in the societal understanding of nature and animals [8]. ...
... Home screen for the Experts.(3) Home screen for the Non-Experts.(4,5,6) Series of screens showcasing the information about the species for the Non-Experts. ...
Article
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Life-supporting ecosystems are facing impending destruction. The human–computer interaction (HCI) community must rethink how to design technological interventions that reconcile concepts and theories for ecological computing. Proponents of sustainable HCI have pushed for tools and systems that aim to decenter the human in a shift toward posthuman design—a theoretical approach that challenges the assumption that only humans are stakeholders of technology as it increasingly shapes the future. Building on the iconic value of whales and the economic impact of whale watching as a form of ecotourism, we developed Aqua, a digital tool that leverages the potential of citizen science to engage tourists in marine-biodiversity awareness and conservation. This manuscript is advancing the field of sustainable HCI and tourism applications in two ways: first, we deliver an artifact contribution by designing and implementing a digital tool to enhance whale-watching activities. Second, we offer an empirical research contribution through observation and data gathering while comparing participants’ experiences of a whale-watching trip with and without the digital tool. Finally, preliminary insights are provided to inform the design of future digital tools aimed at promoting environmental conservation and citizen-science approaches among tourists. This work presents progression in understanding and informs the design of digital tools to engage tourists in novel and sustainable experiences.
... Based on past and current developments in shareable information systems of collective intelligence (Malone and Bernstein 2015) and combined with recent observations by design scholars (e.g. Chan, Wong, and Kwong 2018;Cooper 2019;Coulton and Lindley 2019;Giaccardi and Redström 2020;Höök and Löwgren 2021) about the new complex forms of computing which designers engage with (e.g. the economic and social structure changes from the various technological development), collective computing can be expected to influence the content and the organisation of the design process. Therefore, this article explores the transformations of design activities during collective computing to establish a future vision of the role of design in the collective computing era, with practical and actionable guidance for designers. ...
... (135) Other recent design scholars have followed this vision while describing the new complex forms of computing with which designers engage. Cooper (2019), Giaccardi and Redström (2020), and Coulton and Lindley (2019) argue that designers face contextual and methodological transformation owing to the changes in the economic and social structures made by the advancement in connectedness through Internet of Things technologies, big data, and artificial intelligence (including algorithm and machine learning). Höök and Löwgren (2021) specify the economic and social structural changes from an interaction design perspective: a movement towards a hybrid of physical and digital materials, an emergence of a complex and fluid digital ecology accessible to many, and constant autonomous changes (updating based on the usage behaviour) in the system we design. ...
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In this study, we envision engineering design activities for collective computing, an upcoming era of complex systems of massive social interaction through a wide variety of connected computing devices. A literature review reveals how collective computing, compared to the previous eras of personal and ubiquitous computing, may lead to new design tasks and design processes, as well as new roles for designers. Based on this review, new design activities for the collective computing era are envisioned, and further revised in an interview study with 24 informants. The result is a vision for design in the collective computing era, with actionable guidance for designers in terms of a coherent set of new design activities proposed in relation to advances in computing.
... However, in this work we aim to shift away from previous approaches of using living matter in interaction design as strictly materials, tools, or controlled media, and towards a relationship between the living organism and the human user. We do so by proposing an organism-centered design approach, inspired by more-than-human notions of design [13,54,71] and the livingness of the organism [35] at the center of the interaction. In order to preserve the livingness quality of the organism and prioritize its needs and well-being, our design approach focuses first on the environments in which the organism can thrive in and proceed to explore the available interactions within those environments. ...
... In this work, we specifically address this by focusing on the environments preferred by the organism; thus first establishing boundaries and design constraints based on the comfortable environment of the non-human organism, and only then proceeding to explore the available interactions within those environments. Perhaps this practice reinforces nonanthropocentric design thinking [13], especially considering that the design medium is a dynamic living entity, as opposed to nonliving electronic components and static materials. ...
... This relationship is discussed through more-than-human design approaches, in relation to networked devices including the Internet of Things (Coulton & Lindley, 2019;Giaccardi & Redström, 2020), sustainability in HCI and media architecture (Foth & Caldwell, 2018), and bioethics (Lupton, 2020). The more-than-human approach states that design should be able to create desirable relations between people and emerging interactive technologies as technology itself has different types of agency. ...
... Future work should explore how the model can be extended to enable discussions about ethical consequences of biodesign, as well as the kinds of technologies that should be produced (Gough & Pschetz et al., 2020), and how they may change different aspects of everyday life (Gough, Forman & Pataranutaporn et al., 2021). Design methods then need to be developed in order to evaluate the "interdependent-but-independent" (Coulton & Lindley, 2019) relationship of the designer and an organism participating in the designed object. ...
Article
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The nascent field of biodesign creates novel applications of life sciences through design methods. Biodesign has the potential to shift interactive computational systems from using purely digital components to systems that integrate living organisms. However, there is a lack of understanding of biodesign and how it advances HCI. We present a review of 41 papers published in ACM Digital Library, IEEE Explore digital library and the Design and Applied Arts Index. We found that existing literature describes aspects of biodesign theory, design processes and artefacts, and educational environments, but not holistically. Based on the findings, we define biodesign as the application of the bioaffordances of an organism. We contribute the Bio-Inquiry model: a methodology connecting user-centred, scientific and critical inquiries to inform the design of interactive artefacts. We discuss the opportunities at the intersection of biodesign and HCI to consider the nature of future technologies.
... Designers of many kinds (Coulton and Lindley, 2019;Gorkovenko et al., 2020) and their supporting industries (Raustiala and Sprigman, 2019) have well understood the value that can be derived from using data in their creative and innovation activities (Varshney et al., 2013;Rousseaux, 2017;Chaudhuri and Koltun, 2010). This phenomenon is eminently observable in large-scale industrial settings where products and services are underpinned by datasets of often inordinate size, captured en masse in quantitative form, with a heterogeneous composition and lack of context that requires considerable data work to turn into actionable information (Kun et al., 2019(Kun et al., , 2020. ...
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The capture and analysis of diverse data is widely recognized as being vital to the design of new products and services across the digital economy. We focus on its use to inspire the co-design of visitor experiences in museums as a distinctive case that reveals opportunities and challenges for the use of personal data. We present a portfolio of data-inspired visiting experiences that emerged from a 3-year Research Through Design process. These include the overlay of virtual models on physical exhibits, a smartphone app for creating personalized tours as gifts, visualizations of emotional responses to exhibits, and the data-driven use of ideation cards. We reflect across our portfolio to articulate the diverse ways in which data can inspire design through the use of ambiguity, visualization, and inter-personalization; how data inspire co-design through the process of co-ideation, co-creation, and co-interpretation; and how its use must negotiate the challenges of privacy, ownership, and transparency. By adopting a human perspective on data, we are able to chart out the complex and rich information that can inform design activities and contribute to datasets that can drive creativity support systems.
... Finally, we show a use-case of the in situ programmable-composite that is created using the design-fiction method [59,60]. Figure 7 shows a conceptual diagram of an in situ programmable-composite called a multi-viewpoint aerial projection. ...
Article
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In this paper, we propose a conceptual-model called the virtualizing/reframing (V/R) twin model to construct a digitally enhanced real world. The V/R twin model simulates the real world, and is an extension of the conventional digital-twin model, which can accurately model the real world and provides a general-purpose method for building digital services that enhance the real world. The major difference between the proposed model and the conventional digital-twin model is its consideration of diverse new information-presentation devices that have been recently developed. The V/R twin model is inspired by agential realism to include the “entanglement of the social and the material”, and the proposed observable-world consists of the social and material that are separate, according to the current context. After explaining the outline of the V/R twin model, where four virtualizing-patterns and reframing-patterns are introduced, the potential opportunities for the V/R twin model are examined, from multiple perspectives.
... This is due to the fact that literary criticism is a mirror of modern society. At the initial stage, most theories were human centric, concerned with human value and not with non-human nature (Coulton & Lindley, 2019). These theories originated due to socio-economic changes in society. ...
Article
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Ecocriticism is a reaction to the increase in environmental consciousness. It is a kind of literary criticism that focuses on how literary writings contribute to ecology. Ecological theory is used to examine the interaction between the biological environment and the text. It looks at the aesthetics of literature and the philosophical connections between people, the environment, and texts. This article within the domain of ecocriticism aims at analysing Okam’s writing style as it interplays with the propensity of Ameshi villagers in Difu to confirm the people’s raison d’être. However, Hubert Zapf’s theory of imaginative literature is employed to interpret the nature of cultural interconnectedness and diversity in the masterpiece under the aegis of the hypothetico-deductive method and the literary cultural-ecological approach. These methodologies imply that new hypotheses are derived from spontaneous relational conversations between the characters in the drama and their environment, which serve as reservoirs of cultural-ecological knowledge. This study begins with a discussion of ecocriticism in literature, followed by a description of the theory of creative literature to expand on Hubert Zapf’s ideas and confirm results from evaluating the playwright’s ecopoiesis and characters’ econoesis in certain extracted samples of Difu. Finally, it shows the interconnectedness of nature in the play vis-à-vis Ameshi’s culture. Keywords: ecopoiesis; econoesis; cultural ecology; drama; literature; Difu; theory of imaginative literature (TIL).
... But our process suggests alternatives, such as robots as art, robots as part of the public sphere, and robots to support nature. This is in line with recent calls for taking a more-than human centered design perspective when shaping complex technologies like robots [15,23]. For example, imagining a robot as a guardian of nature (rather than the human), which clears ...
... A recent appeal in The Lancet Digital Health stressed this very point [99]. In addition, several researchers have called for moving beyond the dominant anthropocentric perspective to include nonhuman perspectives [100,101]. As Giaccardi and Redström [101] describe, we may at some point reach the boundaries of what can be conceived through UCD and HCD processes. ...
Article
Human-centered design (HCD) is widely regarded as the best design approach for creating eHealth innovations that align with end users’ needs, wishes, and context and has the potential to impact health care. However, critical reflections on applying HCD within the context of eHealth are lacking. Applying a critical eye to the use of HCD approaches within eHealth, we present and discuss 9 limitations that the current practices of HCD in eHealth innovation often carry. The limitations identified range from limited reach and bias to narrow contextual and temporal focus. Design teams should carefully consider if, how, and when they should involve end users and other stakeholders in the design process and how they can combine their insights with existing knowledge and design skills. Finally, we discuss how a more critical perspective on using HCD in eHealth innovation can move the field forward and offer 3 directions of inspiration to improve our design practices: value-sensitive design, citizen science, and more-than-human design. Although value-sensitive design approaches offer a solution to some of the biased or limited views of traditional HCD approaches, combining a citizen science approach with design inspiration and imagining new futures could widen our view on eHealth innovation. Finally, a more-than-human design approach will allow eHealth solutions to care for both people and the environment. These directions can be seen as starting points that invite and support the field of eHealth innovation to do better and to try and develop more inclusive, fair, and valuable eHealth innovations that will have an impact on health and care.
... The relation between human and non-human's bodies currently represents our relationship with the other in self-tracking systems. More-than Human ignores this emphasis on the body, shedding a new perspective on how we construct and experience the world and our relations to each other or 'things' (Coulton & Lindley, 2019). If we understand how ourselves and other things experience the world, we can try to replicate this in our future self-tracking systems and make data experiences more meaningful. ...
... 263] [93] that a human-computer interface is not 'an a priori or self-evident boundary between bodies and machines [but] a relation enacted in particular settings and one, moreover, that shifts over time', or Kitchin's critical unpacking of the nature of algorithms [61]. The shifting nature of data-driven systems further blurs any boundaries between design and context, requiring an understanding of the ways that components are fluidly brought together and coevolve [26,42]. Agential realism uses the notion of agential cuts to work with this idea that the entities under discussion are not fixed, but rather we need to draw a boundary and look at what happens across this boundary. ...
Preprint
Critical examinations of AI systems often apply principles such as fairness, justice, accountability, and safety, which is reflected in AI regulations such as the EU AI Act. Are such principles sufficient to promote the design of systems that support human flourishing? Even if a system is in some sense fair, just, or 'safe', it can nonetheless be exploitative, coercive, inconvenient, or otherwise conflict with cultural, individual, or social values. This paper proposes a dimension of interactional ethics thus far overlooked: the ways AI systems should treat human beings. For this purpose, we explore the philosophical concept of respect: if respect is something everyone needs and deserves, shouldn't technology aim to be respectful? Despite its intuitive simplicity, respect in philosophy is a complex concept with many disparate senses. Like fairness or justice, respect can characterise how people deserve to be treated; but rather than relating primarily to the distribution of benefits or punishments, respect relates to how people regard one another, and how this translates to perception, treatment, and behaviour. We explore respect broadly across several literatures, synthesising perspectives on respect from Kantian, post-Kantian, dramaturgical, and agential realist design perspectives with a goal of drawing together a view of what respect could mean for AI. In so doing, we identify ways that respect may guide us towards more sociable artefacts that ethically and inclusively honour and recognise humans using the rich social language that we have evolved to interact with one another every day.
... From autonomous vehicles to domestic robots, from sensing surfaces to wearable devices: the smartness of everyday things enabled by the technical development and real-life experimentation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) reshapes the landscape of human environments, populating them with artifact ecologies (Bødker and Saad-Sulonen, 2017) or constellations (Coulton and Lindley, 2019). These systems can be understood as extremely fluid assemblages (Redström and Wiltse, 2018) which exist in and across human scales of activities -individual, collective, urban, social. ...
Conference Paper
With artificial intelligence being tirelessly trained and constantly learning about subjects and objects inhabiting given environments, whole new ecosystems have been rising and developing, where beings and things are equally entangled in boundaries, connections and relationships, capable of enacting their own agencies at any time.In fact, since everyday life becomes more and more home to smart objects related to the Internet of Things paradigm at different scales of innovation - private, social, urban systems -, the resulting overcrowded ecologies seem to ask to be tackled through design approaches focusing not only on artifacts understood at a limited stage of use and as passive tools related to human agency only. Autonomous vehicles, robots, sensing surfaces, recording devices are populating society in increasing numbers, pushing the social sphere towards its more-than-human futures. In this sense, the resulting computational environment produces a more-than-human experience, with all its clustering, classifying and patterning information happening almost instantaneously and often without the need of a perceiving subject. This leads to a significant change in the way information is experienced and used: examining the interlocking nature of humans and technology by looking at the way technology is humanised, and humans are technologised, it seems that smart objects are gaining complex features like being deliberative, reflectional, experiential and communicative, allowing them to produce both reflectional knowledge, - namely knowledge which humans can use to think about phenomena with new insights - and actionable knowledge - namely knowledge which non-human actants can use to do things and achieve goals. Thus, human knowledge and data-driven knowledge promote specific values, influencing collective life, launching a twofold challenge in overcrowded ecologies: from one side, designers might address thing factors so that they could sense and understand the world through more-than-human values; from the other side designers might address being factors to build meaning through shared values.As both beings and things learn and act, the world is full of extended agencies, where it is not worth distinguishing whether humans extend their own agency through objects or vice versa. According to the “hybrid” behaviorism making its way and leading to new insights for design culture, the contribution aims at investigating more-than-human factors and values in times of hyper-communication, where contemporary landscapes appear so heterogeneously populated, that embracing diversity and the radical interdependence it entails means grasping the diverse needs of design beneficiaries, be they beings or things. Synthetic and organic agency, natural and machinical ones: it is very likely that designers will not only design with them, but also for them: networks of natural and computational entities can in fact be thought of not only given objects - wheter they be enabler or disabler - but agents participating in the design space, triggering the development of corresponding design methods, frameworks, and practices to better address the challenges to be faced today as a planet. Thus, designing in overcrowded ecologies becomes a matter of care and inspires designers into shaping more-than-human communities, expanding their disciplinary areas of practice as an exercise of stewardship within society.
... Biomaterials have currently been used within the field of HCI to create a variety of interactive interfaces including displays [5,6,21,24,36], wearable devices [2,7,14,26,38,39,44], art [1,9,22,28], instruments [20], systems [4,15,16,23], games [11,18,19,23,27], and robots [10,30]. The use of biomaterials in interface design not only highlights a trend towards sustainability in HCI [8,25,32], but also towards more-than-human design goals that consider the interdependencies of humans and other living things [12,34]. ...
... Diverse voices call to move 'beyond' human-centred design towards more-than-human-centred or posthuman design (e.g., Coulton & Lindley, 2019;Forlano, 2017;Wakkary, 2021). Human-centred design is said to narrow our perspectives and is blamed for the existential threat of climate change, ongoing extinctions of other species, and social injustice (e.g., Wakkary, 2021). ...
Conference Paper
Children affected by cancer often require repeated hospitalisations. The impact of the material hospital environment on children's well-being receives growing attention across various disciplines. Yet, because of their ‘double vulnerability’ – being children and being ill – young people affected by cancer are less considered as direct research participants. We set out to put the experiences of these children at the centre of attention. To do justice to the complexity of their interactions with the material hospital environment, we brought together concepts and insights from childhood studies; scholarship in anthropology and philosophy; theories on materiality; and design research; and combined these with fieldwork in a children’s oncology ward and day-care ward. By interweaving different lines of inquiry, we exemplify how fusing theoretical and empirical work in a transdisciplinary way allows advancing both social sciences and design research and invites to adopt a nuanced way a seeing.
... In addition, Alganyl could be used to raise designers' awareness about sustainability in their practices and direct them towards biodegradable and/or easily recyclable biomaterials. Thus, we encourage shifting away from the traditional human-centered design goals [72] that dominate HCI towards more-than-human design goals that consider the interdependencies of humans and other living things [24,90]. We see Alganyl particularly impacting the ways designers and HCI researchers prototype, thinking of the "life cycle" of materials when creating prototypes that could be easily re-cooked and re-fabricated into another prototype, encouraging lots of iterations without impacting the environment. ...
... In addition, Alganyl could be used to raise designers' awareness about sustainability in their practices and direct them towards biodegradable and/or easily recyclable biomaterials. Thus, we encourage shifting away from the traditional human-centered design goals [72] that dominate HCI towards more-than-human design goals that consider the interdependencies of humans and other living things [24,90]. We see Alganyl particularly impacting the ways designers and HCI researchers prototype, thinking of the "life cycle" of materials when creating prototypes that could be easily re-cooked and re-fabricated into another prototype, encouraging lots of iterations without impacting the environment. ...
... Methodological approach The approach is based on some theoretical concept and the implementation of several processes for the design's reality. The technique to build systems with accessibility and usability is based on empirical approximation and guidance [21], [22]. This type of design may not be the best option, but we believe that it is the most suitable starting point for future research, in designing a system using a methodological approach to available safety. ...
... However, the real potentiality of CollectiveEars that can be achieved is to offer abilities beyond human's hearing capabilities. New technological capabilities are starting to give nonhuman actors decision-making abilities, thereby allowing for an active form of agency [1,2]. This new trend will be meaningful to improve the potential power in future CollectiveEars for offering a deep impact on our social creativity. ...
... Latour advanced actor-network theory, which advocates for reaching an understanding of the relations between networks of human and non-human actors as equally relevant in shaping issues (Latour, 2005). In place of human-centered design, disruptive technologies inaugurate a new paradigm, defined as "posthuman" (Forlano, 2017) or "more-than-human" (Coulton & Lindley, 2019;Giaccardi & Redström, 2020). Both notions emphasise a decentering of the human, where users become only one of the interconnected agents that can influence a system's outcome. ...
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Due to the novel design paradigm brought about by artificial intelligence (AI), addictive technology is becoming more common and harder to resist. In order to counterbalance the rise of technological addiction, an effort should be made by all the actors involved in the complex world of addictive digital experiences. This paper focuses on the role of designers. It is based on a literature review on addiction to digital experiences based on the evolution of human–machine interactions, highlighting challenges brought by AI within the emerging “more-than-human” perspective. The introduction of a systemic perspective that considers new meeting points between datasets and algorithms can help designers understand how their products can lead to addiction and how addiction is created in the context of “AI factories”. By reinforcing their ethical approach and treating AI as a design material, UX designers can become the bearers of a more responsible mindset and re-humanize addictive technology.
... • Human centred era : There will more emphasis on human approaches in both the workplace and the customer point of view. Everything related to a business that affects a customer's perception and feelings becomes essential and by delegating the thinking tasks to machines and AI, tasks with emotive and human nature will become highlighted in the workplace for workforce to focus on [42], [43], [44]. Increasing demands for emotive skills will result in more emotive training and management classes and courses both in workplace and educational sectors [45]. ...
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Smart industry appears as the result of a continuous evolution of sociological factors, economical changes and several technological enablers i.e., Artificial Intelligence, Cloud Computing, Internet of things, etc. Its main objective responds to the need to streamline and make more flexible industrial processes by having high levels of process automation and by supporting operators with thinking activities. While a lot of research is being carried out to push such technical endeavour, we notice a considerable gap in human centred features more specifically empathetic and emotive skills and the consideration of such soft skills in incoming new generation of industry. Such soft skills are revised by trans-disciplinary fields i.e., Feeling economy and can be applied and harmonised with the current Smart industry conception. Thus, main objective of this work is to introduce and discuss a new model and initial ideas of a new generation of industry with a deeper focus on affective, emotive and deeply human-centring namely “Feeling Smart Industry”.
... Zur Realisierung von hybrider Intelligenz müssen zukünftige soziotechnische Systeme wie Social Machines so gestaltet werden, dass ihre technischen Systeme über 3 Haupteigenschaften verfügen, die sich zusammengefasst als kollaborativ-interaktiv lernend (engl. Collaborative Interactive Learning, CIL) bezeichnen lassen [3,37] [5,8]. Auch Agency (Handlungsfähigkeit) muss in Vernetzung und hybride gedacht werden [21]. ...
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Zusammenfassung Social Machines sind ein Paradigma für die Gestaltung soziotechnischer Systeme, die unter Verwendung von Web- und Plattformlösungen das Potenzial digitaler Technologien mit der Eigenlogik sozialer Interaktion, Organisation und Strukturbildung auf neue Weise zusammenführen. Im Folgenden diskutieren wir das Paradigma der Social Machine aus den Perspektiven der Informatik, der Wirtschaftsinformatik, der Soziologie und des Rechts, um Orientierungspunkte für seine Gestaltung zu identifizieren. Der Begriff ist in der Literatur jedoch bisher nicht abschließend definiert sondern nur durch Beispiele illustriert. In diesem Artikel stellen wir zunächst die folgende Definition zur Diskussion: Social Machines sind soziotechnische Systeme, in denen die Prozesse sozialer Interaktion hybrid zwischen menschlichen und maschinellen Akteuren ablaufen und teilweise algorithmisiert sind. Im Anschluss beleuchten wir drei aktuelle, sich gegenseitig bedingende Entwicklungen von Social Machines: die immer stärkere Verschmelzung von Sozialität und Maschine, die Vermessung von Nutzeraktivitäten als Grundstoff gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhalts und die zunehmende Algorithmisierung gesellschaftlicher Prozesse. Abschließend diskutieren wir, dass eine teilhabeorientierte, demokratischen Werten folgende Gestaltung von Social Machines die Perspektiven der Nutzungsakzeptanz, der gesellschaftlichen Akzeptabilität und der nachhaltigen Wirtschaftlichkeit adressieren und umsetzen muss.
... Even though design has been increasingly adopted as a practice to deal with public sector challenges, several criticisms have been made of both the practice, and designers' ability to deal with the complexity of public sector challenges. These criticisms centre on three themes: inability of design to prompt or equip designers to understand and deal with this complexity (Dorst, 2019a(Dorst, , 2019bSevaldson, 2013), overfocus on a user or user group at the expense of other users or system elements (Coulton & Lindley, 2019;Sevaldson, 2018;Steen, 2011), and the tendency of design as a practice to degenerate into a formulaic process (Aguirre Ulloa, 2020). The overall implication of these criticisms is that design as it is practised today is unable to counter the criticisms of reductionist approaches in dealing with complex problems, and thus, is not the valuable alternative approach that has been called for. ...
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Researchers and practitioners alike are in general agreement that the public sector is increasingly tasked with managing ‘complex problems’. Many authors have warned that the established practices in government are not sufficient to deal with such problems. The integration of systems thinking in design practice has been advocated as a promising approach to understand and more effectively deal with the increasing complexity of societal challenges. However, the literature on systemic design largely remains in the academic and theoretical discussions. In 2020, the Australian Taxation Office (ATO) has pioneered the development and implementation of systemic design as its approach to designing and delivering change. This article outlines practice insights into the ATO's systemic design framework, including its applications to a range of initiatives, including the stimulus measures resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. It discusses early insights into considerations of implementing systemic design at scale. Future research should focus on the implementation factors that may enable or inhibit its successful adoption.
... However, there is a growing awareness that there are significant shortcomings of HCD (e.g., Coulton and Lindley 2019;DiSalvo and Lukens 2011;Forlano 2016Forlano , 2017Frauenberger 2019;Giaccardi 2019;Giaccardi and Redström 2020). As we argue here, widely adopted designed products we use in our lives daily may have been designed in part to produce value for users, yet simultaneously this goal has been bundled with corporate agendas and desires, data mining operations, choice control and nudging mechanisms. ...
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In the face of massively increased technological complexity, it is striking that so many of today’s computational and networked things follow design ideals honed decades ago in a much different context. These strong ideals prescribe a presentation of things as useful tools through design and a withdrawal of aspects of their functionality and complexity. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, we trace this ‘withdrawal program’ as it has persisted in the face of increasing computational complexity. Currently, design is in a dilemma where computational products can be seen as brilliantly designed and engaging to use yet can also be considered very problematic in how they support hidden agendas and often seem less than trustworthy. In this article, we analyse factors shaping this emergent ethical dilemma and reveal the concept of a widening rift between what computational things actually are and do and the ways in which they are presented as things for use . Against this backdrop, we argue that there is a need for a new orientation in design programs to adequately address this deepening rupture between the aesthetics and ethics in the design of computational things.
... But our process suggests alternatives, such as robots as art, robots as part of the public sphere, and robots to support nature. This is in line with recent calls for taking a more-than human centered design perspective when shaping complex technologies like robots [15,23]. For example, imagining a robot as a guardian of nature (rather than the human), which clears ...
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The word "robot" frequently conjures unrealistic expectations of utilitarian perfection: tireless, efficient, and flawless agents. However, real-world robots are far from perfect—they fail and make mistakes. Thus, roboticists should consider altering their current assumptions and cultivating new perspectives that account for a more complete range of robot roles, behaviors, and interactions. To encourage this, we explore the use of metaphors for generating novel ideas and reframing existing problems, eliciting new perspectives of human-robot interaction. Our work makes two contributions. We (1) surface current assumptions that accompany the term "robots," and (2) present a collection of alternative perspectives of interaction with robots through metaphors. By identifying assumptions, we provide a comprehensible list of aspects to reconsider regarding robots’ physicality, roles, and behaviors. Through metaphors, we propose new ways of examining how we can use, relate to, and co-exist with the robots that will share our future.
... It is therefore vital that we develop a better ontology for AI to develop the foundations for research to cultivate AI as a material to design with, by utilising More-than Human Centred (Coulton & Lindley, 2019b) approaches that reflect the contemporary complex contexts such as AI. The structure of this paper is as follows; first, we will frame how we engage with the speculative design practice of Design Fiction, thereby setting the critical lenses and approach for unpacking Hal9000 (henceforth, simply referred to as 'Hal') as a Diegetic Prototype to uncover Hal's speculative narrow and AGI architecture. ...
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2001: A Space Odyssey (Kubrick, 1968) speculates on humanities technological ascension through the exploration of space and the ultimate transcendence of humanity galvanised by the invention of AI. Every detail of this portrayal was an exercise in World Building, with careful considerations of then state-of-the-art technology and informed predictions. Kubrick’s speculative vision is comparative to the practice of Design Fiction, by suspending disbelief and leveraging a technologies emergence to question the future’s sociotechnical landscape and its ramifications critically. Discovery’s AI system, Hal9000, is a convincing speculation of intelligence with Kubrick’s vision showcasing current and long-term aims in AI research. To this end, Hal9000 uniquely portrays Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) underpinned by visualising ‘narrow’ AI subproblems; thereby, simultaneously highlighting then current research agendas within AI and manifesting them into the aspirational research agenda of human-computer symbiosis. As a result of Kubrick’s mastery in suspending a viewer’s disbelief despite portraying a particular reality for AI, and humanities fascination with artificial life, the term AI simultaneously refers to the grand vision of AGI as well as relating to the contemporary reality of narrow AI. This confusion, along with establishing AI’s ontology, are current challenges that need addressing to create effective and acceptable realisations of AI. This paper responds to the ontological confusion by reviewing and comparing Kubrick’s speculative methodology to the practice of Design Fiction by unpacking Hal9000 as a diegetic prototype while defining the active threads of ‘AI’s Definitional Dualism’. The paper will also present a Design Fiction submerged in the reality of narrow AI and the adoption of a More-Than Human Centred Design approach to address the complexity of AI’s ontology in alternative ways. Finally, this paper will also define the importance of researching the semantics of AI technology and how film and Design Fiction offer a discursive space for design research to transpire
... The phenomenon of Industry 4.0 reflects contemporary design contexts that frequently contain complex interdependencies of human and non-human actors-internet of thing (IoT) devices, digital and physical environmentsshaping the framework of human roles and socio-technical systems (Cimini et al., 2020;Coulton & Lindley, 2019;Jwo et al., 2021;Kong et al., 2019;Kymäläinen et al., 2017). However, this does not mean that the existing concepts of design-for example, design for manufacturing and assembly (Favi et al., 2021), or a traditional design process that considers existing solutions to fulfil the needs of the largest group (Lorentzen & Hedvall, 2018)-are redundant. ...
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The transition to industry 4.0 has impacted factories, but it also affects the entire value chain. In this sense, human-centred factors play a core role in transitioning to sustainable manufacturing processes and consumption. The awareness of human roles in Industry 4.0 is increasing, as evidenced by active work in developing methods, exploring influencing factors, and proving the effectiveness of design oriented to humans. However, numerous studies have been brought into existence but then disconnected from other studies. As a consequence, these studies in industry and research alike are not regularly adopted, and the network of studies is seemingly broad and expands without forming a coherent structure. This study is a unique attempt to bridge the gap through the literature characteristics and lessons learnt derived from a collection of case studies regarding human-centred design (HCD) in the context of Industry 4.0. This objective is achieved by a well-rounded systematic literature review whose special unit of analysis is given to the case studies, delivering contributions in three ways: (1) providing an insight into how the literature has evolved through the cross-disciplinary lens; (2) identifying what research themes associated with design methods are emerging in the field; (3) and setting the research agenda in the context of HCD in Industry 4.0, taking into account the lessons learnt, as uncovered by the in-depth review of case studies.
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More-than-human-centred design is a growing field in HCI (human-computer interaction) that account for non-human actors in design processes (such as animals, plants, and microbes but also autonomous technologies). While the rationale for more-than-human-centred design is clear, there is a lack of design methods grounded in this thinking. We articulate the idea of noticing as a method for approaching design spaces as systems of mutual interdependence between organisms. The findings are based on a longitudinal ethnographic study of urban farming—including the study of urban farmers’ practices and use of technologies with a focus on the interplay between humans and non-humans, such as plants and microbes. We articulate noticing as a phenomenon and show examples of urban farmers’ practices of noticing. We discuss principles for designing with the interdependencies of several organisms based on what is noticed in a setting. We argue that the way we have separated ideas about the environment and human experience is a part of the sustainability problem—and suggest noticing as an approach that instead combines positive human experiences and the needs of the environment.
Article
Increasing amounts of sensor-augmented research objects have been used in design research. We call these objects Data-Enabled Objects, which can be integrated into daily activities capturing data about people’s detailed whereabouts, behaviours and routines. These objects provide data perspectives on everyday life for contextual design research. However, data-enabled objects are still computational devices with limited privacy awareness and nuanced data sharing. To better design data-enabled objects, we explore privacy design spaces by inviting 18 teams of undergraduate design students to re-design the same type of sensor-enabled home research camera. We developed the Connected Peekaboo Toolkit (CPT) to support the design teams in designing, building, and directly deploying their prototypes in real home studies. We conducted Thematic Analysis to analyse their outcomes which led us to interpret that privacy is not just an obstacle but can be a driver by unfolding an exploration of possible design spaces for data-enabled objects.
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In this paper we present findings of research into Trust, specifically within the context of Autonomous Systems. The research is based upon an exploratory workshop attended by domain experts from academia and industry. The aim of the work is to synthesise interdisciplinary and high-level understandings of pertinent issues into a singular and cohesive Master Narrative relating to Trust an Autonomous Systems. The inquiry constructs a Master Narrative that casts Trust as a notion that is necessarily constructed by complex relationships, disciplinary lenses, and multiple concurrent stakeholders. We term this ‘Trust as a Distributed Concern’. The paper describes the research and analysis which underpins the concept of Trust as a Distributed Concern and discusses how the concept may be operationalised in research and innovation contexts.
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As humans, we spend most of our lives inside human-built environments, such as homes, offices, and schools. In these built environments, humans co-create and share a collective awareness, social practices, and knowledge while computing machinery is designed to maintain the built environment and support our interactions. The effects of these technologically enriched built environments on humans are how our bodies adapt to the practices they promote and how these practices, in return, affect the built environment and the natural environment. This perspective paper uses inbodied interaction to frame the constant adaption of our bodies to our surrounding environment as an opportunity to inform the design of technology and its practices and offer a vision where humans, the built environment, and the natural environment coexist in a mutually beneficial relationship.
Chapter
This chapter discusses Lancaster City Council's AI for Lancaster Programme. The programme has been a collaboration between the City Council, the International Organization for Artificial Intelligence Legibility, PETRAS and Imagination Lancaster. The chapter describes the design concepts implemented in the city in order to communicate the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to citizens, juxtaposing the designs themselves with extracts from interviews and research conducted to evaluate them. Any innovation supporting the implementation of responsible AI systems in urban contexts should be welcomed, and tools like Design Fiction should be employed to smooth the way for this process. In conclusion, the chapter also discusses how the insights derived from the AI for Lancaster Programme can help inform smart city initiatives while supporting the emergence of hybrid sociologies to describe the urban, social, and technological world we live in.
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Designing future IoT ecosystems requires new approaches and perspectives to understand everyday practices. While researchers recognize the importance of understanding social aspects of everyday objects, limited studies have explored the possibilities of combining data-driven patterns with human interpretations to investigate emergent relationships among objects. This work presents Thing Constellation Visualizer (thingCV), a novel interactive tool for visualizing the social network of objects based on their co-occurrence as computed from a large collection of photos. ThingCV enables perspective-changing design explorations over the network of objects with scalable links. Two exploratory workshops were conducted to investigate how designers navigate and make sense of a network of objects through thingCV. The results of eight participants showed that designers were actively engaged in identifying interesting objects and their associated clusters of related objects. The designers projected social qualities onto the identified objects and their communities. Furthermore, the designers changed their perspectives to revisit familiar contexts and to generate new insights through the exploration process. This work contributes a novel approach to combining data-driven models with designerly interpretations of thing constellation towards More-Than Human-Centred Design of IoT ecosystems.
Conference Paper
This paper considers a More-than Human-Centered design approach that presents Artificial Intelligence (AI) and data as materials for design by utilizing the non-anthropocentric philosophy of Object-Oriented Ontology (OOO) and the related thesis of Alien Phenomenology. This paper also explores methods of making AI operations, functions and impacts legible through the speculative design practice of Design Fiction by adopting a perspective that acknowledges the independent perspectives and interdependent relationships of human and non-human actants. The structure of this paper is as follows; first, we will give a brief account and understanding of AI technology, with reference to our philosophical guinea pig - Amazon’s AI assistant Alexa and Skills service. Second, we will unpack the theory of OOO detailing the related theories to develop an alternative perspective of AI technology. Further, it will posit how adopting a More-Than Human-Centered design approach can assist in negotiating the complexities of AI and move towards possible implementation solutions. Third, and finally, we demonstrate this alternative approach by utilizing the philosophical theories of OOO, and a Design Fiction as World Building approach to philosophically carpenter a Diegetic Thing - Amazon’s AI assistant Alexa which speculatively transcends Alexa’s current skills into functions of legible AI.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of connected devices with inputs and outputs operating in, and on, the physical world. The network is simultaneously fed by, and feeds into, data streams flowing across digital-physical boundaries, connecting sensors, servers, actuators, devices, and people. ‘Things’ of all types, lightbulbs, doorbells, kettles and cars, discretely-but-visibly do their jobs. Meanwhile in the unseen digital domain, where data swirls imperceptible to humans, the atmosphere is thick with the rapidly-moving data packets and content that constitute inter-machine chatter. Contrasting the visible calm in the physical world with obscured bedlam in the digital otherworld sets the scene for the argument we present in this paper. Applying Object Orientated Ontology, IoT designers may reimagine data, devices, and users, as equally significant actants in a flat ontology. In this paper, we exemplify our arguments by creating a Design Fiction around a reimagined ‘smart kettle’.
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In the city, mobility is calling for new forms of smartness. To understand what is needed to design thoughtful forms of smart mobility, this paper combines thing ethnography and animistic research approaches to reveal the interwoven networks of personal and social relationships that develop around scooters in Taiwanese everyday life. To this end, a three-day study with six different types of scooterists was conducted in Taipei. Cameras and sensors were directly attached to the scooters themselves, to collect data from a 'thing' perspective. The data collected were then organized and offered to professional actors, who were invited to 'speak' on behalf of the scooters. Through the performance of the actors interpreting and empathizing with the scooter's everyday life, intents, expectations and relationships between scooters and scooterists were revealed and captured. We further discussed how the socio-material networks among scooters could provoke various creative and meaningful arrangements in everyday life.
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Design-based inquiries into the networked products of the Internet of Things (IoT) lack a coherent understanding of the effect of such products on society. This paper proposes a new taxonomy for networked products, which would allow articulation on their current state and future, and provide insights to designers for creating meaningful and aesthetic products of IoT. Central to this framework is the proposition that our current product-scape should be understood as a distribution of material agencies and best analyzed through the metaphor of "agency". We identify three types of agencies, i.e., the Collector, the Actor, and the Creator, and discuss how this approach could create new design methodologies to create more meaningful networked products that would empower people in their everyday lives.
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In this essay, I explore several facets of research through design in order to contribute to discussions about how the approach should develop. The essay has three parts. In the first, I review two influential theories from the Philosophy of Science to help reflect on the nature of design theory, concluding that research through design is likely to produce theories that are provisional, contingent, and aspirational. In the second part, I discuss three possible interpretations for the diversity of approaches to research through design, and suggest that this variation need not be seen as a sign of inadequate standards or a lack of cumulative progress in the field, but may be natural for a generative endeavour. In the final section, I suggest that, rather than aiming to develop increasingly comprehensive theories of design, practice based research might better view theory as annotation of realised design examples, and particularly portfolios of related pieces. Overall, I suggest that the design research community should be wary of impulses towards convergence and standardisation, and instead take pride in its aptitude for exploring and speculating, particularising and diversifying, and - especially - its ability to manifest the results in the form of new, conceptually rich artefacts.
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In human-centred design (HCD), researchers and designers attempt to cooperate with and learn from potential users of the products or services which they are developing. Their goal is to develop products or services that match users’ practices, needs and preferences. In this position paper it is argued that HCD practitioners need to deal with two tensions that are inherent in HCD: they need to combine and balance users’ knowledge and ideas with their own knowledge and ideas; and they need to combine and balance a concern for understanding current or past practices with a concern for envisioning alternative or future practices. Six HCD approaches – participatory design, ethnography, the lead user approach, contextual design, codesign and empathic design – are discussed in order to argue that these different approaches are different ways to cope with the two tensions. In addition, several examples from practice are provided to illustrate these tensions. Moreover, it is advocated that HCD practitioners critically reflect on their practices, their methods and their own involvement, so that they can more consciously follow specific HCD approaches and more mindfully cope with the two tensions.
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Current practice in Human Computer Interaction as encouraged by educational institutes, academic review processes, and institutions with usability groups advocate usability evaluation as a critical part of every design process. This is for good reason: usability evaluation has a significant role to play when conditions warrant it. Yet evaluation can be ineffective and even harmful if naively done 'by rule' rather than 'by thought'. If done during early stage design, it can mute creative ideas that do not conform to current interface norms. If done to test radical innovations, the many interface issues that would likely arise from an immature technology can quash what could have been an inspired vision. If done to validate an academic prototype, it may incorrectly suggest a design's scientific worthiness rather than offer a meaningful critique of how it would be adopted and used in everyday practice. If done without regard to how cultures adopt technology over time, then today's reluctant reactions by users will forestall tomorrow's eager acceptance. The choice of evaluation methodology - if any - must arise from and be appropriate for the actual problem or research question under consideration.
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This paper surveys the current status of second generation HCI theory, faced with the challenges brought to HCI by the so-called third wave. In the third wave, the use context and application types are broadened, and intermixed, relative to the focus of the second wave on work. Technology spreads from the workplace to our homes and everyday lives and culture. Using these challenges the paper specifically addresses the topics of multiplicity, context, boundaries, experience and participation in order to discuss where second wave theory and conceptions can still be positioned to make a contribution as part of the maturing of our handling of the challenges brought on by the third wave.
Conference Paper
This design inquiry engages concerns set within the frame of network anxieties. Our work projects and engages negative affective dimensions of digital networks including anxiety, exhaustion, overstimulation, overload, paranoia, unease, distrust, fear, and creepiness. We do this by designing alternative Internet metaphors and then applying these metaphors to the design of IoT (Internet of Things) technologies to generate speculative design proposals.
Conference Paper
Applying a thing-centered, material speculation approach we designed the Morse Things to acknowledge and inquire into the gap between things and us. The Morse Things are sets of ceramic bowls and cups networked together to independently communicate through Morse code in an Internet of Things (IoT). We deployed the Morse Things in the households of six interaction design practitioners and researchers for six weeks. Following the deployment, we conducted a workshop to discuss the role of the Morse Things and ultimately the gap between things and people. We reflect on the nature of living with IoT things and discuss insights into the gap between things and humans that led to the idea of a new type of thing in the home that is neither human-centered technology nor non-digital artifacts.
Conference Paper
HCI is focused on improving the interactions we have with technology and innovating new types of interactions, as well as expanding the types of people for whom those interactions are designed. Central to these efforts is the simultaneously empowering and contested construct of the "user." This paper examines what the construct of the user highlights, as well as what it conceals. We introduce post-userism, a perspective that simultaneously acknowledges the limits of, and proposes alternatives to, the central construct of the user as proxy for the "human" in HCI. Drawing on developments across the historical trajectory of HCI, we articulate how the user is enacted across four different levels of representation-systems, interface, design process, and the ideology and identify situations where the user breaks down. Synthesizing prior work, we offer a series of strategies for grappling with such situations. In doing so, we seek to overcome the limitations imposed by the user and develop a language that will aid in evolving the foundations of HCI by asking what, exactly, we place at the center of our scholarship and design.
Conference Paper
In this paper we explore the motivations for, and practicalities of, incorporating "implications for adoption" into HCI research practice. Implications for adoption are speculations which may be used in research projects to scrutinize and explore the implications and requirements associated with a technology's potential adoption in the future. There is a rich tradition within the HCI community of implementing, demonstrating, and testing new interactions or technologies by building prototypes. User-centered design methods help us to develop prototypes to and move toward designs that are validated, efficient, and rewarding to use. However, these studies rarely shift their temporal focus to consider, in any significant detail, what it would mean for a technology to exist beyond its prototypical implementation, in other words how these prototypes might ultimately be adopted. Given the CHI community's increasing interest in technology-related human and social effects, the lack of attention paid to adoption represents a significant and relevant gap in current practices. It is this gap that the paper addresses and in doing so offers three contributions: (1) exploring and unpacking different notions of adoption from varying disciplinary perspectives; (2) discussing why considering adoption is relevant and useful, specifically in HCI research; (3) discussing methods for addressing this need, specifically design fiction, and understanding how utilizing these methods may provide researchers with means to better understand the myriad of nuanced, situated, and technologically-mediated relationships that innovative designs facilitate.
Chapter
Object-oriented ontology (hereafter ‘OOO’) is relatively new, and hence not as well known among film and television critics as other theoretical standpoints. For this reason, the discussion that follows must take a somewhat circuitous path. First, I will give a brief history and conceptual overview of OOO itself. Second, I will give an assessment of how OOO might fit with some current discussions of trans- and posthumanism. Third and finally, I will give some basic examples of how OOO might be applicable to film and television criticism.
Conference Paper
Currently, computer security is one of the most important tasks. However, although there are works on the interfaces design secure and usable, it is necessary to perform an investigation to integrate these two attributes in a more easy way. Security problems for computer systems include vulnerabilities because they are hard to use and have poor user interfaces due to security constraints. Nowadays, finding a good trade-off between security and usability is a challenge, mainly for user authentication services. This paper presents an integration between the ISO 9241-210 standard to find a development process and a tool for evaluating qualitative and quantitatively usable security and user authentication, taking into account some aspects, attributes and characteristics of the ISO/IEC 25010:2011 allowing that the design requirements and its heuristic evaluation are suitable for the system.
Article
Onto-Cartography gives an unapologetic defense of naturalism and materialism, transforming these familiar positions and showing how culture itself is formed by nature. Bryant endorses a pan-ecological theory of being, arguing that societies are ecosystems that can only be understood by considering nonhuman material agencies such as rivers and mountain ranges alongside signifying agencies such as discourses, narratives, and ideologies. In this way, Bryant lays the foundations for a new machine-oriented ontology. This theoretically omnivorous work draws on disciplines as diverse as deconstruction, psychoanalysis, Marxism, media studies, object-oriented ontology, the new materialist feminisms, actor-network theory, biology, and sociology. Through its fresh attention to nonhumans and material being, it also provides a framework for integrating the most valuable findings of critical theory and social constructivism.
Article
Participation and shared interaction emerge as new and important themes in revisiting considerations of second and third-wave human-computer interaction (HCI). The Center for Participatory IT (PIT) has been focusing on shared interaction around common artifacts, involving the participation of several users instead of individuals disappearing into small devices. Researchers have demonstrated that artifact ecologies, more than actual sharing of artifacts, help in focusing on a large number of artifacts that users bring together when carrying out particular activities.
Book
Humanity has sat at the center of philosophical thinking for too long. The recent advent of environmental philosophy and posthuman studies has widened our scope of inquiry to include ecosystems, animals, and artificial intelligence. Yet the vast majority of the stuff in our universe, and even in our lives, remains beyond serious philosophical concern. This book develops an object-oriented ontology that puts things at the center of being—a philosophy in which nothing exists any more or less than anything else, in which humans are elements but not the sole or even primary elements of philosophical interest. And unlike experimental phenomenology or the philosophy of technology, this book’s alien phenomenology takes for granted that all beings interact with and perceive one another. This experience, however, withdraws from human comprehension and becomes accessible only through a speculative philosophy based on metaphor.
Article
Reflections upon the meaning of the word 'design' are made and a relatively complete definition of the paradigm of human centred design is formulated. Aspects of both the background and the current practice of the paradigm are presented, as is a basic structural model of the design questions addressed. Examples are provided of the economic benefit of human centred design in business settings as an approach for designing products, systems and services which are physically, perceptually, cognitively and emotionally intuitive. Examples are further provided of the coherence of the paradigm with the logic and structure of several currently popular marketing and banding frameworks. Finally, some strategic implications of adopting human centred design as a business strategy are suggested.
Book
This 2007 book considers how agencies are currently figured at the human-machine interface, and how they might be imaginatively and materially reconfigured. Contrary to the apparent enlivening of objects promised by the sciences of the artificial, the author proposes that the rhetorics and practices of those sciences work to obscure the performative nature of both persons and things. The question then shifts from debates over the status of human-like machines, to that of how humans and machines are enacted as similar or different in practice, and with what theoretical, practical and political consequences. Drawing on scholarship across the social sciences, humanities and computing, the author argues for research aimed at tracing the differences within specific sociomaterial arrangements without resorting to essentialist divides. This requires expanding our unit of analysis, while recognizing the inevitable cuts or boundaries through which technological systems are constituted.
Chapter
Metaphor and Thought, first published in 1979, reflects the surge of interest in and research into the nature and function of metaphor in language and thought. In this revised and expanded second edition, the editor has invited the contributors to update their original essays to reflect any changes in their thinking. Reorganised to accommodate the shifts in central theoretical issues, the volume also includes six new chapters that present important and influential fresh ideas about metaphor that have appeared in such fields as the philosophy of language and the philosophy of science, linguistics, cognitive and clinical psychology, education and artificial intelligence.
Article
Dana Lewis is a leading voice and an active participant in the use of social media in healthcare. As the founder and moderator of #hcsm, the fast-growing and fast-paced Sunday-night healthcare chat on Twitter, she has regular interactions with a diverse ...
Article
Note: OCR errors may be found in this Reference List extracted from the full text article. ACM has opted to expose the complete List rather than only correct and linked references.
Book
Technologies have a life cycle, says Donald A. Norman, and they must change as they pass from youth to maturity. Alas, the computer industry thinks it is still in its rebellious teenage years, exalting in technical complexity. Customers want change. They are ready for products that offer convenience, ease of use, and pleasure. The technology should be invisible, hidden from sight. In this book Norman shows why the computer is so difficult to use and why this complexity is fundamental to its nature. The only answer is to develop information appliances that fit people's needs and lives. To do this, companies have to change the way they develop products. They need to start with an understanding of people: user needs first, technology last—the opposite of how things are done now.
Design Fiction as World Building
  • P Coulton
  • J Lindley
  • M Sturdee
  • M Stead
Coulton, P., J. Lindley, M. Sturdee, and M. Stead. 2017. "Design Fiction as World Building." Proceedings of the 3rd Biennial Research Through Design Conference, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 163-179. doi:https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.4746964.v2.
Nonanthropocentrism and the Nonhuman in Design: Possibilities for Designing New Forms of Engagement with and through Technology
  • C Disalvo
  • J Lukens
DiSalvo, C., and J. Lukens. 2011. "Nonanthropocentrism and the Nonhuman in Design: Possibilities for Designing New Forms of Engagement with and through Technology." In From Social Butterfly to Engaged Citizen, edited by Marcus Foth, Laura Forlano, Christine Satchell, and Martin Gibbs. London: The MIT Press. doi:10.7551/mitpress/8744.003.0034.
HCD Harmful? A Clarification
  • D A Norman
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The Design of Everyday Things (Revised and Expanded Edition)
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Projecting Network Anxieties with Alternative Design Metaphors
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User Centered Is Off Center
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