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A STUDY OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE: CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS

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Abstract

Work-life balance is considered to be important for both, business practice and academic research. The literature shows that work-life balance is a central issue affecting wellbeing, as family and work are the most important elements of everyone's life. Any competing demands of work and family life cause conflict and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers. This study focused on assessing the impact of work-life balance determined by work-family conflict and family work conflict on the wellbeing of individuals employed in the private sector in India. Wellbeing was measured by levels of family satisfaction, work satisfaction and psychological distress. Quantitative research methods were used for the study, and a sample population was chosen amongst participants who were single and in a relationship, female and male, with and without children, by using a convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used contained existing scales where the Cronbach's alpha coefficients were above the recommended 0.7. Out of 190 distributed questionnaires, 114 were completed and returned, giving an overall returning rate of 60%. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 20. The study identified the existence of negative effects of poor WLB determined by high levels of work-family conflict and family-work conflict on family satisfaction. This study also confirmed negative effects of poor WLB due to high levels of work-family conflict on work satisfaction and psychological health. Negative impacts of family-work conflict on work satisfaction and psychological health were not supported. This study also showed that the main causes of workfamily conflicts were excessive
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 198
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A STUDY OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE: CHALLENGES AND
SOLUTIONS
Dr. Indu Gautam
Doon University
Dehradun
Dr. Sameeksha Jain
Modern Institute of
Technology and Management,
Ghaziabad
ABSTRACT
Work-life balance is considered to be important for both, business practice and academic
research. The literature shows that work-life balance is a central issue affecting wellbeing, as
family and work are the most important elements of everyone’s life. Any competing demands of
work and family life cause conflict and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers. This study
focused on assessing the impact of work-life balance determined by work-family conflict and
family work conflict on the wellbeing of individuals employed in the private sector in India.
Wellbeing was measured by levels of family satisfaction, work satisfaction and psychological
distress.
Quantitative research methods were used for the study, and a sample population was chosen
amongst participants who were single and in a relationship, female and male, with and without
children, by using a convenient sampling method. The questionnaire used contained existing
scales where the Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were above the recommended 0.7. Out of 190
distributed questionnaires, 114 were completed and returned, giving an overall returning rate of
60%. The data was analysed using IBM SPSS version 20. The study identified the existence of
negative effects of poor WLB determined by high levels of work-family conflict and family-
work conflict on family satisfaction. This study also confirmed negative effects of poor WLB
due to high levels of work-family conflict on work satisfaction and psychological health.
Negative impacts of family-work conflict on work satisfaction and psychological health were not
supported. This study also showed that the main causes of workfamily conflicts were excessive
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 199
http://indusedu.org
working hours and inflexibility of work schedule. It was recognised that employers can improve
WLB by implementing familyfriendly initiatives such as flexi-time, time off in lieu, compressed
working week, childcare support and eldercare support.
Key words: Work-life balance, Work-family conflict, Family satisfaction, Work satisfaction
INTRODUCTION
In organizations and on the home front, the challenge of work/life balance is rising to the top of
many employers’ and employees’ consciousness. In today’s fast-paced society, human resource
professionals seek options to positively affect the bottom line of their companies, improve
employee morale, retain employees with valuable company knowledge, and keep pace with
workplace trends. This article provides human resource professional with an historical
perspective, data and possible solutions for organizations and employees alike to work-life
balance. Three factors global competition, personal lives, family values, and an aging workforce
present challenges that exacerbate work-life balance. This article offers the perspective that
human resource professionals can assist their companies to capitalize on these factors by using
work-life initiatives to gain a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Work-family: a term
more frequently used in the past than today. The current trend is to use titles that include the
phrase work-life, giving a broader work-life connotation or labeling referring to specific areas of
support (e.g., quality of life, flexible work options, life balance, etc.) Work family conflict is the
push and pull between work and family responsibilities. Work life balance is ability to manage
resources to meet family and work demands so that individuals can show effective participation
in both domains of life (Voydanoff, 2005).
Work life balance from the employee viewpoint: the dilemma of managing work obligations and
personal/family responsibilities. Work life balance from the employer viewpoint: the challenge
of creating a supportive company culture where employees can focus on their jobs while at work.
Family-friendly benefits: benefits that offer employees the latitude to address their personal and
family commitments, while at the same time not compromising their work responsibilities.
Work-life balance is about effectively managing the juggling act between paid work and other
activities that are important to us - including spending time with family, taking part in sport and
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 200
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recreation, volunteering or undertaking further study. Research suggests that improving the
balance between our working lives and our lives outside work can bring real benefits for
employers and employees. It can help build strong communities and productive businesses. In a
society filled with conflicting responsibilities and commitments, work/life balance has become a
predominant issue in the workplace. Three major factors contribute to the interest in, and the
importance of, serious consideration of work-life balance: Global competition; renewed interest
in personal lives family values; and an aging workforce.
The present study is focused on the employees of the manufacturing unit located in Dehradun
and Haridwar districts of Uttarakhand. A well-designed questionnaire consisting four variables
viz. work life balance, impact on family life, compensation factors and suggestions for work life
balance, comprises of twenty-seven items along with demographic information is used.Research
suggests that forward-thinking human resource professionals seeking innovative ways to
augment their organization’s competitive advantage in the market- place may find that work-life
balance challenges offer a win-win solution.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Joanna Hughes, Nikos Bozionelos (2015) purpose is to explore the views of male workers in a
male dominated occupation on issues that pertain to work-life balance. It emerged that work-life
imbalance was not only a source of concern, but also that it was the major source of
dissatisfaction for participants. Furthermore, participants made a clear connection between
problems with work life balance and withdrawal behaviors, including turnover and non-genuine
sick absence.
Kanwar et al. (2014) stated about work life balance and burnout on job satisfaction in the context
of the Information Technology (IT) and IT Enabled Services (ITES) industries. Burnout is
measured through three dimensions, i.e., meaninglessness, de-motivation, and exhaustion. Job
satisfaction was higher among the male employees in comparison to the female employees.
Interestingly, the IT group had lower work-life balance and job satisfaction, while it had higher
meaninglessness, de-motivation and exhaustion compared to the ITES group. Reveal that while
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 201
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work-life balance and job satisfaction were positively related to each other, de-motivation,
exhaustion and meaninglessness were negatively related to job satisfaction
Yadav et.al (2013) found that respondents reported average level of work life balance and are
generally happy with their working arrangements. The findings of the study reveal that balancing
care and work affects career progression. Manager’s act as barriers to members achieving
appropriate work-life balance and considered WLB is an important determinant of intrinsic
aspects of job satisfaction. Most of the employees enjoy the job and feel comfortable at their
work place. According to studies; it has been found that it is important for employees to maintain
a healthy balance between work and their private lives.
S. Padma et.al (2013) have highlighted the role of family support in balancing personal and work
life and found that the present study show that the support from family members will play a
significant role in balancing Personal and Professional lives. Employees who have adult children
can easily balance than those with younger age kids. Similarly employees who need to take care
of elder parents/in-laws health responsibility have lesser work life balance than their
counterparts. The study concluded that lower balance may lead to higherabsenteeism, lower job
satisfaction and sometimes may turn to higher employee attrition. Organizations with
cooperative work culture may help them to bring a suitable balance in their professional and
personal life.
K. Santhana et.al (2013) highlighted that four factors marital status, working hours, requirement
of flexibility, additional working hours and over time distort the work life balance. This is more
unique in the case of married women, as any additional working hours at the organizational level
deny them the time required to attend to the children and the other dependents. Among the
factors classified in to components, the above factors alone influence more than 38% of work life
balance. The study further reveals that three factors, viz., number of dependents, childcare and
reason for overtime i.e. work life balance of married women gets affected with the number of
dependents at home. This is worsened by the number of small children who need to be cared for
and tended [i.e., larger the dependents lesser is the balance and vice versa, the supportive
functional head can always help to minimize the work life balance related consequences.
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 202
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Jain (2013) have done a comparative study of work life balance among CA, Doctors and
Teachers found that working condition, time management and family support, role expectation is
the most influencing factor which creates work-life balance among professionals. The researcher
also found that work-life imbalances impact job satisfaction level of Professionals. The findings
of study reveals that there exists a difference of Work Life Balance among CA, Doctors., and
Teachers and this difference is also visible across the family and job status.
V. Madhusudhan et.al (2013) have identified the factors responsible for work life balance and
extracted that dependents, time flexibility, role clarity, co-worker support, family culture,
working hours and head support are responsible for work life balance. Management has to
concentrate on time flexibility, role clarity, co-worker support, working hours and head support
for managing work life balance.
G. Kanthi (2013) has found that a good number of respondents expressed positively or confident
enough to balance their routine work smoothly/comfortably. Due to some economic, family
problems, inefficiency, lack of commitment some of the respondents expressed their inability to
balance their work. The research reveals that long working hour, compulsory overtime, insisting
more stress related job activities, non- flexible and closing time and other factors partially
influencing the employees in form of absenteeism, turnover, frustration, low morale and
motivation which leads to imbalance of both work and life. A happy and healthy employee will
give better turnover, make good decisions and positively contribute to the organizational goal.
Pandu., et al (2013) analyzed work-life balance of professional women among IT and ITES
based on demographic information, work load, work environment, feelings about work, family
dependants and absence from work. The sector wise regression analysis demonstrated that
feelings about work, family dependants and absence from work are the strong contributors for a
sense of balance for an employee. However, no significant relationship has been obtained
between work environment and work life balance.
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 203
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Madipelli. et al (2013) in their research on factors causing work-life imbalance among school
teachers showed that most of the teachers feels stress with too many work demands, working
conditions and long working hours. The multiple roles played by women at work place and home
reflecting boredom, frustration and stress lead to work-life imbalance. Marital relationship,
attitude, co-operation of husbands and family members are highly influencing factors which
create imbalance among working women.
The study of Ajith. et al (2013) on work-life balance for role prioritization of IT employees
showed that the employees were able to fulfill their professional and personal commitments at
the same time, because of better work-life balance policies. The relationship between work-life
balance policies and role prioritization was significant. The study was conducted on variables
like travelling time, depression, temper, work etc., to know the relation between work-life
balance and stress management.
KumariLalita (2012) commented that each of the WLB factors such as Psychological distress,
organizational changes, working hours, managerial style, job responsibilities, work overload,
work life conflict and personal financial problems etc. have been proven to affects or are
predictive of job satisfaction. It can also be concluded from the data, that the overall WLB
policies positively correlates significantly with level of job satisfaction which shows that job
satisfaction increases with the increase in work-life balance. The results also indicated a shift in
perceptions about work-life balance and job satisfaction. In the past, employees often found it
more difficult to maintain balance due to the competing pressures at work and demands at home.
V.Varatharaj et.al (2012) found that work life balance entails attaining equilibrium between
professional work and other activities, so that it reduces friction between official and domestic
life. Researchers have noted that the majority of the respondents feel comfortable in their work
place irrespective of their trivial personal and work place irritants. Work life balance enhances
efficiency and thus, the productivity of an employee increases. It enhances satisfaction, in both
the professional and personal lives.
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 204
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According to Fatima et.al (2012) factors affecting work life Balance are partner support,
colleague support and job resources are positively associated with the work life balance whereas
unfair criticism at job is negatively associated with work life balance. The study reveals that with
reference to partner support male employees are more satisfied with work life balance as
compared to females. It is found that female employees felt more work life strain due to child
care responsibilities, and it is further noticed that elder dependency is doubling the burden of
women than men.
Tariq (2012) studied the considerable knowledge related to the theory and practices of Work-life
balance from extensive meta-analysis of literature found that work-life balance is both important
for the organization and for its employee’s particularly in current dynamic organizational
scenarios. It helps the organization to improve productivity, efficiency, competitiveness, morale
and hence gain a competitive edge. Similarly employees are benefited from work-life balance
initiatives through increased motivation to work, enhanced satisfaction, empowerment and
ultimately more commitment to the organization.
Thriveni et.al (2012) studied the impact of demographic variables on work-life balance revealed
that there is a significant relationship between all demographic variables - age, experience,
marital status, income, type of family, number of dependents and perception of work-life balance
of employees. This shows that there is a significant relationship between demographic variables
and work life balance.
Santhi and Sundar (2012) in their study of work-life balance of women employees in IT21
industry analyzed that programs implemented by IT firms of Chennai satisfy different categories
of employees differently. Data were collected from 350 women employees working in various IT
companies.The study measured the satisfaction levels of the respondents across various work-life
balancing parameter. 55% of the employees were highly satisfied with the current work-life
initiatives.
Ignacia Levy (2012) in his study of working mothers and their perceived work-life balance
showed that the age of the children is not that significant but the child-care support remains an
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 205
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important factor in determining perceived work-life balance. The study also highlighted another
parameter called role conflict having negative impact on work-life balance.
Chawla and Sondhi (2011) in their survey conducted among teachers and BPO women
professionals revealed that job autonomy and organizational commitment are in positive relation
with work-life balance. The study indicated that the more proactive schools/BPO companies
which value the contribution of a committed and contributing human resource will need to
provide more autonomy to sustain their employee’s work-life balance. While work load and
work family conflict indicated negative relation with work-life balance.
Murphy &Doherty(2011) revealed that it is not possible to measure work-life balance in an
absolute way, because personal circumstances influence the way this is perceived. Long hours
and presenteeism form “part of job” when accepting a role at higher level. However, modern
technology has helped this to some extent by allowing senior managers to be accessible instead
of having to be present in office.
Albertsen et.al (2008) studied the relationship between work hours and worklife balance and
found a strong association between larger numbers of work hours and lower levels of work life
balance amongst women. For men, the results were less conclusive, while for gender-mixed
groups, an association between overtime work and lower levels of work life balance was strongly
supported. It was found that nonstandard work hours had a negative influence on work life
balance and some evidence suggested that it had a negative influence on children’s well-being
and on marital satisfaction.
Dessler (2006), unlike many men, women must also make the ‘Career versus family’ decision
since the responsibilities of raising the children and managing the household still fall
disproportionately on women. Balancing work and family life becomes a challenge for women.
The behavior and attitude of management play’s significant role in work-life balance. Bradley.L
et.al(2006) revealed factors influencing work-life balance from management perspective like
negotiated time off for personal reasons, ad-hoc arrangements for dealing with emergencies are
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
Development, KIET School of Management, KIET Group of Institutions, Ghaziabad, UP, India.
International Journal of Research in Engineering, IT and Social Sciences, ISSN 2250-0588 Page 206
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key strategy for employee engagement, satisfaction, commitment and achieving work-life
balance.
Jane et.al (2004) have explored relationships between work-life balance, work non-work conflict,
hours worked and organizational commitment concluded that, although graduates seek work/life
balance, their concern for career success draws them into a situation where they work
increasingly long hours and experience an increasingly unsatisfactory relationship between home
and work. The article discusses the causes and potential consequences of this predicament and in
particular how work non-work conflict is linked to hours worked the state of the psychological
contract and organizational commitment. It highlights the role of organizations' policy and
practice in helping to manage the relationship between work and non-work and the development
of organizational commitment through support for younger employees' lives out-of-work and
effective management of aspects of the psychological contract.
Hymans &Summers (2004) found major problems associated with practical implementation of
work-life balance i.e. unevenness of adoption across different sectors and organizations, lack of
formalization of policies at organization level, restricted employee’s voice, primary focus on
business needs than on employees, no evidence of reduction in working hours, tangible and
intangible work interruptions into domestic life. Finally, domestic responsibilities are still
conducted primarily by women irrespective of their employment status.
Varuhas.J.et.al (2003) analyzed that the most significant factor affecting work/family balance
appears to be organizational culture of firm. In general, if organizational culture is not in fact
family friendly measures will have little effect.
From the above studies, it has been found that measurement of work-life balance and
implementation of work-life balance policies is required in meeting the needs and desires of
individuals in profession as well as personal life.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
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Objective of the Study
Following are the objectives of the study:
1. Tostudy the relationship between work-life balance and various demographic variables.
2. To study the influence of work-life balance on the family life of the employees
3. To study the impact of compensation factors on the work-life balance of employees.
Research Design
A research design is the comprehensive blueprint used to guide a study towards the
objectives.The descriptive research design also known as statistical research is adopted for the
present study. Under descriptive research, the survey research is chosen, which implies that the
information gathered with the help of a well-designed structured questionnaire.
Sampling
The sampling covered the employees from manufacturing units located in Dehradun and
Haridwar districts of Uttarakhand state. Simple random sampling is used for collecting the
primary data through the structured questionnaire.
Data Collection
The data collection is the key task in the research methodology, for any study. The data can be
collected by using two sources, namely secondary sources and primary sources. The primary
data are collected for the first time and unique in character. The primary data is collected with
the survey technique, using questionnaire. 190questionnaires were distributed among the
employees of manufacturing units in Dehradun and Haridwar district, of Uttarakhand. Out of
which114 were completed and returned which were used for statistical analysis.The secondary
data is collected from several sources such as websites, magazines, books, dailies, and research
reports, national and international journals, related to the subject understudy.
ANALYSIS OF DATA
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Demographic Variables
Demographic variablesstate the frequency and percentage of the respondents for each of the
descriptive such as gender, age, education, occupation of employees, marital status, through
Table-1, used to analyse the demographic profile of the respondents.The Table-1 demonstrates
that around sixty-three percent respondents are male and thirty-seven percent respondents are
female, where maximum respondents around fifty-five percent fall in the age group of 30-40
years. The sample is almost equally distributed among married i.e. fifty-one percent and
unmarried i.e. forty-nine percent. It can also be seen that twenty-two percent of the respondents
are graduate and fifty-five percent of the respondents are post-graduate and twenty-three percent
of them has higher degree as well. Majority of respondents approximately forty-five percent of
the respondents has total working experience of 5-10 years. It was also found that the monthly
income of majority of respondents is below rupees fifty lakh.
Table-1 Demographic Distribution
Variables
Frequency
(N=114)
Percentage
Gender
Male
72
63.2
Female
42
36.8
Age (Years)
20-30
35
30.7
30-40
63
55.3
40-50
5
4.4
50-60
11
9.6
Educational Qualification
Intermediate
0
0
Graduate
25
21.9
Post Graduate
62
54.4
Higher Degree
27
23.7
Total Experience (Years)
Less than 5
30
26.3
5-10
52
45.6
10-15
16
14.0
15-20
10
8.8
More than 20
6
5.3
Marital Status
Married
58
50.9
Special Issue for International Conference on Emerging Role of Leadership, Values and Ethics in Organisational
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Unmarried
56
49.1
Divorcee
0
0
Widow
0
0
Monthly Income
Below 50,000
62
54.4
50,000-1,00,000
47
41.2
1,00,000-1,50,000
5
4.4
Above 1,50,000
0
0
Descriptive Statistics
The descriptive statistics shows the Mean value, Standard Deviation, Standard Error of all the
responses collected from the employees of manufacturing unitsusing structured
questionnaire.The Table-2 depicts that the mean value and standard deviation for various
variables. Work life balance having six items shows19.263 as mean and 2.826 as its standard
deviation. Impact on family includes seven items, has 23.798 as its mean score and 4.555 as
standard deviation. Compensation factors consisting of four items shows the mean score 9.07
and standard deviation 3.018. Another variable, work life balance solution consisting of eight
items has 27.544 as its mean score and 3.405 as its standard deviation. The data was checked for
normality by comparing the skewness and kurtosis of the interval scaled items and it was clear
from the table that there are no items which fall outside the required range (between +3 and -3),
thus,it was determined that all items had normal distribution.
Table-2 Descriptive Statistics
N
Mean
Std.
Error
Skewness
Kurtosis
Statistics
Statistics
Work Life Balance
114
19.263
0.265
0.014
-1.336
Impact on Family
114
23.798
0.427
-0.230
-0.976
Compensation Factors
114
9.0702
0.283
0.307
-0.649
Work Life Balance
Solution
114
27.544
0.319
-0.296
-0.433
Reliability Analysis
Reliability analysis refers to the fact that a scale should consistently reflect the construct it is
measuring. Cronbach's alpha is the most common measure of internal consistency or reliability
and commonly used when there is multiple Likert questions are used inquestionnaire.The results
of the alpha coefficients for the questionnaire are presented in Table-3.
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Table-3 Reliability Statistics
Dimensions
No. of Items
Cronbach’s alpha
Work Life Balance
6
0.720
Impact on Family
7
0.701
Compensation Factors
4
0.814
Work Life Balance Solution
6
0.745
The result of Cronbach’s alpha Test illustrates that overall reliability of the questionnaire
consists of four variables and twenty-seven items is 0.711, which is acceptable as the value of
Cronbach’s alpha is greater than required 0.7George and Mallery (2003).
ANOVA
ANOVA is a technique used to see the significant relationship between the independent variable
and dependent variable.
In order to study the impact of various demographic variables on work life balance following
null-hypotheses are framed and tested for ANOVA.
H01:Gender of employee does not have any significant impact on perception to Work Life
Balance.
Table-4: ANOVA forGenderandWork Life Balance
WLB
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
46.320
1
46.320
6.062
0.015
Within Groups
855.786
112
7.641
Total
902.150
113
ANOVA was used to find out the impact of genderon the perception of work life balance.
Results illustrated in Table-4 shows the significant (2-tailed) value as 0.015< 0.05, at 95%
confidence intervals for the group variance to be treated as unequal. Hence, the null
hypothesiswas rejected and it was inferred that there is significant impact of gender on the
perception of work life Balance.
H02: Age of employees does not have any significant impact on perception to Work Life
Balance. Table-5: ANOVA for Ageand Work Life Balance
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WLB
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
104.870
1
34.957
4.823
0.003
Within Groups
797.235
112
7.248
Total
902.105
113
Table-4 demonstrates that since p<0.05, null hypothesis was rejected at 5% level of significance.
Thus we can say that employee‘s perception to balance between work and life varies with their
age. Results illustrated in Table-5 shows the significant (2-tailed) value as 0.03< 0.05, at 95%
confidence intervals for the group variance to be treated as unequal.
H03: Educational qualification of employees does not have any significant impact on
perception to Work Life Balance.
Table-6: ANOVA for Educational Qualification and Work Life Balance
WLB
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
35.637
2
17.818
2.283
0.007
Within Groups
866.468
111
7.806
Total
902.105
113
The result in Table-6 depict that at 95% confidence intervals for the groups, p<0.05 (.007<0.05),
hence, null hypothesisH03 is rejected and it can be concluded that education qualification of
employees influences his/her perception towards the work life balance.
H04: Marital Status of employees does not have any significant impact on Work Life
Balance.
Table-7: ANOVA for Marital Statusand perception to Work Life Balance
WLB
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
79.983
1
79.983
10.896
0.001
Within Groups
822.123
112
7.340
Total
902.105
113
The result in Table-7 illustrates p<0.05 (.001<0.05), that at 95% confidence intervals for the
groups, therefore, null hypothesisis rejected and inferences can be drawn that marital status of
employees influences their perception towards the work life balance.
H05: Income of employees does not have any significant impact on Work Life Balance.
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Table-8: ANOVA for Incomeand perception to Work Life Balance
WLB
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
76.534
2
38.267
5.145
0.007
Within Groups
825.572
111
7.438
Total
902.105
113
Table-8 shows that null hypothesis H04is rejected, as the value of p<0.007 is less than the
required significant value, at 95% confidence intervals. Hence, it can be concluded that monthly
income of the employees has a significant impact on the perception to work life balance of
respondents.
H06: Work Life Balance does not have any significant impact on the family life of
employees.
Table-9: ANOVA for Work Life Balance and Impact on Family
FAM
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
Df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
16.8.851
7
229.836
33.123
0.000
Within Groups
735.508
106
6.939
Total
2344.360
113
The Table-9shows that the F ratio for impact on family life, which came out to be F (7,106)
=33.123, which is highly significant with p = 0.000. Since p <0.05, there exists a significant
impact work life balance on the family life of the employees. As a result, null hypothesisH06 is
rejected.
H07:A Compensation factor does not have any significant impact on the work life balance.
Table-10: ANOVA for Work Life Balance and Impact on Family
FAM
ANOVA
Sum of Squares
df
Mean Square
F
Sig.
Between Groups
512.166
14
36.583
9.288
.000
Within Groups
389.939
99
3.939
Total
902.105
113
The Table 8 shows that the F ratio for impact on family life, which came out to be F (14,99)
=9.288, which is highly significant with p = 0.000, p<0.05as a result, null hypothesisH07 is
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rejected.This depicts that compensation factors has a very significant impact on the work life
balance of employees.
CORRELATION ANALYSIS Table-11: Correlation Analysis
WLB
FAL
CF
WLB
Pearson Correlation
Sig. (2-tailed)
N
1
114
-.725**
.000
114
.636
.000
114
FAL
Pearson Correlation
-.776**
1
.352
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
N
114
114
114
CF
Pearson Correlation
.636
.352
1
Sig. (2-tailed)
.000
.000
N
114
114
114
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
The Table-11 shows the correlation analysis between work life balance (WLB), impact on family
life (FAL) and compensation factors (CF). The analysis illustrates the negative correlation
between work life balance and its impact on family life (r=-.725). It depicts that if the work life
of employees is imbalanced, it will create negative impact on the family life of employees as
well. Results also demonstrate that there is strong and positive correlation between work life
balance and compensation factors, r=.636. This shows that compensation factors have strong
influence on the work life balance of employees. The results also a positive correlation, r=.352
between compensation factors and its impact on family life.
Solutions for Balanced Work-Life
In the questionnaire, few factors influencing balanced work life of employees were given, and
respondents were asked to rank them on the Likert scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree.
Table 12- Suggested solutions for Balanced Work Life (%)
Sl.
Items
Strongly
Agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly
Disagree
1
Work Environment
31
52
31
0
0
2
Flexible working hours
27.2
50.9
17.5
4.4
0
3
Technology
19.3
53.5
13.2
14
0
4
Positive Relations with
Superiors
45.6
36.8
13.2
4.4
0
5
Support from Spouse
54.4
32.5
13.2
0
0
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6
Spending quality time
with family & friends
36
51
27
0
0
The Table-12 illustrates that variable such as work environment; flexible working hours,
technology, interpersonal relations with superiors, support from spouse ad spending quality time
with family and friends plays a very important role in their work life balance. The result
demonstrates thateighty-threepercent of the respondents believe that working environment has a
significant role in balancing their work life. Around fifty-one percent of the respondents strongly
agree that flexible working hours are very important for balanced work life and twenty-eight
percent respondents strongly agree to it. Respondents also agree that technology is also very
significant in balancing their work life. Positive relationship with superiors also helps in
balancing work life of the employees, around forty-six percent respondents strongly agree and
around thirty-six percent agrees to it. Eighty-seven percent respondents believed that support
from their spouse has a very significant impact on work life balance and eighty seven percent
respondents accept that spending quality time with family & friends influence on work life
balance.
DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION
In the light of the present research, it is evident that issue of work-life balance is persistent
because of various factors such as work culture/environment, HR policies, job insecurities,
compensation packages and so on. Employees undergo severe stress while balancing their work
and personal life, which influences their performance not only in their work place but on
domestic front as well. Employee should set the goal and excel in both career and family, to
achieve balanced work-life (J. Sudha et. al, 2012). It involves the efforts of a number of partners
like the employee, the organization for which the employee works, family, friendsand the society
in which all are embedded. Sharma&Bajpai(2013) found that age, marital status, no of
dependents has high impact on work-life balance in their study, which affirms the findings of the
study that various demographic variables such as gender, age, marital status, educational
qualification and income of the employees has a significant impact on work life balance.
In past few years, personal and family lives have become critical values for the individuals.
Employees are not willing to ignore their family and personal life, for the sake of work. Over
time, workforce has begun to change the working time and willing to spend every hour as
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working to learn and to manage the complexities of modern living, so that the personal and
professional life can be balanced. The present study also support the notion that work life
balance has a very strong impact on the family of the employees. Consequently, people are
looking for options that allow for both a personal and professional life, which may seek ways to
have a balance between the two.Clarke, Koch and Hill (2004) stated that WLB is equilibrium or
maintaining overall sense of harmony in life. It was also revealed from the study that
compensation factors such as salary and monetary benefits have a strong influence on the work-
life balance. Higher the employees are satisfied with their salary packages, more will be the
efforts to maintain the balance between work and life.
The present study reflects that the employee-driven solutions for balancing work-life, will help
organization to design and implement work-life balance policies. It will help to reduce overtime,
stress, and workloads on the work front and increase flexibility and family and leisure time on
domestic front. Organisations have to take the challenge of WLB seriously, as it affects their
professional success and personal well-being. Welfare of employees and their satisfaction should
be the topmost priority of the organizations.
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