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The present work was conducted to study the antioxidant activity and to determine for the first time the antimicrobial potential of Moroccan Cannabis sativa essential oil (EO)singly or in combination with two conventional antibiotics (fluconazol and ciprofloxacin)against some resistant and pathogenic microorganisms. The chemical composition analyzed by means of GC/MS showed that C. sativa EO was characterized by the dominance of (E)-caryophyllene (35.0%), α-humulene (12.8%)and caryophyllene oxide (10.6%). Results from antioxidant tests showed that C. sativa EO exhibit a moderate potency (IC 50 = 1.6 ± 0.1 mg/m L for 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)assay, IC 50 = 1.8 ± 0.2 mg/mL for β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, and IC 50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/m L for ferric reducing power assay). Regarding antimicrobial assays, the results demonstrated that C. sativa EO displayed interesting antimicrobial activities with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)values in the range from (1.2 to 37.8)mg/m L for tested microorganisms. The combination of the studied EO with fluconazol and ciprofloxacin showed a significant decrease in their individual MICs. In fact, at sub-inhibitory concentrations, C. sativa EO contributed to the decrease of ciprofloxacin MICs of bacterial strains by 2- to 64-fold and by16-fold regarding fluconazol MICs against Candida spp. These findings suggest that C. sativa EO can be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant and antimicrobials, and constitute in combinational treatments a promising strategy to overcome the intense use of antibiotics against some infectious diseases.

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... All the five major cannabinoids showed synergism against clinically isolated multidrug-resistant GNB, including Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli when used with polymyxin B at sublethal concentration [43,49]. The activity against K. pneumoniae was increased for EO exhibiting full synergism with addition of ciprofloxacin [60]. Naringenin with EO was found to be bactericidal against drug resistant Helicobacter pylori [61]. ...
... MVs are nanosized spheres composed of lipid membranes derived from the outer membrane of bacteria that can cause an extra layer of protection against antibiotics [64,65]. EO exhibits synergistic effect against E. coli, and P. aeruginosa in combination with ciprofloxacin [60]. P. aeruginosa is resistant to antibiotics including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones [66]. ...
... P. aeruginosa is resistant to antibiotics including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides and quinolones [66]. The efficacy of solvent extracts of C. sativa against P. aeruginosa in terms of inhibitory zone is comparable with gentamicin [67], ampicillin [68] and ciprofloxacin [60]. Notably, the level of sensitivity of the extracts in qualitative tests is not equipollent since their polarity and solubility change their diffusivity through media [69,70]. ...
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Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global health crisis and, therefore, new drug discovery is a paramount need. Cannabis sativa contains hundreds of chemical constituents produced by secondary metabolism, exerting outstanding antimicrobial, antiviral, and therapeutic properties. This paper comprehensively reviews the antimicrobial and antiviral (particularly against SARS-CoV-2) properties of C. sativa with the potential for new antibiotic drug and/or natural antimicrobial agents for industrial or agricultural use, and their therapeutic potential against the newly emerged coron-avirus disease (COVID-19). Cannabis compounds have good potential as drug candidates for new antibiotics, even for some of the WHO's current priority list of resistant pathogens. Recent studies revealed that cannabinoids seem to have stable conformations with the binding pocket of the M pro enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, which has a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription. They are found to be suppressive of viral entry and viral activation by downregulating the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 enzymes in the host cellular system. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory compounds is hypothesized for the treatment of COVID-19. However, more systemic investigations are warranted to establish the best efficacy and their toxic effects, followed by preclinical trials on a large number of participants.
... In addition, the EO of Algerian Teucrium polium was reported to have significant antioxidant activity due to its high content of spathulenol and tau-cadinol [50]. Caryophyllene oxide represented one of the most common compounds in the plants' EOs with important biological actions, especially antioxidant activity, due to the presence of lone pairs of electrons that increase the free radicals trapping [51]. This compound was reported to be of the main contributors to the increase in the antioxidant activity of the EOs of Cannabis sativa [51], Salvia palaestina, S. ceratophylla [52], and Heliotropium curassavicum [53]. ...
... Caryophyllene oxide represented one of the most common compounds in the plants' EOs with important biological actions, especially antioxidant activity, due to the presence of lone pairs of electrons that increase the free radicals trapping [51]. This compound was reported to be of the main contributors to the increase in the antioxidant activity of the EOs of Cannabis sativa [51], Salvia palaestina, S. ceratophylla [52], and Heliotropium curassavicum [53]. Additionally, α-cadinol was promoted to act as a significant antioxidant mediator in the EO of several herbs such as Tabernaemontana catharinensis [54] and Xenophyllum poposum [55]. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) have been reported as a promising group of naturally extracted compounds due to their various reported biological activities. Ipomoea carnea is a widely distributed plant with many traditional uses worldwide. However, although the EOs of various Ipomea species have been reported, I. carnea remains poorly studied. Therefore, the present investigation aimed to characterize the chemical profile of the EO of I. carnea growing in Egypt via gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and correlate its profile with other reported species via chemometric analysis using agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA). In addition, the aim was to determine the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the extracted EO. Depending on the GC-MS analysis, 31 compounds were identified, mainly terpenes (94.82), with traces of carotenoid and apocarotenoid-derived compounds. The major compounds were tau-cadinol (35.68%), α-cadinol (26.76%), spathulenol (8.11%), and caryophyllene oxide (6.56%), which were assigned as major compounds. The chemometric studies showed that the Egyptian ecospecies of I. carnea differs in chemical profile from those growing in Brazil, as well as those reported for other Ipomea species. The EO showed significant DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging abilities, with IC50 values of 33.69 and 40.86 mg L−1, respectively. Additionally, the I. carnea EO displayed significant inhibition against the growth of all tested bacterial strains, where it showed an MIC range of 82–1442 mg mL−1. Based on the current results, the I. carnea EO, particularly the major identified compounds, could be used as a potential eco-friendly green resource for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Therefore, further study is recommended to evaluate the biological significance of the main compounds, either individually or in combination, as well as assess their modes of action and safety.
... The prebiotic activity on the hemp seed drinks was surprisingly effective even due to a stronger inhibition of the growth of E. coli 25922, in comparison to other drinks and the FOS. The antimicrobial activity of hemp was elucidated previously; (Fathordoobady, Singh, Kitts, & Singh, 2019;Mikulcová, Kašpárková, Humpolíček, & Buňková, 2017;Nafis et al., 2019;Nissen et al., 2010), and this was triggered by the synergistic effects of different terpenes present in hemp seed oil. For example, Vieira, Bedani, Albuquerque, Biscola, and Saad (2017) found that passion fruit by-product, okara, and amaranth stimulated the growth of probiotics, but the growth of the pathogenic E. coli strains studied were not inhibited nor reduced. ...
... These compounds were previously reported to be characteristic of hemp and appear to be present in most Cannabis strains (Booth & Bohlmann, 2019). Alone or in synergism they have antioxidant and antimicrobial effects directed mainly against foodborne pathogens and opportunistic microbes (Nafis et al., 2019;Nissen et al., 2010). β-myrcene is a monoterpene found in hops, lemon grass, and in hemp seed oil in high proportion, up to 29% of total hemp essential oil compounds (Nissen et al., 2010). ...
Article
Plant-based drinks as substitute for milk consumption are raising striking interest in the food industry. Soy and rice drinks are the most studied and successful milk substitutes. An untapped source is hemp seed, which is a powerhouse of nutrients bearing bioactive compounds, but the production of derived drink is limited. The present work is about introducing new formulations of commercial hemp seed-derived drink to be fermented with probiotics (Lactobacillus fermentum, Lb. plantarum and Bifidobacterium bifidum). In this work for the first time the prebiotic activity of different hemp seed drinks was assessed by cultural and quantitative PCR methods. In addition, to better describe the prebiotic potential, VOCs alkenes and volatile organic acids were characterized by a metabolomic approach via GC-MS SPME. Obtained results showed that the hemp seed drinks had strong prebiotic activity, ability to support probiotics growth and to increase the content of some bioactive compounds. These outputs are in part due to the presence of different terpenes that inhibit the growth of enteropathogens and to high levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate produced during fermentation that support the growth of probiotics. Although the health potential of hemp seed is well known, derived drinks are hitherto scarcely transformed and distributed, thus this work could provide some basics to produce prebiotic and probiotic fermented hemp seed drinks.
... However, it was higher compared with those found in other studies, namely Algeria (34.62%) [15]. As previously reported, the variability in the chemical composition of the EO can be greatly affected particularly by the geographical location, the climate, the harvest period and genetic factors [6,28]. ...
... GC-MS coupled to TG-5MS column (30 m length; 0.25 mm i.d.; 0.25 µm film thickness) and coupled to mass selective detector "ISQ Single Quadrupole Mass spectrometer" (70 eV) was used to characterize both Eos, and the conditions for the analysis were as described previously [28]. Briefly, the injector temperature was 260 °C, helium was the carrier gas, and the temperature program was 1 min at 100 °C ramped from 100 to 260 °C at 4 °C/min and 10 min at 246 °C. ...
Article
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Laurus nobilis L. (laurel, Lauraceae) and Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot, Rosaceae) are important industrial crops and display significant biological properties, such as anti-microbial. In this work, essential oils (EOs) prepared from leaves of both species from Morocco were evaluated for the first time for possible synergistic in vitro antibacterial and antifungal effects, with some conventional antimicrobial drugs, namely fluconazole, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Samples were further evaluated for chemical composition by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main volatile compounds detected in L. nobilis were eucalyptol (40.8%), α-terpinyl acetate (12.6%) and methyl eugenol (8.72%), while P. armeniaca was dominated essentially by (Z)-phytol (27.1%), pentacosane (15.1%), nonacosane (8.76%) and benzaldehyde (7.25%). Regarding the antimicrobial activity, both EOs had a relevant inhibition towards all tested microorganisms. The EO from L. nobilis had the highest activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 1.39 to 22.2 mg/mL for bacteria and between 2.77 to 5.55 mg/mL for yeasts. On the other hand, the combination of the studied EOs with ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and fluconazol resulted in an interesting decrease in their individual MICs. In fact, among the 32 combinations tested, 23 (71.9%) presented total synergism and 9 (28.1%) had partial synergistic interaction. The EO from L. nobilis exhibited the highest synergistic effect with all antibiotics used with FIC index values in the range of 0.266 and 0.75 for bacteria, and between 0.258 and 0.266 for yeast. The synergistic interaction between the studied EOs and standard antibiotics may unravell promising anti-infective agents useful to treat diseases induced by antibiotic-resistant pathogens.
... These findings are similar to those reported for other effective EOs (Wang et al. 2017) and higher than those previously observed for some Abruzzo officinal plants (Pellegrini et al. 2018). Other authors reported lower results of HEOs in DPPH and FRAP assays but higher in ABTS assay (Benelli et al. 2018;Zengin et al. 2018;Nafis et al. 2019). HEO antioxidant efficacy can be attributed mainly to the high concentrations of b-caryophyllene, myrcene and polyphenols. ...
... HEO antioxidant efficacy can be attributed mainly to the high concentrations of b-caryophyllene, myrcene and polyphenols. However, for the antioxidant power, a synergism among all components is usually described (Nafis et al. 2019). ...
Article
In the present work, Cannabis sativa L. cv Futura 75 inflorescences, cultivated in the Abruzzo territory, were characterized for their volatile fraction through SPME-GC-MS. In addition, the essential oil extracted from these inflorescences was investigated for the antioxidant potentialities and for the terpenic profile. The antibacterial activity of hemp essential oil (HEO) against some pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms isolated from food was also evaluated by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed significant antioxidant capacity (DPPH: 63.38 ± 0.08 mg TE/g HEO; FRAP: 438.52 ± 6.92 mg TE/g HEO) alongside good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. aureus and L. monocytogenes (MIC 1.25-5 µL/mL). The results obtained suggest that hemp essential oil can inhibit or reduce bacterial growth, also exerting antioxidant activity, and therefore it can find an advantageous application in the food processing field.
... Among these, (E)-β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide possess considerable antioxidant activity (Nafis et al., 2019). However, it is wellknown that antioxidant properties of Cannabis cannot be related to their major constituents only (Bakkali, Averbeck, Averbeck, & Idaomar, 2008). ...
... However, it is wellknown that antioxidant properties of Cannabis cannot be related to their major constituents only (Bakkali, Averbeck, Averbeck, & Idaomar, 2008). Other compounds, such as myrcene, limonene and β-pinene as well as alcohols such as linalool and α-bisabolol, could also contribute to the observed antioxidant activity by synergistic effects (Nafis et al., 2019;Smeriglio et al., 2020). This could explain the different behavior detected in the two extracts analyzed. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two extracts from a new Chinese accession (G‐309) of Cannabis sativa L. (Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol <0.2%) with high content of propyl side chain phytocannabinoids. Dried flowering tops, as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, were extracted with acidic hexane to produce the Cannabis Chinese hexane extract 1 (CChHE1) and 2 (CChHE2), respectively. The phytochemical profile of CChHE1 and CChHE2 was investigated by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and liquid chromatography–diode array detector–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (LC‐DAD‐ESI‐MS/MS) analyses. The antioxidant properties were assessed by several in vitro cell‐free assays. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram‐positive and Gram‐negative bacteria and the yeast Candida albicans. Phytochemical analyses highlighted a high content of cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA) and tetraydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA) in CChHE1, and cannabidivarin (CBDV) and tetraydrocannabivarin (THCV) in CChHE2. Both extracts showed remarkable antioxidant activity and strong antimicrobial properties (MIC 39.06 and MBC 39.06–78.13 μg/ml) against both ATCC and methicillin‐resistant clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In conclusion, standardized extracts of C. sativa Chinese accession could be promising for their possible use as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of widespread S. aureus infections.
... According to our research, there is the only research on the antioxidant activity of C. sativa. Nafis et al. (2019), (Nafis et al., 2019) IC 50 values of 1.8 ± 0.2mg / mL for C. sativa-carotene / linoleic acid test, 0.9 ± 0.1mg / mL and free DPPH for power reduction (Nafis et al., 2019). ( Katata-Seru et al., 2018;Sangami et al., 2017) In detail, the high presence of free radicals in normal cells causes many mutations, destroying gene expression in DNA and RNA and then accelerating the proliferation and growth of abnormal cells or cancerous cells (Beheshtkhoo et al., 2018) High availability in all cancers such as breast, free radicals, stomach, gall bladder, liver, rectal, gastrointestinal stromal, bile duct, esophagus, small intestine, pancreas, colon, thyroid, parathyroid, prostate, bladder, testicle, vaginal, fallopian tube, ovarian, throat, lung, hypo pharyngeal, and skin cancers show the important role of these molecules in making angiogenesis, and (Radini et al., 2018) Many researchers reported that gold nanoparticles synthesized by ethno medicinal plants have a remarkable role in the removal of free radicals (Beheshtkhoo et al., 2018;Radini et al., 2018). ...
... According to our research, there is the only research on the antioxidant activity of C. sativa. Nafis et al. (2019), (Nafis et al., 2019) IC 50 values of 1.8 ± 0.2mg / mL for C. sativa-carotene / linoleic acid test, 0.9 ± 0.1mg / mL and free DPPH for power reduction (Nafis et al., 2019). ( Katata-Seru et al., 2018;Sangami et al., 2017) In detail, the high presence of free radicals in normal cells causes many mutations, destroying gene expression in DNA and RNA and then accelerating the proliferation and growth of abnormal cells or cancerous cells (Beheshtkhoo et al., 2018) High availability in all cancers such as breast, free radicals, stomach, gall bladder, liver, rectal, gastrointestinal stromal, bile duct, esophagus, small intestine, pancreas, colon, thyroid, parathyroid, prostate, bladder, testicle, vaginal, fallopian tube, ovarian, throat, lung, hypo pharyngeal, and skin cancers show the important role of these molecules in making angiogenesis, and (Radini et al., 2018) Many researchers reported that gold nanoparticles synthesized by ethno medicinal plants have a remarkable role in the removal of free radicals (Beheshtkhoo et al., 2018;Radini et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Metallic nanoparticles, especially gold nanoparticles, are used in the therapy of various diseases. Recently, many chemotherapeutic supplements or drugs have been formulated with gold nanoparticles. One option for synthesizing gold nanoparticles is to use herbs. Many previous studies have shown that medicinal herbs increase the antioxidant and cytotoxicity properties of gold nanoparticles against tumor cell lines. In this study, gold nanoparticles were prepared and synthesized in an aqueous medium using Cannabis sativa L leaf extract as stabilizing and reducing agents. In addition, we evaluated the anti-leukemia effects of gold nanoparticles against acute T-cell leukemia and lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines. Characterization of gold nanoparticles was done with FE - SEM, FT - IR, UV-Vis and TEM. The MTT test is used for anti-HAuCl4, C. sativa and C. Acute leukemia effects of AuNPs. To investigate the antioxidant potentials of HAuCl4, C. sativa aqueous extract and gold nanoparticles, the DPPH test was used in the presence of butylated hydroxytoluene as control. In UV-Vis, the clear peak at 538 nm wavelength showed the formation of gold nanoparticles. In the FT-IR, many antioxidant molecules with relevant bonds led to the perfect condition for gold reduction in gold nanoparticles. In addition, in TEM and FE-SEM images, gold nanoparticles were spherical, with an average size of 18.6 nm. The IC50 of gold nanoparticles were 329, 381, 275 and 218 µg / mL against MOLT-3, TALL-104, J.RT3-T3.5 and Clone E6-1 cell lines, and Jurkat, respectively. The best results of the anti-acute leukemia properties of gold nanoparticles were obtained in the Clone E6-1 cell line. Gold nanoparticles inhibited half of the DPPH at a concentration of 196 µg/mL. The above results confirm the excellent roles of the gold nanoparticles as new chemotherapeutic drugs in treating various types of acute leukemia.
... In human, free radicals are associated with the neurodegeneration, cardiovascular deterioration, diabetis and cardiovascular disease. The antioxidants are acting by delaying or inhibiting the oxidation from lipid and facilitating the repairing of damage cells (Nahtigal et al. 2016).A study by Nafis et al. (2019) was conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of C. sativa from Morocco. The Moroccan C. sativa consist of terpenoids compound such as (E)caryophyllene (35.0%), α-humulene (12.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (10.6%). ...
... The results suggested that the terpenoids in C. sativa have potential to diminute acute inflammation symptoms. Nafis et al. (2019) showed that C. sativa which characterized dominance of sesquiterpenes compounds namely (E)-caryophyllene, αhumulene and caryophyllene oxide considered as potential natural antimicrobial agent. The results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration values of C. sativa in the range from 1.2 to 37.8 mg/mL. ...
Article
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Terpenoids, also referred as terpenes have been used extensively in drug related industry due to pharmaceutical properties. These have driven the emergence of studies on terpenoid from plant. Cannabis sativa plant is one of the common natural sources of terpenoids and cannabinoids. The cannabis produces and accumulates terpenoids in grandular trichomes. The grandular trichomes are abundant on the surface of female inflorescence. About 140 terpenoids are known in cannabis and some of them have medicinal potential in treatment of pain, inflammatory, cognition, epilepsy and immune functioning. The biological effect of terpenoid from cannabis is mainly attributed to limonene, myrcene, pinene, linalool, ß-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. The different composition of terpenoids are responsible in exhibit the unique organoleptic properties and influence the medicinal qualities of difference cannabis strains and varieties. This article aims to review the cannabis plant for terpenoid, terpenoid biosynthesis and its pharmacological activities. The terpenoids from cannabis could be valuable natural resources for drug development.
... The checkerboard assay method was used to evaluate the synergistic combination of L. ventricosa EO with four standard antimicrobial agents (fluconazol, amphotericin B, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin) as described before (Elhidar et al. 2019;Nafis et al. 2019). Briefly, 50 μL of the EO at a low concentration MIC/4 and 50 µL of different concentrations of the antimicrobials (from 1000 µg/mL to 0.48 µg/mL) were added to the microwells containing 100 μL of a cell suspension. ...
... Concerning the yeasts used, the highest reduction of fluconazole MIC was noted for C. albicans and C. glabrata with a gain of 128 fold. Our findings were comparable to that published in numerous studies concerning the synergistic effect of the used antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, vancomycin and fluconazol) and other Moroccan plant EOs (Elhidar et al. 2019;Nafis et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The purpose of the present study was to determine for the first time the volatile constituents, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil (EO) of the endemic Moroccan Linaria ventricosa, alone or in combination with four known antibiotics. The major constituents were 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (17.4%), α-terpinene (13.64%) and 3,5-dimethylphenyl isocyanate (12.21%). The EO had moderate antioxidant potency, as measured by DPPH free radical scavenging (1.233 ± 0.031 mg/mL), ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (0.373 ± 0.019 mg/mL) and β-carotene/linoleic acid (0.922 ± 0.026 mg/mL). EO showed microbicidal activity against all microorganisms tested. The highest effectiveness was recorded against Candida albicans (IZ = 24 mm, MIC = 4.87 mg/mL and MMC = 9.75 mg/mL) and Candida glabrata (IZ = 22 mm, MIC = MMC = 4.87 mg/mL). Gram negative bacteria were the most resistant (MIC = MMC = 39 mg/mL). The combination of EO at sub-inhibitory concentrations with antibiotics showed a significant decrease in their individual MICs from 2 to 128 fold, being the best for ciprofloxacin and fluconazole against E. coli and C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively.
... The remarkable antioxidant activity found for both CFHE1 and previously observed (Nafis et al., 2019;Smeriglio et al., 2018;Smeriglio et al., 2020). ...
... CDB, for its countless biological properties, represents the most investigated non-psychotropic cannabinoids from a pharmacological point of view(Appendino, Eades, Hickory, & Makriyannis, 2016;Izzo, Borrelli, Capasso, Di Marzo, & Mechoulam, 2009). However, terpenes can also exert a pivotal role(Nafis et al., 2019). It is well known that monoterpenes generally possess the strong antioxidant activity, following by oxygenated monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated sesquiterpenes(Smeriglio et al., 2020). ...
Article
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The aim of study was to evaluate and compare the phytochemical profile, the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of two standardized extracts from non-psychotropic (Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol ≤0.2%) Cannabis sativa L. var. fibrante rich in cannabidiol (CBD). The two extracts, namely Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 1 (CFHE1) and Cannabis Fibrante Hexane Extract 2 (CFHE2), were obtained by extraction with acidified hexane from dried flowering tops as such and after hydrodistillation of the essential oil, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis showed that cannabinoids remained the predominant class of compounds in both extracts (82.56% and 86.38%, respectively), whereas a marked depletion of the terpenes occurred. Moreover, liquid chromatographic analysis highlighted a high titer of cannabidiol acid (CBDA) and CBD in CFHE1 and CFHE2, respectively. Both extracts showed a strong and concentration-dependent antioxidant activity and a potent antimicrobial activity against both Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 (MIC and MBC of 4.88 μg/ml for CFHE1, and 4.88 and 19.53 μg/ml, respectively, for CFHE2) and methicillin resistant clinical strains (MIC values between 1.22 and 9.77 μg/ml and MBC values between 4.88 and 78.13 μg/ml). Considering this, the obtained results suggest that standardized extracts of C. sativa var. fibrante could find promising applications as novel antimicrobial agents.
... In vitro studies have shown that Al 3+ exposure can induce several biological effects implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, including apoptosis, mitochondrial gene expression, inflammation [6], cardiotoxicity [7], nephrotoxicity [8], hepatotoxicity [9], hematotoxicity [10], and bone and lung toxicity [7]. Antioxidants protect the body from the effects of free radicals, inhibit the oxidation of biomolecules, and prevent cell damage [11]. Recently, greater interest has been addressed to hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), also called industrial cannabis (the content of psychoactive cannabinoids <0.2%), which is mainly investigated due to the presence of more than 133 cannabinoids and terpenes in its composition [12]. ...
... Cannabis sativa L. produces multiple chemical compounds of different biogenetic classes [15], and many studies have demonstrated the antioxidant activity of Cannabis in vitro [19,22]. The phenolic compounds are mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity, while hemp seeds due to their active compounds, have health benefits such as lowering the cholesterol level in the blood or alleviating constipation and are also useful in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases [11,23]. Cannabinoids protect against oxidative stress in the cell [13], and cannabinoid-like CBD has anxiolytic, antipsychotic, and antidepressant properties [24]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, a lot of attention has been paid to Cannabis sativa L. due to its useful applications, including in fibers, oil, food for humans and animals, and therapeutics. The present study aimed to determine antioxidant activity of cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa L. in vivo, evaluating the possible antioxidative effect of Cannabis sativa L. extract (CE) on malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) concentrations as well as on catalase (CAT) activity in BALB/c mice. In total, 40 mice were divided into five equal groups: the aluminum group (7.5 mg AlCl3/kg/d (0.15 LD50), the saline group, the 10% ethanol group (an appropriate amount of the solution for mouse weight), the CE group (1.6 mg CE/g/day), and the aluminum-CE group (7.5 mg AlCl3 plus 1.6 mg CE/g/day). The results of the study showed that CE significantly decreased (by 26.81%, p < 0.05) the concentration of GSH in blood of the mice and the concentration of MDA in the brain (by 82.12%) and liver (by 53.5%) of the mice compared to the respective concentrations in the AlCl3 group. CE significantly (p < 0.05) increased CAT activity in the brain (by 64.79%) and liver (by 72.37%) of the mice after the AlCl3-induced prooxidant effect. The results showed the antioxidant activity of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) in vitro. The findings in vivo indicate that Cannabis sativa L. is a good source of natural antioxidants and can be used in the management of oxidative stress.
... Essential oil, natural secondary metabolite of plants, has been shown various biological effects (such as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities) (Akarca, 2019;Ali et al., 2017;Bouyahya et al., 2019;Dahham et al., 2015;Dammak et al., 2019;de Almeida et al., 2018;Mosbah et al., 2018;Nafis et al., 2019), and so it has aroused great interest of application in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Importantly, plant essential oils have been used as novel source of natural antimicrobials and food preservatives in food industry (Bajpai et al., 2012;Bondi et al., 2017;Burt, 2004;Gutiérrez-del-Río et al., 2018;Hintz, Matthews, & Di, 2015;Pandey, Kumar, Singh, Tripathi, & Bajpai, 2017). ...
... A subsequent assay of essential oil, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity revealed that the LGFEO yield (1.91%) was higher than that reported for L. glauca fruits of other germplasms (0.19-1.40%) (Wan, Dong, & Zhang, 2012;Zhu et al., 2016). Most of our identified 70 volatile compounds (Table 1) have been shown antimicrobial activity (Akarca, 2019;Ali et al., 2017;Bouyahya et al., 2019;de Almeida et al., 2018;Mosbah et al., 2018;Nafis et al., 2019). The results from the detections of DIZ, MIC and MBC/MFC indicated that LGFEO had a strong inhibitory effect against all tested food-borne pathogens, and S. flexneri was identified as the most sensitive pathogen (Table 2). ...
Article
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Current trend in food safety and public health is focusing on the use of natural antimicrobials. The Lindera glauca fruit with rich resource and essential oil has emerged as potential application in China. This work aimed to detect chemical compounds of L. glauca fruit essential oil (LGFEO) and to evaluate antimicrobial activity and mechanism of LGFEO for develop natural antimicrobials. A total of 70 volatile compounds were identified, and the major groups were monoterpene (56.62 %) and sesquiterpene (39.71 %). The analysis of antimicrobial activity indicated that LGFEO could effectively inhibit the growth of all tested 13 food-borne pathogens, of which Shigella flexneri had the highest inhibition zone diameter (DIZ, 25.45 nm), and the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 0.156 μg/mL) and bactericidal concentration (MBC, 0.312 μg/mL). To unravel antibacterial mechanism of LGFEO on S. flexneri, the dynamic changes for bacterial growth curve, material release, and the levels of intracellular mallondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ROS-detoxifying enzymes were analyzed in S. flexneri cells exposed to LGFEO at different concentrations (1/2×MIC, 1×MIC and 2×MIC) and times (0-24 h), revealing that LGFEO could cause cell material leakage, antioxidant enzyme inactivation, H2O2 and MDA accumulation, and bacterial growth inhibition. Also, antibacterial action of LGFEO was conducted on key enzymes of respiratory metabolic (glycolysis, oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and respiratory chain), and the levels of intracellular ATP, ADP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD⁺ and NADH), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP⁺ and NADPH), and oxidized and reduced glutathione (GSSG and GSH) in LGFEO-treated S. flexneri cells, indicating a role of LGFEO in repressing respiratory pathway and electron transport with low redox potential. All these revealed that LGFEO could effectively induce H2O2 accumulation and lipid peroxidation, resulting in cell membrane damage and metabolic function disruption, giving rise to a disturbance of redox homeostasis, which may be the main cause of growth inhibition or cell death for S. flexneri.
... Other compounds were α-humulene (8.2%), terpinolene (6.2%), and β-pinene (3.9%). Similar chemical composition was observed by previous studies for IHEO but in diverse quantities (Fiorini et al., 2019;Nafis et al., 2019;Tabari et al., 2020). The discrepancies in the chemical composition of terpenes in IHEO may be relevant to the source, harvesting, storage, and type of cultivation/extraction of the specimens (Ascrizzi et al., 2019). ...
... In a similar study, Oguzhan Yıldız and Yangılar, (2016) reported that the activity of the microorganisms of Rainbow trout fillets was inhibited by WP concentrate coating during the storage period. The antimicrobial potency observed in the IHEO-reinforced WPNF-MBP NPs may be related to the high content of α-humulene, caryophyllene oxide and (E)-caryophyllene in IHEO that can collapse the microbial cells interacting with the proteins existing in the cytoplasmic membrane, as well as the cell content leakage (Nafis et al., 2019). In addition, the very small size of IHEOs increases the surface area of unit volume, and thus, interact with the structural and biochemical attributes of microbes more effectively and cause cell death (Hadidi et al., 2020). ...
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Essential oil of industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) (IHEO) was reinforced in complexation of whey protein nanofibrils and mung bean protein nanoparticles (WPNF-MBP NPs) as a novel nano-carrier. A desirable retention rate range of 50.9-90.4% was confirmed for IHEO reinforced in WPNF-MBP NPs. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that IHEO was successfully loaded within WPNF-MBP NPs without specific chemical interaction with the carrier matrix. The results indicated that incorporation of IHEO-reinforced WPNF-MBP NPs into active material coatings having acceptable inhibition activity against total viable and psychrotrophic bacteria. The coated fishes also retarded the increase of PV (peroxide value), TBA (thiobarbituric acid) and TVB-N (total volatile basic nitrogen) values during storage. The IHEO-reinforced WPNF-MBP NPs coating led to an extension in the shelf life of Rainbow trout fillets within 8 to 14 days of storage. Accordingly, IHEO-reinforced WPNF-MBP NPs can be suggested as a natural preservative for coating fishes.
... Singh et al. (2010) reported that the antioxidant activity of essential oils in terms of free radical scavenger was related to the antioxidant activity of DL-limonene. Previous studies have demonstrated that the species rich in caryophyllene possessed appreciable antioxidant activity (Nafis et al., 2019;Salleh, Kammil, Ahmad, & Sirat, 2015;Sarikurkcu, Ozer, Calli, & Popović-Djordjević, 2018). In addition, it was reported that the sesquiterpene (caryophyllene) showed an antioxidant activity concerning the neutralization of the DPPH radical (Mimica-Dukic et al., 2004). ...
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Macerates of kibbles, seeds and leaves of Ceratonia siliqua L. were prepared and analysed to apply them for the development of a new multilayer active packaging. The profile of forty-three different bioactive volatile compounds was obtained employing headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant capacity was investigated using the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and phosphomolybdenum method, which demonstrated stronger antioxidant capacity in the case of seeds macerates. However, the analysis of the antimicrobial properties of the different macerates versus Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli revealed a weak antibacterial activity. Additionally, the different macerates were incorporated into an adhesive used to build a new biopackaging multilayer film based on cellulose polymer, whose antioxidant capacity was evaluated by two different methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl radical assay). The films with the best antioxidant activity, containing carob seeds macerates, were selected for the food safety assessment through migration assay. The obtained results showed no migrants, neither in the case of the volatile compounds nor non-volatile ones. Besides, the CIE L*a*b* colour of the active films was evaluated. The obtained results are therefore promising for future production of active biopackaging at an industrial scale.
... This may be attributed to the presence of oxygenated compounds in their composition, as DPPH is more sensitive to polar substances [55]. Additionally, synergistic action between the chemical constituents may have contributed to the higher antioxidant activity observed [56]. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained β-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), β-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).
... The action of pogostol and E-caryophyllene was seen by Adhavan et al. (2017) [39] when working with the Pogostemon cablin and Pogostemon heyneanus essential oils, where their action was promising, obtaining MIC values ranging from 3.2 to 25 mg/mL against Shigella flexneri, S. aureus, S. mutans and C. albicans strains. Nafis et al. [42] evaluated the antimicrobial effect of the Cannabis sativa oil, which presents E-Caryophyllene (35%) as its major compound, where the best inhibitory effects were obtained against E. coli (11.1 mm), Micrococcus luteus (11 mm), Bacillus subtilis (13 mm), S. aureus (13 mm), C. albicans (12 mm) and C. krusei (12.5 mm) compared to the drugs ciprofloxacin (12 mm, 26.3 mm, 35 mm, 27.5 mm) and fluconazole (20 mm, 24 mm), respectively, when using the disc diffusion method. ...
... Essential oils are produced in response to a stress condition suffered by the plant, for example a phytopathogenic infection (Chaturvedi et al. 2019). Its hydrophobic nature and complex chemical composition, give a low risk to the development of microbial resistance, since its action is attributed not only to a single specific compound, but may be related to the synergism between them due to the complementarity of different mechanisms, which hinders the microbial adaptations (Nafis et al. 2019). ...
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This work aimed to investigate the chemical composition, antimicrobial activity, synergistic effect, and structure changes of the essential oil of Hymenaea rubriflora (EOHr). Forty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil, corresponding to 94.43% of the compounds present, being the main components E-Caryophyllene (36.72 ± 1.05%), Germacrene D (16.13 ± 0.31%), α-Humulene (6.06 ± 0.16%), β-elemene (5.61 ± 0.14%) and δ-Cadinene (3.76 ± 0.07%). Antimicrobial activity was evaluated, presenting antibacterial and antifungal activity with MIC ranging from 0.62 to 40 μL/mL. The essential oil had a synergistic effect when combined with gentamicin and fluconazole. Structural changes were also evaluated and it was possible to observe that EOHr action was related to changes in membrane permeability. The findings obtained here suggest that the use of the essential oil of H. rubriflora in the treatment of infectious diseases presents a potential for the future development of pharmaceutical products.
... This promises more efficient surveillance, plant disease and mold contamination control, and global prevention systems. Improved antimicrobial BCA cells, bioactive (e.g., essential oil and terpene) molecules [107,108], and silver nanoparticles [109] seem plausible control agents, often with added antioxidant benefit [110], to be considered in Cannabis production. Synthetic biologists have seen beneficial fungal yeasts and bacteria cells as "green" factories to produce cannabinoids [111]. ...
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Cannabis legalization has occurred in several countries worldwide. Along with steadily growing research in Cannabis healthcare science, there is an increasing interest for scientific-based knowledge in plant microbiology and food science, with work connecting the plant microbiome and plant health to product quality across the value chain of cannabis. This review paper provides an overview of the state of knowledge and challenges in Cannabis science, and thereby identifies critical risk management and safety issues in order to capitalize on innovations while ensuring product quality control. It highlights scientific gap areas to steer future research, with an emphasis on plant-microbiome sciences committed to using cutting-edge technologies for more efficient Cannabis production and high-quality products intended for recreational, pharmaceutical, and medicinal use.
... against different microorganism depend on the method of extraction. They showed that the MIC value of extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction (CO 2-? 2.5% ethanol ? H 2 O) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (CO 2 ? 2.5% ethanol) was more than 1000 lg/ml against S. aureus and E. coli while they show no inhibition effect on S. cerevisiae.Nafis et al. (2019) stated that the MIC values of Moroccan Cannabis sativa essential oil against S. aureus and E. coli, were 4.7 and 1.2 mg/ml, respectively which was greater that our findings for Ferula asafoetida. ...
Article
This is the first original study on chemical, thermal, antimicrobial, and antioxidant activity of the leaf and gum hydroethanolic (20:80 v/v) extracts of Ferula asafoetida endemic for Iran. The ratio of solvent to the dried matters was 3:1 (w/w) and after filtering, the solvent was evaporated under vacuum (at 40 °C). Leaf extract contained greater phenolic and flavonoid compounds and thus higher DPPH scavenging and ferric reducing power. Leaf extract constituted high levels of carvacrol (15.40%) and α-bisabolol (9.75%) while in gum extract contained high levels of (Z)-b-ocimene (20.91%) and (E)-1-propenyl-sec-butyl-disulfide (17.62%). Umbelliprenin and ferulic acid were the major phenolic compounds in both extracts. Results of TGA and DSC revealed temperatures below and upper 100 °C and 160 °C as dominant regions of weight loss for gum and leaf extracts, respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentration for Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth were 62.5, 62.5, 125, 125 mg/l and 400, 300, 50, 300 mg/l of leaf and gum extracts, respectively. Ferula asafoetida extracts can have particular applications in the food industry due to beneficial biological activity.
... Research demonstrated that C. sativa essential oil performed antimicrobial effects against tested microorganisms where this fact can be used in future to overcome the intense use of antibiotics for infectious conditions [10] . The leaf extracts from the plant C. sativa have reported to possess antifungal properties and can be used in treatments against the pathogen Magnaporthe grisea to get rid from rice blast disease [11] . ...
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Cannabis sativa is an herbaceous plant which is mainly used as a remedy for neurological, digestive and immunological ailments in traditional medicine. Even though Cannabis is the most illicit plant around the world, its medicinal properties are beneficial in number of ways. Numerous beneficial effects of C. sativa have been demonstrated in multiple in-vitro and in-vivo studies from different parts of the world. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature and provide a summary on potential medicinal benefits of C. sativa. This systematic review was conducted by using the data bases; Science direct and PubMed for studies published from 1st of January 2015 to 31st of October 2020. In order to obtain further data, a manual search was also carried out from the reference lists of included articles. After removing the duplicate articles 77 total number of articles included in this present review. The beneficial health effects of C. sativa were anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-microbial, anti-parasitic, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer properties. In addition, it revealed that C. sativa lower blood glucose, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels. Apart from that, the use of Cannabis in other diseases such as irritable bowel disease, renal diseases, neurofibromatosis, and leucorrhea was also identified. The wide range of medicinal effects may be due to main active ingredients of Tetrahydro cannabinol, Cannabidiol, Cannabinol and Tetrahydro cannabivarin. Available in-vitro and invivo evidence suggested that C. sativa has many favorable health effects and further randomized controlled clinical trials will be needed to determine these effects thoroughly
... The results indicated that both essential oils show an important scavenging effect on the ABTS +. radical cation. ABTS percent scavenging activities of essential oils were measured in different concentrations ranging between 0.065 and 1 mg/mL Figure. 1 16,17 . Similarly, other investigations indicated that the essential oils process excellent antioxidant and radical scavenging properties 18 suggesting their potential action for preventing cell damage. ...
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For the first time, the chemical constituents of two essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from Drimia maritima flowers and bulbs were identified using analytical GC-MS analysis. Eugenol (41.23 %) and carvacrol (27.29 %) were the most abundant compounds in bulbs while the major components in flowers were p-vinylguaicol (14.33 %), eugenol (8.49 %) and carvacrol (7.51 %). The antioxidant activity of both essential oils was evaluated using three methods DPPH, ABTS+. and total antioxidant capacity. The results showed that essential oils from bulbs and flowers exhibited a strong antioxidant capacity compared to Trolox and Vitamine E. Additionally; the samples were evaluated for their nitric oxide chelation activity and showed an important scavenging effect with IC50 5.05 and 5.12 μg/mL for bulbs and flowers respectively. Furthermore, both essential oils were endowed with effective antimicrobial properties. It was noticed that the extents of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Drimia maritima essential oils are in accordance with their high amount of eugenol and carvacrol.
... Nevertheless, it is known that the antioxidant activity of essential oils cannot be related to only one terpenic compound. Likewise, synergistic or antagonistic interactions among major and minor components belonging to different chemical fami-lies (hydrocarbon, oxygenated, phenolic derivatives, etc.) should contribute to the level of antioxidant properties 11,18,22,23 . ...
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The essential oils extracted from different organs of Pinus halepensis were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS and evaluated for their antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-butyrylcholineste-rase activities. The composition and biological activities of essential oils extracted from immature cones, juvenile needles and male inflorescences were analyzed for the first time. The common compounds of the investigated essential oils were α-pinene (6.4 to 46.1 %), β-myrcene (5.5 to 28.3 %), β-caryophyllene (1.3 to 32.8 %), β-caryophyllene oxide (2.7 to 66.6 %) and α-humulene (2.4 to 5.8 %). Significant variations of essential oil composition were detected between the investigated plant parts. The analyzed essential oils exhibited antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. These activities varied significantly among organs. The essential oil of needles showed the highest antiradical activity with DPPH assay (0.31 mg eq Trolox/g EO). However, for ABTS radical scavenging assay, juvenile needles showed the uppermost antioxidant activity (2.52 mg eq Trolox/g EO). Male inflorescences possessed the most important chelating activity (267.43 mg eq EDTA/g EO). Essential oils of juvenile needles exhibited the highest antiacetylcholinesterase activity (1.37 mg eq dopenzil/g EO). Male inflorescences revealed the most important activity against butyrylcholinesterase (57.442 mg eq dopenzil/g EO).
... The The antibacterial interactions were interpreted as total synergistic (FICi ≤ 0.5), partial synergistic (0.5 < FICi ≤ 0.75), indifferent (0.75 < FICi ≤ 2), and antagonistic (FICi > 2) (Nafis et al., 2019). ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial interactions of pulegone and 1,8‐cineole with monolaurin ornisin against Staphylococcus aureus. The individual and combined antibacterial activities of the compounds were evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICi), and time‐kill methods. Furthermore, the mechanism of the antibacterial action of the compounds was tested by measuring the release of cell constituents. The MIC values of pulegone, 1,8‐cineole, nisin, and monolaurin were 5.85 µl/ml, 23.43 µl/ml, 6.25 µg/ml, and 0.031 mg/ml, respectively. A synergistic antibacterial activity (FICi = 0.5) was found between 1,8‐cineole and nisin. The time‐kill assay showed that the populations of S. aureus exposed to 1,8‐cineole, nisin, and their combination were decreased by 5.9, 5.3, and 7.1 log CFU (colony‐forming units)/mL, respectively. The combination of 1,8‐cineole and nisin also induced the highest release of cell constituents. It was concluded that the combination of 1,8‐cineole and nisin could be considered as a novel and promising combination which may reduce the required dose of each antibacterial compound. The antibacterial activity of pulegone and 1,8‐cineole combined with monolaurin or nisin was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus. A synergistic antibacterial effect was found between 1,8‐cineole and nisin. This combination also induced the highest release of cell constituents. Therefore, the combination of 1,8‐cineole and nisin could be considered as a novel and effective antibacterial combination to control S. aureus.
... Based on the dry weight (DW), the EOs yielded (v/w) 0Á5% for L. pedunculata, 0Á12% for L. angustifolia and 0Á16% for L. maroccana. The EO chemical profiles were characterized using the GC-MS coupled to the mass selective detector "ISQ Single Quadrupole Mass spectrometer" (70 eV) as Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2021 The Society for Applied Microbiology described previously by Nafis et al. (2019). The analysis was carried out using Helium as carrier gas, 1 µl of sample as injection volume and 260°C was the injector temperature. ...
Article
The aim of this study was to determine the chemical profile of the essential oils (EOs) of three Moroccan lavender species (Lavandula pedunculata, LP; Lavandula angustifolia, LA; and Lavandula maroccana, LM) and to investigate, for the first time, the synergistic effect of the optimal mixture of the EOs with conventional antibiotic ciprofloxacin against three pathogenic foodborne bacteria. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis showed that eucalyptol (39.05%), camphor (24.21%) and borneol (8.29%) were the dominant compounds of LA‐EO. LP‐EO was characterized by the abundance of camphor (74.51%) and fenchone (27.06%), whereas carvacrol (42.08%), camphor (17.95%) and fenchone (12.05%) were the main constituents of LM‐EO. EOs alone or combined showed a remarkable antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 3.53 mg/mL to 15.96 mg/mL. The optimal mixture, calculated using a mixture design, corresponded to 19% LA, 38% LP and 43% LM. All combination of the EOs and the best EO mixture with ciprofloxacin exhibited a total synergism with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) values ranging from 0.27 to 0.37. The best EO mixture showed the highest gain of 128 fold, especially against Salmonella spp., more than that found testing the EOs separately. These findings should be taken into consideration for a possible application in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
... Such a strong radical scavenging process may be related to the extension of the life of bees in our experiment (given the great antioxidant effects for various forms of the processed hemp raw materials). Similar properties have been demonstrated for the essential oil in relation to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and β-carotene/linoleic acid tests and Fe 3+ -reducing properties have been reported [38]. Hemp owes much of its properties to the active substances from the cannabinoid group. ...
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We examined the effect of hemp extract on the activity of the antioxidant system (catalase, peroxidase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity) in the hemolymph of adult honey bees (Apis mellifera). The bees were divided into three groups: (1) an experimental group fed with pure sugar syrup with cotton strips soaked with hemp extract put inside the cage; (2) an experimental group fed with a mixture of sugar syrup with hemp extract; and (3) a control group fed with a mixture of sugar and a water–glycerine solution. Hemolymph samples were collected on the 1st day of this study and then every week, until all bees in the group died. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes were higher for the experimental groups, compared to those for the control group. The highest antioxidant activities were noted in the group supplemented with cannabis with the use of syringes. Supplementation with hemp also increased the lifespan of bees in this group compared to that of the bees consuming only sugar syrup (control: 35 days), with 49 and 52 days for groups of cannabis on strips and in syrup, respectively. Hemp extract, thanks to its antioxidant properties, increased the activities of key antioxidant enzymes that protect the bee’s organisms against free radicals and thus delay the aging processes.
... According to previous report, the essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar possessed a synergistic effect when combined with aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and folate, against multi-drugs resistant of A. baumanii (Boonyanugomol et al., 2017). In addition, the essential oil from Cannabis sativa in combination with fluconazol and ciprofloxacin also exhibited a synergy interaction against Candida spp (Nafis et al., 2019). Due to the interaction, it has been proposed that the use of two or more drugs in combination may enhance the antibacterial activity. ...
Article
Antibacterial resistance has become a major global public health issue. Pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtillis, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with most community infections are linked with antibiotic resistance. Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a traditional medicine used to prevent and cure bacterial infection. This study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of C. xanthorrhiza essential oil (EO) against selected clinical isolates, as well as their interaction with conventional antibiotics. Chromatographic analysis revealed that the principal constituents of C. xanthorrhiza EO are α-curcumene and β-curcumene, representing 22.11 and 23.39% of the oil content, respectively. Curzerene, camphor, and xanthorrhizol also made up a significant fraction of the essential oils extract, accounting for more than 4.5%. C. xanthorrizha EO had considerable antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtillis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 7.8 and 15.6 µg/mL, but exhibited moderate activity against Staphylococcus aureus with MIC value of 31.2 µg/mL. Moreover, when used in combination, C. xanthorrhiza EO increased the antibacterial activity of ampicillin, resulting in a synergistic effect. C. xanthorrhiza EO inhibited the formation of biofilm in B. subtillis and S. aureus. C. xanthorrhiza EO significantly reduced the viability of established biofilm in B. subtillis and S. aureus at 15.6 µg/mL (2 MIC) and 125 µg/mL (4 MIC). The results showed that C. xanthorrhiza EO had potent antibacterial activity, inhibiting biofilm and increasing the effect of ampicillin against clinical isolate pathogen particularly B. subtillis.
... This may be attributed to the presence of oxygenated compounds in their composition, as DPPH is more sensitive to polar substances [55]. Additionally, synergistic action between the chemical constituents may have contributed to the higher antioxidant activity observed [56]. ...
Article
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Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils from Eugenia patrisii Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained β-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), β-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).
... Linalool is a monoterpene alcohol that is also found in a number of essential oils such as lavender, mint, rose, cypress, and lemon [95,96]. Myrcene, or β-myrcene, is a monoterpene with remarkable presence in bay, cannabis, and hops essential oils [97][98][99]. Other examples of abundant components of essential oils are eugenol, vanillin, cinnamaldehyde, eucalyptol, geraniol, carvacrol, and capsaicin [100]. ...
Article
The production of sustainable food packaging from renewable sources represents a prominent alternative to the use of petrochemical-based plastics. For example, starch remains one of the more closely studied replacement options due to its broad availability, low cost and significant advances in improving properties. In this context, essential oils as additives fulfil a key role in the manufacture of renewable active packaging with superior performances. In this review, a comprehensive summary of the impact of adding essential oils to the starch-based films is provided. After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts related to starch and essential oils, details on the most recent advances in obtaining active starch-based films are presented. Subsequently, the effects of essential oils addition on the structure-property relationships (from physicochemical to antimicrobial ones) are thoroughly addressed. Finally, applications and challenges to the widespread use of essential oils are critically discussed.
... This may be attributed to the presence of oxygenated compounds in their composition, as DPPH is more sensitive to polar substances [55]. Additionally, synergistic action between the chemical constituents may have contributed to the higher antioxidant activity observed [56]. ...
... This may be attributed to the presence of oxygenated compounds in their composition, as DPPH is more sensitive to polar substances [55]. Additionally, synergistic action between the chemical constituents may have contributed to the higher antioxidant activity observed [56]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Essential oils (EOs) were extracted from Eugenia patrisii, E. punicifolia, and Myrcia tomentosa, specimens A and B, using hydrodistillation. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to identify the volatile constituents present, and the antioxidant capacity of EOs was determined using diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. For E. patrisii, germacrene D (20.03%), bicyclogermacrene (11.82%), and (E)-caryophyllene (11.04%) were identified as the major constituents of the EOs extracted from specimen A, whereas specimen B primarily comprised γ-elemene (25.89%), germacrene B (8.11%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.76%). The EOs of E. punicifolia specimen A contained β-Elemene (25.12%), (E)-caryophyllene (13.11%), and bicyclogermacrene (9.88%), while specimen B was composed of (E)-caryophyllene (11.47%), bicyclogermacrene (5.86%), β-pinene (5.86%), and γ-muurolene (5.55%). The specimen A of M. tomentosa was characterized by γ-elemene (12.52%), germacrene D (11.45%), and (E)-caryophyllene (10.22%), while specimen B contained spathulenol (40.70%), α-zingiberene (9.58%), and γ-elemene (6.89%). Additionally, the chemical composition of the EOs was qualitatively and quantitatively affected by the collection period. Furthermore, the EOs of the studied specimens, especially specimen A of E. punicifolia, showed a greater antioxidant activity in DPPH rather than TEAC, as represented by a significantly high inhibition percentage (408.0%).
... The GC-MS system was used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the chemical composition of T. atlanticus EO, as previously described [23]. Gas chromatographic coupled to mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis was performed on a 1300 GAZ gas chromatograph equipped with a TG-5MS column (30 m length; 0.25 mm i.d.; 0.25 µm film thickness) and coupled to mass selective detector "ISQ Single Quadrupole Mass spectrometer" (70 eV). ...
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... For all assays performed, the EOA rich in sesquiterpenes presented higher antioxidant potential as compared to the EOG. According to Nafis et al. (2019), the antioxidant effectiveness of EOA may be attributed to the presence of β-caryophyllene at high concentrations. Several other authors have reported that the EOs rich in β-caryophyllene had high antioxidant potential (Dahham et al., 2015;Ed-Dra et al., 2020;Figueiredo et al., 2019;Salleh et al., 2015;Sarikurkcu et al., 2018). ...
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... Furthermore, the antioxidant potential of EOs at four hours may be associated to the activity of terpenes. In fact, it has been previously shown that the species rich in caryophyllene, humulene and caryophyllene oxide possessed an appreciable antioxidant activity [19][20][21][22]. This would justify the higher TPC and AOC values in both the distillation times of Futura 75 and in the other cultivars (Carmagnola, Kompolti and Caramagnola Lemon and Gran Sasso Kush) after four hours of distillation. ...
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... In the case of ability to deactivate DPPH free radicals, higher activity was demonstrated for water extracts, which most probably results from hydrophilic properties of the radical itself. Nafis et al. [36] showed that C. sativa DPPH radical scavenging potency (EC50) approximates 1.6 mg/mL), which is a four-fold lower value than our results noted for aqueous hop extracts. (Table 3). ...
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... Hemp EO is considered a niche product with high benefits and broad potential uses (Mediavilla and Steinemann 1997;Bertoli et al. 2010) from the cosmetic to the medical-pharmaceutical industry due to its natural antioxidant and antimicrobials (against Candida spp.) properties (Novak et al. 2001;Nissen et al. 2010;Nafis et al. 2019). Hemp EO has also been shown to have anti-leishmaniasis activities (Wanas et al. 2016), insecticidal and larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti larvae (Górski et al. 2016;Bedini et al. 2016;Wanas et al. 2020), nematocide (Mukhtar et al. 2013), fungicide properties (Wielgusz et al. 2012), and allelopathic effect (Synowiec et al. 2016) finding utilization also in crop protection (Górski et al. 2016). ...
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The use of hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) essential oil (EO) has shown a significant increase in interest and use during recent years. In this work, a new and simple reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode-array (PDA) detector method has been developed and optimized for the detection and quantification of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA), cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA). The cannabinoids were extracted from the EO by partition with n -hexane and water, followed by sonication, evaporation to dryness under nitrogen, and reconstitution with methanol:chloroform (9:1, v/v) before HPLC-PDA analysis. The method shows good selectivity and robustness, linearity in the range 0.5–100 mg L ⁻¹ with R ² higher than 0.999 for all cannabinoids analyzed, LOD of 0.11–0.16 mg L ⁻¹ , and LOQ of 0.35–0.48 mg L ⁻¹ . The recovery was between 78 and 100% and the intra-day and intermediate precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), was < 4% and 4–10%, respectively.
... The bacterial strains are named Staphylococcus aureus (CCMM B3), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DSM 50090) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739). Candida albicans CCMM-L4 of vaginal origin was the only pathogenic yeast [46] used in this study. To qualitatively determine the antimicrobial activity of Lichina pygmaea VC, the disc diffusion method was used, as described previously by Nafis et al. [47]. ...
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... The obtained EO yield in relation to the dry plant material was 0.6% (w/v). The quantitative and qualitative analyses of the chemical components of the EO were performed by GC/MS, as described previously [19]. The volatile constituents were identified by comparing their retention indices and mass spectra with reference libraries [20]. ...
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a supplement containing Cannabis sativa oil and other plant derivatives (Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Zingiber officinale phytosomized extracts) combined with physiotherapy treatments in dogs with osteoarthritis. We evaluated the response of serum inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers to the treatment. We found a significant reduction in the levels of serum markers reflecting the strong anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the supplement under study. • HIGHLIGHTS • Diet supplements are a valid alternative therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis. • Evidence of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of a supplement containing Cannabis sativa oil and other plant derivatives (Boswellia serrata Roxb. and Zingiber officinale).
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Background: Ocimum forskolei and Teucrium yemense (Lamiaceae) are used in traditional medicine in Yemen. Methods: The chemical composition, antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the essential oils isolated from the leaves of Ocimum forskolei Benth. (EOOF) and two different populations of Teucrium yemense Deflers., one collected from Dhamar province (EOTY-d), and another collected from Taiz (EOTY-t) were investigated. The antimicrobial activities of the oils were evaluated against several microorganisms with the disc diffusion test or the broth microdilution test. The essential oils were screened for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. EOOF and EOTY-d were screened for free-radical-inhibitory activity using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Results: Sixty-four compounds were identified in (EOOF) representing 100% of the oil content with endo-fenchol (31.1%), fenchone (12.2%), τ-cadinol (12.2%), and methyl (E)-cinnamate (5.1%) as the major compounds. In EOTY-d, 67 compounds were identified, which made up 91% of the total oil. The most abundant constituents were (E)-caryophyllene (11.2%), α-humulene (4.0.%), γ-selinene (5.5%), 7-epi-α-selinene (20.1%), and caryophyllene oxide (20.1%), while the major compounds in EOTY-t were α-pinene (6.6%), (E)-caryophyllene (19.1%) α-humulene (6.4%), δ-cadinene (6.5%), caryophyllene oxide (4.3%), α-cadinol (9.5%), and shyobunol (4.6%). The most sensitive microorganisms for EOOF were B. subtilis, S. aureus, and C. albicans with inhibition zones of 34, 16, and 24 mm and MIC values of, 4.3 mg/mL, 4.3 mg/mL, and 8.6 mg/mL, respectively. EOTY-t showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, B. cereus, A. niger, and B. cinerea with MIC values of 0.156, 0.156, 0.313 and 0.313 mg/mL, respectively. Neither essential oil showed remarkable radical inhibition (IC50 = 31.55 and 31.41 μL/mL). EOTY-d was active against HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with IC50 = 43.7 μg/mL. Consistent with this, EOTY-t was active against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Conclusions: The antimicrobial activity of Ocimum forskolei essential oil against B. subtilis and C. albicans is consistent with its traditional use in Yemeni traditional medicine to treat skin infections. Both O. forskolei and T. yemense show wide variations in their respective essential oil compositions; there remains a need to investigate both species botanically, genetically, and phytochemically more comprehensively.
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Since synthetic antimicrobial agents and food additives can cause a number of adverse effects, there is a growing interest from consumers in ingredients from natural sources. Medicinal plants, such as Myrtus communis L. are a source of new compounds which can be used in both the food industry and for medical purposes, primarily as antimicrobial agents. In this review, the characteristics of myrtle essential oils and extracts are summarized, with particular attention to their chemical composition, biological activities and potential applications.
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This study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial properties of essential oil, its major component, 1,8-cineole, and extracts of two Eucalyptus species, Eucalyptus intertexta and Eucalyptus largiflorens. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts was calculated by broth dilution method and the zone of inhibition was studied by agar disk diffusion method. Gentamicin (10 µg/disk) and rifampin (5 µg/disk) were used as reference controls for antibacterial studies and nystatin (100 µg/disk) for antifungal studies. The results of MIC study revealed that the essential oil has a stronger activity and broader spectrum than those of methanol extracts. It is interesting to point out that the oils had even greater potential of antimicrobial activities than those of 1,8-cineole as their main component.
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The aim of this study was to determine the antimycobacterial potential of laurel oil, its fractions and its two sesquiterpene lactones against several mycobacterial strains and clinical isolates, and to establish the possibility of occurrence of some synergistic effects between those lactones using a modification of the fluorometric Alamar Blue microassay (FMABA). The in vitro antimycobacterial activity of whole oil and its fractions and pure active compounds were determined by FMABA. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the traditional preparation of laurel oil from Madeira Islands was performed, yielding pure compounds chemically identified by standard procedures. Synergism of pure compounds was established by X/Y quotient analysis adapted to FMABA. Sesquiterpene lactones, costunolide and dehydrocostuslactone, were the compounds responsible for the antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv with MICs of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/L, respectively. Antimycobacterial activity against drug-resistant M. tuberculosis clinical isolates was better for the mixture than for pure compounds. Both lactones presented synergistic activity, i.e. analysis of relative fluorescence units presented an X/Y value <0.5 at a concentration of 1/8 MIC of each compound in the combination. Establishment of synergism by FMABA represents another application of the microplate Alamar Blue assay.
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Over the past years, the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens has become a pressing public health problem. It is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and puts a considerably financial burden on the health care system. The development of new antimicrobials is becoming increasingly difficult, time-consuming and expensive. Hence, new approaches are urgently needed to replenish our arsenal of antimicrobial agents. Plant tissues contain a wild variety of antimicrobial constituents discovered and used to reverse drugs resistance and restore their efficiency. For this, essential oil (EO) extracted from aerial parts of Senecio anteuphorbium (L) Haw, a Moroccan endemic plant, was studied for the first time for its: (i) Qualitative and quantitative chemical profile, (ii) antimicrobial activities, (iii) and synergistic interactions with two conventional antifungals and ciprofloxacin. The data of the chemical composition showed that S. anteuphorbium EO was characterized by the abundance of γ-selinene (27.2%), cyperene (21.7%), γ-cadinene (11.4%) and α-cyperone (8.1%). Regarding antimicrobial assays, results demonstrated that S. anteuphorbium EO displayed moderate antimicrobial activities with MIC values in the range of 0.51 mg/mL and 1.02 mg/mL for yeasts and between 2.3 mg/mL and 4.6 mg/mL for bacteria. However, the combination of the studied EO with fluconazole and ciprofloxacin showed a significant decrease in their individual MICs. In fact, at sub-inhibitory concentrations S. anteuophorbium EO contributed to the decrease of fluconazole MICs of Candida strains by 4- to 64- fold and by 2- to 16- fold regarding ciprofloxacin MICs. The overall data suggest that the topical or systemic use of S. anteuphorbium EO in combinational treatments may be a promising strategy to combat infectious diseases and further studies should be performed in order to well determine the main mechanism of these synergistic associations.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance Oils and extracts of Eugenia uniflora have been reported as antimicrobial, antifungal, antinociceptive, antiprotozoal, antioxidant and cytotoxic. Aim of the study The oils of five specimens (E1 to E5) that occur in the Brazilian Amazon were extracted, analyzed for their chemical composition, and submitted to antioxidant and cytotoxic assays. Material and methods Oils were hydrodistilled, analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and submitted to PCA and HCA analyses. The antioxidant activity of the oils was evaluated by the DPPH radical scavenging and the β-carotene/linoleic acid assays. Antiproliferative effects of the oils and curzerene were tested against colon (HCT-116), gastric (AGP-01), and melanoma (SKMEL-19) human cancer cell lines and a normal human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5), using MTT assay. Results Oxygenated sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons such as curzerene, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one, selina-1,3,7(11)-trien-2-one epoxide, germacrene B, caryophyllene oxide, and (E)-caryophyllene were predominant in the oils. PCA and HCA analyses classified the oils samples into four chemotypes. TEAC values of chemotype II (E3 oil, 228.3±19.2 mg TE/mL) and chemotype III (E4 oil, 217.0±23.3 mg TE/mL) displayed significant antioxidant activities. The oils E2 and E4 showed cytotoxic activity against all cell lines tested HCT-116 (IC50 E2: 16.26 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 9.28 μg/mL), AGP-01, (IC50 E2: 12.60 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 8.73 μg/mL), SKMEL-19 (IC50 E2: 12.20 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 15.42 μg/mL), and MRC-5 (IC50 E2: 10.27 μg/mL; IC50 E4: 14.95 μg/mL). Curzerene showed the more significant activity against melanoma cells (SKMEL-19, IC50: 5.17 μM), induced apoptosis at 5.0 μM and 10.0 μM compared to DMSO, exhibiting a decrease in the cell migration at 5.0 μM and 10.0 μM, after 30 h of treatment. Conclusion The curzerene chemotype oil and E. uniflora oils can be indicated as drug candidates for anticancer activity of the lung, colon, stomach, and melanoma, with a real prospect to their subsequent phytotherapeutic development.
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The medicinal properties of essential oils from aromatic plants are known since antiquity. Currently, the technological innovation enabled the reinvention of the ancient plant knowledge leading to the identification and extraction of organic compounds present in essential oils. These organic compounds belong mainly to the terpene group and are accountable for the wide range of bioactive properties attributed to essential oils. Linalool (C10H18O), so-called 3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol, is a monoterpene alcohol broadly present as a major constituent of plant essential oils, particularly lavender and coriander. Linalool per se is non-toxic and, according to recent in vitro and in vivo scientific studies, it has demonstrated to have a comprehensive range of bioactive properties, which can be exploited for pharmaceutic and cosmetic applications. The present review focuses on the anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, antimicrobial, antinoceptive, analgesic, anxiolytic, antidepressive and neuroprotective properties of linalool. The advantages of the loading in nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems, with the purpose of enhancing its bioactive properties are also discussed.
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The aim of our study was to screen Moroccan actinomycete isolates able to produce nonpolyenic antifungal metabolites in order to contribute to limiting the problem of fungal infections emergence in particular mycotic diseases and to discover known antifungal families, especially nonpolyenic drugs. 480 isolates were tested against 5clinically pathogenic Candida species. Several methods have been used to study the polyenic or non-polyenic nature of the antifungal molecules produced by Actinobacteria (i) The study of the antibacterial activity (the bacterial plasma membrane is devoid of sterols); (ii) The screening of the antimicrobial activity of resistant strains to polyenic antifungals essentially Candida tropicalis R2 and Pythium irregular; (iii) The inhibition of antifungal activity by exogenous ergosterol addition in the culture medium and (iv) The UV-Visible light spectrophotometric analysis of the crude extracts of the actinomycete isolates. Among all isolate tested, only 60 (29 %) showed an antifungal activity against all test microorganisms used. Six active isolates meet all the selection criteria and produced nonpolyenic antifungal metabolites. The taxonomic study of the promising isolate Z26, using morphological, physiological and molecular characters, showed that it has 99,43% of similarity with Streptomyces phytohabitans but there were some differences in morphological characteristics. In addition, the chemical study, using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques, of the bioactive substances produced in the Z26 isolate fermentation broth in NL300 culture medium allowed the determination of two macrolide derivatives with chemical structures C62H100O24(m/z 1251.6504 [M+Na]⁺) and C68H110O26(m/z 1365.7174 [M+Na]⁺). NMR experiments revealed that the active compounds were Novonestmycin A and B. The Novonestmycins A and B are for the first time produced by an actinomycete strain purely isolated from the Moroccan ecosystems. © 2018 Ahmed Nafis, Brahim Oubaha, Najoua Elhidar, Nico Ortlieb andreas Kulik, Timo Niedermeyer, Lahcen Hassani and Mustapha Barakate.