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Abstract

This paper examined the association between friendship and academic networks and how the connections these networks have with academic performance and school misconduct differ when comparing three types of classrooms where students were grouped based on their academic ability (i.e., high-, low-, and mixed-ability). The sample was composed of 528 seventh to ninth graders (Mage = 15; 64.1% girls) from 12 classrooms (four in each category of ability grouping) across two waves in five schools in Chile. The effects of academic performance and school misconduct on receiving academic and friendship nominations were examined, as well as the interplay between academic and friendship relationships. Furthermore, the extent to which similarity in adolescents' academic performance and school misconduct contributed to the formation and maintenance of academic and friendship relationships was examined. Sex, socioeconomic status, and structural network features were also taken into account. Longitudinal social network analyses (RSiena) indicated that (1) in high-ability classrooms students chose high-achieving peers as academic partners; (2) in high-ability classrooms students avoided deviant peers (i.e., those high in school misconduct) as academic partners; and (3) academic relationships led to friendships, and vice versa, in both high- and low-ability classrooms. Whereas the interplay of friendship and academic relationships was similar in high- and low-ability classrooms, the formation and maintenance of academic networks unfolded differently in these two types of classrooms.

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... Or, as Carneiro (2010) proposes, there is a positive association among the support networks for the permanence of students in the HEI. In addition, in the case of adolescents, the student network in a classroom can influence the progress of the classroom, constraining inappropriate behaviors and influencing the performance and school involvement of the class (Palacios et al., 2019). ...
... Thus, the expression "mates" was used, which are the preferred students for carrying out work, both in the classroom and out of class. This decision was made despite evidence that the networks of academic and friendship relationships may be similar (Palacios et al., 2019). As academic relationships often occur outside of school, for example, preparing assignments, preparing seminars or studying for exams (Palacios et al., 2019) it was decided to insert a question in the questionnaire that covered these activities, in addition to those carried out in the classroom -"... which are the preferred classmates with whom you carry out academic activities (group work, seminars etc.), both in the classroom and in extraclass activities (preparing seminars/presentations, studying etc.)". ...
... This decision was made despite evidence that the networks of academic and friendship relationships may be similar (Palacios et al., 2019). As academic relationships often occur outside of school, for example, preparing assignments, preparing seminars or studying for exams (Palacios et al., 2019) it was decided to insert a question in the questionnaire that covered these activities, in addition to those carried out in the classroom -"... which are the preferred classmates with whom you carry out academic activities (group work, seminars etc.), both in the classroom and in extraclass activities (preparing seminars/presentations, studying etc.)". However, it can be considered that the classroom is the main setting for social interaction, generating the creation of networks within the classroom in some academic systems, mainly in the traditional system in which they have classroom lessons on a daily basis (Gremmen et al., 2017 ). ...
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This work has investigated the academic relationships of five classes, 185 students, from an Undergraduate Business Administration course, on-site. The Social Network Analysis (SNA) research technique has been used. The results show that homophilia is predominant in the formation of groups. Only in one class does performance have a greater influence. The “cliques” were more clearly defined in only one class. The analysis of the results also indicates that students with social brokerage roles perform better than their peers.
... En una primera investigación que buscó determinar la magnitud de este fenómeno, Treviño y coautores (2018), mostraron que cerca del 59% de los establecimientos que proporcionan solo educación media con dos o más cursos por grado, realizaría algún tipo de ordenamiento académico, y que estaría asociada con un aumento en tasas de deserción y repitencia de estudiantes. Así también, afectaría la posibilidad de conformar redes académicas y sociales entre estudiantes (Palacios et al., 2019), no así, con los niveles de autoestima y autoeficacia que mantendría efectos positivos los ambientes heterogéneos . ...
... Esto implica una distribución no equitativa de los recursos escolares disponibles al servicio de cierto tipo de estudiantes por sobre otros, colocando entonces a los estudiantes con las características anteriormente descritas, en mayor riesgo de ser sujetos a prácticas de segregación y de exclusión por aplicación de este tipo de medidas. Lo que es consistente con la evidencia internacional para estas prácticas (APA, 2008;Calvin, Gurel y Barber, 2017;Camacho y Krezmien, 2019;Cobeña, 2020;Giménez et al., 2020;Murillo y Hernández, 2020;Palacios et al., 2019;Peguero y Bracy, 2014;Sangsurin, Chusorn y Agsonsua, 2019;Steengberger-Hu, Makel y Olszewski-Kubilius, 2016). ...
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Si bien las políticas educativas y la investigación en educación han abordado la segregación entre escuelas, las formas menos visibles de segregación y exclusión dentro de la escuela apenas se han estudiado. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar y analizar la ocurrencia y concurrencia de dos tipos de prácticas: punitivas y de ordenamiento por habilidades. Se utilizó las bases de datos del sistema de información general de estudiantes de los años 2003 al 2018 para identificar prácticas de ordenamiento académico, y los cuestionarios que acompañan la prueba SIMCE del año 2018 para analizar las prácticas punitivas reportadas por estudiantes de 6° (N = 224.274) y 10° grado (N = 202.282) y a padres de estudiantes de 4° grado (N = 214.211), 6° grado (N = 204.894) y 10° grado (N = 171.596). Los resultados muestran que los estudiantes de sexo masculino y en condición de pobreza reciben más prácticas punitivas, y que el ordenamiento académico es utilizado ampliamente en las escuelas chilenas, con mayor frecuencia en escuelas que solo imparten enseñanza secundaria. El uso de prácticas punitivas es más frecuente en aquellos colegios que ordenan académicamente. Se discute las implicancias de la sobre-representación de estas prácticas para los fenómenos de segregación educativa.
... Peer relations in the context of classroom settings have been extensively reported in the literature (for a review see Rodkin & Ryan, 2012). Research has consistently shown the crucial role that classrooms play in how peer groups are defined (Howe, 2009;Palacios et al., 2019b) and how interpersonal relationships emerge and unfold (Gregory, Cornell, Fan, Sheras, Shih & Huang, 2011) by means of social norms (Berger, Lisboa, Cuadros, & De Tezanos-Pinto, 2016;Dijkstra & Gest, 2015). ...
... Besides rare exceptions evidencing the positive effects of afterschool programs in Chile (e.g., Martinez & Perticara, 2018), the majority of the work on extracurricular activities has been carried out in the United States (Durlak et al., 2010;Gottfredson, Cross, Wilson, Rorie & Connell, 2010;Hansen, Larson & Dworkin, 2003). Since several studies have shown that classroom peer processes among Chilean adolescents resemble those described in American and European populations Palacios et al., 2019b), this study assessed if processes within extracurricular activities were also similar across these cultural contexts. ...
... A host of other factors, which directly and/or indirectly influence obesity-related behaviors (such as consumption of high-calorie foods, screen time, and physical activity), also influences the formation and composition of adolescent social networks. For example, higher academic achievement can have a positive influence on social network integration [16], and sport involvement is associated with having friendships and being popular [17]. Furthermore, research has shown that substance use [9] and socioeconomic status (SES) negatively influence social relations [18]. ...
... Generally, participants with lower grades (i.e., mostly Bs/Cs to mostly Ds/Fs) were at reduced odds of being nominated in the study's egocentric networks. Our finding supports that higher academic grades can influence social network selection and perceptions and serve as a protective factor against social marginalization [17]. Similarly, participants who currently used alcohol and/or tobacco were at reduced odds of being nominated as likely to succeed. ...
Article
Purpose Weight stigmatization during adolescence may compromise the development of social relations important for the development. This study examined the associations between weight status and likelihood of nomination (indegree) for five different social network types—friendship, romantic, admiration, succeed, and popularity. Methods Data for the study were from 1,110 tenth grade students (aged 11–19 years) from four high schools in one Los Angeles school district in 2010. Multiple Poisson regression analyses using generalized linear model were conducted to examine the relationship between weight status (underweight/normal weight/overweight measured with body mass index calculated from self-reported height and weight) and adolescents' indegree for the five different networks. Results Obese adolescents were significantly less likely to be nominated as romantic interest (odds ratio [OR]: .29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: .19–42), admired (OR: .80, 95% CI: .65–.97), or popular (OR: .71, 95% CI: .57–.88) compared with their normal weight peers. Overweight adolescents were also less likely to be nominated as a romantic interest (OR: .57, 95% CI: .42–.78) or popular (OR: .67, 95% CI: .53–.84) compared with those who were normal weight. Underweight adolescents were also less likely to be nominated as friends (OR: .76, 95% CI: .60–98), someone admired (OR: .61, 95% CI: .42–.89), likely to succeed (OR: .62, 95% CI: .44–.87), or popular (OR: .40, 95% CI: .25–.64). Conclusions Our results suggest weight status is associated with being selected by peers into different types of adolescent networks. Underweight, overweight, and obese adolescents are at an increased risk for social isolation because of their weight. This may have a negative impact on their peer relations important for social development, self-esteem, and mental health.
... On the one hand, peer conflict may hinder adolescents' academic performance (Goguen et al., 2010). On the other hand, academic performance plays an important role in peer relationships (Palacios et al., 2019). Moreover, educational failure may increase the risk of bullying. ...
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This study aims to provide a new perspective on the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and internalizing problem behavior (IPB) among adolescents. Many studies have focused on the relationship between family SES and IPB among adolescents; however, research on the underlying mechanism is still insufficient, and peer conflict has been ignored as a crucial social relationship factor for adolescents. This study identifies two new mediating variables and a chain mediating mechanism model between them. Using national longitudinal data from 2,467 adolescents aged 10–15 published in the China Family Panel Studies of wave 2018, this study found the following: (1) higher family SES can significantly reduce peer conflict and IPB among adolescents; (2) adolescents with better academic performance were less likely to be involved in peer conflict; (3) peer conflict mediated 30.41% of the relationship between family SES and adolescent’s IPB; and (4) there was a chain mediating mechanism, and the mediating effect of peer conflict was much stronger than the mediating effect of both academic performance and the chain mediation pathways. This is the first study to develop a chain mediation model to examine the roles of academic achievement and peer conflict in the relationship between family SES and IPB. These findings are significant in that they highlight the importance of providing adolescents with proper emotional de-escalation and peer conflict resolution strategies, contributing to the management of adolescent mental health in urban governance and rural development.
... Therefore, friends may serve as "routine standards" for social comparisons (Lubbers et al., 2009;Mussweiler & Rüter, 2003). Similarities have also been found among those who study together , likely because study partners are also more likely to become friends over time and vice versa (Palacios et al., 2019), making study partners another likely comparison target. ...
Article
Social comparisons with peers are important sources of self-development during adolescence. Many previous studies showed that students' academic self-concepts (ASC) form by contrasting one's own achievement with the average of one's class or school (the Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect [BFLPE]). Based on social comparison theory, however, we would expect some peers to be more likely social comparison targets than other peers, for example, because they are more visible or students perceive them as similar to themselves. In this study, we used sociometric data to analyze which peers play the most important role for social comparison effects on ASC. We examined how the average achievement of friends, study partners, peers perceived as popular by the student, as well as same-gender and same-ethnic peers affect the general ASC and how these effects compare to the effect of the classroom's average achievement. The study was based on a German longitudinal sample of 2,438 students (44% no recent immigrant background, 19% Turkish immigrant background, 10% Eastern European immigrant background, 27% other immigrant background) from 117 school classes that were followed from grade 9 to 10. Results from longitudinal social network analysis do not confirm substantial incremental effects of specific types of peers, while class average achievement showed a stable negative effect (confirming the BFLPE). In addition, we could provide evidence for social selection effects based on ASC. We conclude that classrooms provide a specific setting that imposes social comparisons with the "generalized peer" rather than with specific subgroups of peers. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Seemingly, a unique and indirect measure of academic performance (teacher academic perception) was used. Also, to better understand the nature and extent of selection and influence processes on academic performance, future studies could include not only the duration and quality of friendships, but also academic relationships, for example, who study with whom in classrooms (Palacios et al., 2019). Finally, this study featured a sample from Chile. ...
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Educational research has shown that academic achievement and peer relationships are associated from early school years, where friends play a significant role in influencing students' school adjustment, attitudes, and behaviors. The present study examines how individual academic performance is associated with friendships among 240 5th and 6th graders. The information on students' friendships, academic performance, gender, popularity, and social preference was collected in a convenience sample from 8 classrooms of 2 private-subsidized schools in Santiago, Chile. Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) was used to study the co-evolution of academic performance and friendship dynamics, by assessing simultaneously selection and influence processes, and by incorporating social status covariates (popularity and social preference) as moderators of friendship selection and influence. Results showed that friendships were more likely to occur between same-sex peers and between students with similar social status. Regarding social influence, friends influenced individual's academic performance. Moreover, socially preferred students were more likely to be influenced by friends' academic performance, but the same did not occur for popular students. These results might suggest that socially preferred students' attributes (cooperation, reciprocity, and high-quality friendships) would facilitate the influence of academic performance. In contrast, popular students would be less sensitive to their friends' academic performance focusing instead on salient behaviors (e.g., aggression). The findings underline the importance of understanding social network dynamics in educational settings.
... Research has consistently shown the crucial role that classrooms play in how peer groups unfold (Howe, 2009;Palacios et al., 2019) and how interpersonal relationships emerge and change over time (Gregory et al., 2010). These effects also transfer outside the classroom, where peer social norms might determine who can or cannot participate in specific activities (Lehman, 2018), defining potential consequences of participation. ...
... That is, higher student achievement may reflect well-structured, caring classroom and school environments (Thomas et al., 2008), low levels of coercive teacher control or punitive discipline practices and overall positive student-teacher relationships (Rucinski, Brown, & Downer, 2018). In these contexts, where the prevailing social norms support school liking and the inhibition of aggression, peers model and reinforce self-regulated behavior, reducing opportunities for the kinds of negative peer contagion and peer deviancy training that are associated with student aggression (e.g., Powers, Bierman, & CPPRG, 2013) and other risky behaviors (Dudovitz et al., 2018) and increasing school bonding and positive peer contagion with high-achieving peers (Palacios et al., 2019). ...
Article
Growing up in poverty increases youth risk for developing aggressive behavior problems, which, in turn, are associated with a host of problematic outcomes, including school drop-out, substance use, mental health problems, and delinquency. In part, this may be due to exposure to adverse school contexts that create socialization influences supporting aggression. In the current study, 356 children from low-income families (58% White, 17% Latinx, 25% Black; 54% girls) were followed from preschool through seventh grade. Longitudinal data included measures of the school-level contexts experienced by study participants during their elementary and middle school years, including school levels of poverty (percentage of students receiving free or reduced-price lunch) and academic achievement (percentage of students scoring below the basic proficiency level on state achievement tests). Regression analyses suggested little impact of these school-level contexts on teacher or parent ratings of aggression in fifth grade, controlling for child baseline aggression and demographics. In contrast, school-level contexts had significant effects on child aggression in seventh grade with unique contributions by school-level achievement, controlling for child fifth grade aggression and elementary school contexts along with baseline covariates. These effects were robust across teacher and parent ratings. Findings are discussed in terms of understanding the school-based socialization of aggressive behavior and implications for educational policy and prevention programming.
... This might suggest that two different types of supportive peer cultures existed for students in those profiles: one a peer culture of conformity and academic achievement, and the other a peer culture of non-conformity and academic non-compliance. These types of 'conformist' and 'deviant' peer groups are observed to form in the first few years of secondary schooling (Palacios et al., 2019), and are used by students to gain social status in the new peer group (e.g., Symonds, 2015). Fitting with these observations, behavioral engagement, and not cognitive nor emotional engagement, is found to drive homophily, where students with higher or lower levels of behavioral engagement seek out and form friendship networks with students similar in levels of behavioral engagement to themselves (Wang et al., 2018). ...
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Previous research has demonstrated that student motivation and engagement can take different forms across a variety of tasks at school or college. However, no research has yet examined the forms of student momentary engagement that emerge in response to a single task. Adolescent students (N = 196) from two low-income secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland, were given the same English grammar task to complete in a ten-minute period. We used systematic observation and post-task self-report measures to collect data on momentary cognition, emotion, motivation, and behavior. Using Latent Profile Analysis, we discovered seven main forms of momentary (dis)engagement: fully engaged, attentive but amotivated, attentive but disinterested, attentive but disaffected, distracted but motivated, disengaged, and deeply disengaged. Gender, ethnicity, academic self-efficacy, peer support and classmate cognitive engagement were notable predictors of group membership. The results should be useful to educators wanting to understand why students in their classrooms have a variety of responses to the same task.
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Thesis
Although sexuality is one of the fundamental physiological human needs, social views, ethics, and norms have been crucial in defining people’s sexual activity and the way they relate with each other around this topic. Reflecting upon the Romanian society, this paper aims to identify and understand the discrepant influences that strongly impact the young generation’s views on sexuality. One is represented by the education system, and the other one is depicted through the media, specifically by trap music. In the last decades, sexuality has become more accepted through the filter of liberalisation, and its potential to sell is used by many young women, as means to achieve economic capital. Statistics show more than a third of the Romanian population lives in rural areas, and unemployment is a major cause for poverty for a large number of people (Popescu, 2013 p.120). The music industry is allowing the shift towards liberalisation, emphasising a prominent use of sexual references that attained the sympathy of the young generation. At the same time, the education system fails in implementing enough opportunities for social change, to overcome the sexualisation within the capitalist Romanian industries. Open-ended interviews with three secondary�school teachers from a rural region are questioning the right approach on sexual education, through the filter of social norms, beliefs, and values. Although the respondents do not claim to have any political identity, they reject certain liberal movements, admitting that the education should conform to a conservative model. Undeniable repercussions of the communist regime have shaped the collective mentality through a censoring filter over the past. The prohibited, repressed, and exclusively reproductive use of sexuality has been firmly overpowered by the shift towards liberalisation through the means that will be explained further in this paper. Trap music has challenged the previous significance attributed to sexual relationships, with an increased use of explicit language and sexist attitudes as a social source of inspiration for the artistic creation. Consequently, the attitudes that are promoted in trap music are merely considered inappropriate by the participants, who prefer an old-school model of teaching sexual behaviour.
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This study concerns peer selection and influence dynamics in early adolescents' friendships regarding academic achievement. Using longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena), both selection and influence processes were investigated for students' average grades and their cluster-specific grades (i.e., language, exact, and social cluster). Data were derived from the SNARE (Social Network Analysis of Risk behavior in Early adolescence) study, using 6 waves (N = 601; Mage = 12.66, 48.9% boys at first wave). Results showed developmental differences between the first and second year of secondary school (seventh and eighth grade). Whereas selection processes were found in the first year on students' cluster-specific grades, influence processes were found in the second year, on both students' average and cluster-specific grades. These results suggest that students initially tend to select friends on the basis of similar cluster-based grades (first year), showing that similarity in achievement is attractive for friendships. Especially for low-achieving students, similar-achieving students were highly attractive as friends, whereas they were mostly avoided by high-achieving students. Influence processes on academic achievement take place later on (second year), when students know each other better, indicating that students' grades become more similar over time in response to their connectedness. Concluding, this study shows the importance of developmental differences and specific school subjects for understanding peer selection and influence processes in adolescents' academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This study tested social status correlates of aggression and bullying and how these are influenced by peer groups' normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior among 1165 fourth, fifth and sixth graders in Chile. Associations between aggression and popularity (positive) and social preference (negative) were confirmed, whereas bullying was negatively associated with both dimensions. Normative beliefs about aggression and prosocial behavior were assessed at the group level, while social status was assessed at the classroom level through peer nominations. Hierarchical Linear Analyses showed that in groups with a higher value associated with aggression, classmates rated aggressive peers as less popular but also less disliked. The status correlates of bullying remained unaffected by peer normative beliefs. The discussion focuses on the social function of aggression as compared to the social sanction associated with bullying, and on the specificity of these associations at different layers of the social ecology.
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This article investigates the biases involved in estimating the effects of teacher attributes on school’s performance. The study was performed for Chilean educational system, where student distribution is differentiated by schools and teachers are not randomly assigned to them. Findings showed that teacher attributes which favored learning appeared more frequently alongside higher socioeconomic status students. When correcting the bias, results showed that the effects of teacher attributes have been overestimated for the vast majority of characteristics. Nonetheless, attributes such as teaching experience, being a woman, having short-term specific professional training, and having a greater curriculum coverage continued to have positive impacts on the performance of 4th grade students.
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Reciprocity and transitivity are the two most important structural mechanisms underlying friendship network evolution. While on their own they are understood in great detail, the relation between them is rarely studied systematically. Are friendships outside of social groups more or less likely to be reciprocated than friendships embedded in a group? Using a theoretical framework that focusses on the situations in which friends interact and the social structures that stabilise one-sided friendships, I propose that the tendency towards reciprocation of friendships within transitive groups is usually lower than outside of transitive groups. In a meta-analysis of two datasets including 29 friendship networks using stochastic actor-oriented models (SAOMs), the interaction between reciprocity and transitivity is analysed. Supporting the theoretical reasoning, the interaction is consistently negative. Second, the tendency against forming three-cycles in friendship networks, which was consistently found in previous studies, is shown to be spurious and a result of neglecting to control for the tendency against reciprocation in transitive groups. The tendency against three-cycles is commonly seen as an indicator that unreciprocated friendships indicate local hierarchy differences between individuals; this proposition has to be re-evaluated in light of the findings of this study. Future studies that analyse the evolution of friendship networks should consider modelling reciprocation in transitive triplets and potentially omit modelling three-cycles. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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The present study investigated gender differences in adolescents’ academic motivation and classroom behaviour and gender differences in the extent to which motivation was associated with, and predicted, classroom behaviour. Seven hundred and fifty students (384 boys and 366 girls) aged 11-16 (M age = 14.0, 1.59 SD) completed a questionnaire examining academic motivation and teachers completed assessments of their classroom behaviour. Girls generally reported higher levels of academic motivation, whilst teacher reports of behaviour were poorer for boys. Interestingly, boys’ reported levels of academic motivation were significantly more closely associated with teacher reports of their classroom behaviour. Furthermore, cognitive aspects of boys’ motivation were better predictors of their classroom behaviour than behavioural aspects. On the other hand, behavioural aspects of girls’ motivation were better predictors of their behaviour. Implications for understanding the relationship between motivation and behaviour among adolescent boys and girls are discussed, in addition to interventions aimed at improving adolescents’ classroom behaviour.
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The present study investigated the relation between self-esteem, self-efficacy and implicit theories of intelligence (entity and incremental) in a sample of 6th and 8th grade Norwegian students (N = 2.060) in order to test the factor structure of these variables, how they may differ according to gender and grade level, and how they may predict academic achievement level. The results showed positive relations between self-esteem, self-efficacy and incremental theories of intelligence, and a negative relation between entity and incremental theories of intelligence, but this latter relation was significantly stronger among 8th graders. Despite better academic achievement among 8th grade girls, they had lower levels of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and incremental views of intelligence than boys. In conclusion, evaluative components of self-beliefs (self-esteem and self-efficacy) and implicit theories of intelligence constitute separate, but related factors, and there are age and gender specific differences which are of theoretical and practical importance.
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Interactions with friends are a salient part of students' experience at school. Thus, friends are likely to be an important source of influence on achievement goals. This study investigated processes within early adolescent friendships (selection and influence) with regard to achievement goals (mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals) among sixth graders (N = 587, 50 % girls at wave 1, N = 576, 52 % girls at wave 2) followed from fall to spring within one academic year. Students' gender was examined as a moderator in these processes. Longitudinal social network analysis found that friends were similar to each other in mastery goals and that this similarity was due to both selection and influence effects. Influence but not selection effects were found for performance-approach goals. Influence effects for performance-approach goals were stronger for boys compared to girls in the classroom. Neither selection, nor influence, effects were found in relation to performance-avoidance goals. However, the higher a student was in performance-avoidance goals, the less likely they were to be named as a friend by classmates. Implications for early adolescents' classroom adjustment are discussed.
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Background: In educational research on children’s academic performance, few topics have received more attention than the consequences of school segregation and the impact of self-fulfilling prophecies. However, virtually no research has investigated whether self-fulfilling prophecies account for the impact of school composition on academic achievement. Purpose & Research Objectives: This study aims to integrate research on the effects of school segregation with that on self-fulfilling prophecies by examining the mediating role of teacher expectancies regarding the impact of school composition on pupils’ math achievement. First, we investigate whether teachers’ teachability expectations are related to the socioeconomic and ethnic composition of the school. Second, we investigate whether and how the effects of school composition can be explained by self-fulfilling prophecies. Because it is theorized that teacher expectancies might have an impact on pupils’ academic achievement through pupils’ perceptions of control over their achievement, we investigate the role of pupils’ sense of academic futility. Sample & Research Design: Quantitative data from a survey of 2,845 pupils and 706 teachers in 68 Flemish (Belgian) primary schools and qualitative data obtained through in-depth interviews with 26 teachers in five schools are analyzed. A complementary mixed-method design is used: Findings from the quantitative data are strengthened and illustrated with qualitative data. Results: The multilevel analysis shows that teachers’ teachability expectations are lower in schools with a high share of nonnative and working-class pupils and that these teachability expectations have an indirect impact on pupils’ achievement through pupils’ feelings of academic futility. The qualitative analysis reveals that the low teacher expectations in these schools are largely triggered by alleged linguistic deficiencies and problematic language use of the pupils and that school staff persistently communicate their preference for Dutch monolingualism to pupils. Recommendations: The results of this study indicate that socioeconomic desegregation may not be needed if it is possible to reform schools with a larger share of working-class pupils. Schools that produce more favorable teachability expectations are recommended. In particular, teachers’ attitudes and beliefs regarding pupils’ linguistic backgrounds might be the focus of educational reforms.
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Education at a Glance 2013: Highlights summarises the OECD’s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including: • Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on? • Higher education and work: How many young people graduate from tertiary education, and how easily do they enter the world of work? • Economic and social benefits of education: How does education affect people’s job prospects, and what is its impact on incomes? • Paying for education: What share of public spending goes on education, and what is the role of private spending? • The school environment: How many hours do teachers work, and how does class size vary? Each indicator is presented on a two-page spread. The left-hand page explains the significance of the indicator, discusses the main findings, examines key trends and provides readers with a roadmap for finding out more in the OECD education databases and in other OECD education publications. The right-hand page contains clearly presented charts and tables, accompanied by dynamic hyperlinks (StatLinks) that direct readers to the corresponding data in Excel™ format.
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The Netherlands is a small country in northwest Europe, lying on the border of the North Sea and facing England. Although its land area may be compared to that of countries such as Belgium and Switzerland, the country has a relatively large population of 16 million inhabitants, making the Netherlands the most densely populated country of the European Union. Ten per cent of the population belongs to an ethnic minority, with Surinam, Turkey and Morocco being the minority origins most represented. Other growing groups include people from Asia (China, Afghanistan, Iraq), Africa (Ghana, Somalia) and the former Yugoslavia. Most of them live in one of the four large cities; consequently, half of the people below age 15 belong to a minority group within those cities. The Dutch population is somewhat younger than those in the rest of the European Union, with the exception of Ireland. This statistic can be attributed to the high birth rate, which has resulted in a population growth of 6.4% since 1990, with a substantial percentage (19%) of that population being under the age of 15. This percentage is surpassed only by Ireland, where 23% of the population is below the age of 15 (Social and Cultural Planning Office, 2001). However, the youth population is declining: 1.5 million were aged 12–18 in 1980, while only about 1.1 million fell into this category in 2000.
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Previous research suggests that the 1st year in secondary school for some students goes hand in hand with an increase in adjustment difficulties. One factor that might influence this process on an individual, compositional, and institutional level is the academic track a student attends. It was hypothesized that being assigned to a low- qualifying track predicts a stronger increase in adjustment problems than being assigned to higher tracks. A sample of 734 seventh-grade students from Switzerland attending 1 of 3 regular academic tracks or special educational classes participated. Pupils reported anonymously on their antisocial behavior, anger control problems, self- worth, and emotional distress. Multilevel analyses were performed, predicting end of seventh-grade adjustment by track controlling for initial adjustment and background variables. Students enrolled in the low-qualifying regular track increased significantly more than students from other tracks regarding their problems with global adjustment, antisocial behavior, and emotional distress.
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Designed to increase our understanding of how schools contribute to the reproduction of the social order, this case study of the tracking system in one academic department in a comprehensive high school examines the complex institutional context that mediates social reproduction. Teachers' shared preferences due to common orientations toward a diverse student population, combined with the individualistic context in which teachers must develop strategies and find rewards, result in competition among them for high-status students. This competition shapes the tracking system and the school's resulting status hierarchy, which is experienced by students and teachers alike.
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This unique and ground-breaking book is the result of 15 years research and synthesises over 800 meta-analyses on the influences on achievement in school-aged students. It builds a story about the power of teachers, feedback, and a model of learning and understanding. The research involves many millions of students and represents the largest ever evidence based research into what actually works in schools to improve learning. Areas covered include the influence of the student, home, school, curricula, teacher, and teaching strategies. A model of teaching and learning is developed based on the notion of visible teaching and visible learning. A major message is that what works best for students is similar to what works best for teachers - an attention to setting challenging learning intentions, being clear about what success means, and an attention to learning strategies for developing conceptual understanding about what teachers and students know and understand. Although the current evidence based fad has turned into a debate about test scores, this book is about using evidence to build and defend a model of teaching and learning. A major contribution is a fascinating benchmark/dashboard for comparing many innovations in teaching and schools.
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A female advantage in school marks is a common finding in education research, and it extends to most course subjects (e.g., language, math, science), unlike what is found on achievement tests. However, questions remain concerning the quantification of these gender differences and the identification of relevant moderator variables. The present meta-analysis answered these questions by examining studies that included an evaluation of gender differences in teacher-assigned school marks in elementary, junior/middle, or high school or at the university level (both undergraduate and graduate). The final analysis was based on 502 effect sizes drawn from 369 samples. A multilevel approach to meta-analysis was used to handle the presence of nonindependent effect sizes in the overall sample. This method was complemented with an examination of results in separate subject matters with a mixed-effects meta-analytic model. A small but significant female advantage (mean d = 0.225, 95% CI [0.201, 0.249]) was demonstrated for the overall sample of effect sizes. Noteworthy findings were that the female advantage was largest for language courses (mean d = 0.374, 95% CI [0.316, 0.432]) and smallest for math courses (mean d = 0.069, 95% CI [0.014, 0.124]). Source of marks, nationality, racial composition of samples, and gender composition of samples were significant moderators of effect sizes. Finally, results showed that the magnitude of the female advantage was not affected by year of publication, thereby contradicting claims of a recent "boy crisis" in school achievement. The present meta-analysis demonstrated the presence of a stable female advantage in school marks while also identifying critical moderators. Implications for future educational and psychological research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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This study examines the role of characterological self-blame as a unique risk factor associated with other known risk factors (depression and its behavioral and social correlates) for continued victimization across the 1st year of middle school. Relying on a large, ethnically diverse sample of 1,698 young adolescents (M age = 11.57, SD = .39; 55% female), self-report assessments in the fall and spring included perceptions of victim status, depressive symptoms, friendships, aggression, and responses to a hypothetical victimization vignette assessing both appraisals (characterological self-blame) and behavioral reactions (helpless responding). In addition to depression, characterological self-blame emerged as the most consistent unique risk factor for subsequent victimization. Mediation analysis suggested that the continuity of victimization between fall and spring could be partially explained by increases in characterological self-blame and depressive symptoms. In addition, cross-lagged panel analyses indicated reciprocal relations between peer victimization and characterological self-blame, suggesting cyclical processes. The study findings suggest that attribution retraining in the beginning of middle school might help prevent escalating risk for continued peer victimization.
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Validating frameworks for understanding classroom processes that contribute to student learning and development is important to advance the scientific study of teaching. This article presents one such framework, Teaching through Interactions, which posits that teacher-student interactions are a central driver for student learning and organizes teacher-student interactions into three major domains. Results provide evidence that across 4,341 preschool to elementary classrooms (1) teacher-student classroom interactions comprise distinct emotional, organizational, and instructional domains; (2) the three-domain latent structure is a better fit to observational data than alternative one- and two-domain models of teacher-student classroom interactions; and (3) the three-domain structure is the best-fitting model across multiple data sets.
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This paper deals with the influence of friends in class on adolescents’ problematic school behavior (i.e. inattention in class and not doing homework). We examine whether this influence is moderated by ego (i.e. the adolescent's indegree), alter (i.e. friends’ indegree) and dyadic characteristics (i.e. friendship reciprocity). Influence processes are analyzed with a stochastic actor-based model (SIENA), while controlling for friendship selection. Using a 4-wave panel dataset, we find that friends influence adolescents’ problematic school behavior. Adolescents with a higher indegree are less likely to be influenced. The influence of friends is not significantly moderated by friends’ indegree and friendship reciprocity.
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Bioecological theory suggests that adolescents' health is a result of selection and socialization processes occurring between adolescents and their microsettings. This study examines the association between adolescents' friends and health using a social network model and data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 1,896, mean age = 15.97 years). Results indicated evidence of friend influence on BMI and physical activity. Friendships were more likely among adolescents who engaged in greater physical activity and who were similar to one another in BMI and physical activity. These effects emerged after controlling for alternative friend selection factors, such as endogenous social network processes and propinquity through courses and activities. Some selection effects were moderated by gender, popularity, and reciprocity.
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Academic achievement in adolescence is a key determinant of future educational and occupational success. Friends play an important role in the educational process. They provide support and resources and can both encourage and discourage academic achievement. As a result, the friends adolescents make may help to maintain and exacerbate inequality if friends are sorted on the basis of academic achievement. These observations prompt the question: How does academic achievement affect the friendship ties made? Using data from the high schools in the Add Health saturated sample, the author models network change using a stochastic actor-based Markov model for the co-evolution of networks and behavior. This model is carried out at the school level for each of the high schools included in the saturated sample. Results show that in the most typical American schools, similarity in academic achievement is an important and consistent predictor of friendship ties in a dynamic context. High-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other high-achieving students, net of other sociodemographic, network, and proximity characteristics, while low-achieving students are more likely to extend ties to other low-achieving students. Adolescents respond to changes in academic achievement by changing their friendship ties.
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This paper tests whether the existence of vocationally oriented tracks within a traditionally academically oriented upper education system reduces socioeconomic inequalities in educational attainment. Based on a statistical model of educational transitions and data on two entire cohorts of Danish youth, we find that (1) the vocationally oriented tracks are less socially selective than the traditional academic track; (2) attending the vocationally oriented tracks has a negative effect on the likelihood of enrolling in higher education; and (3) in the aggregate the vocationally oriented tracks improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational systems.
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This paper analyzes the socioeconomic stratification of achievement in the Chilean voucher system using a census of 4th and 8th graders, a multilevel methodology, and accounting for unobserved selectivity into school sector. Findings indicate that the association between the school's aggregate family socioeconomic status (SES) and test scores is much greater in the private-voucher sector than in the public one, resulting in marked socioeconomic stratification of test scores in the Chilean voucher system. We also find that the amount of tuition fees paid by parents in private-voucher schools has no bearing on test scores, after controlling for the socioeconomic makeup of the school. Implications of these findings for educational inequality in the context of a universal voucher system are discussed.
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This article discusses five reconsiderations (lessons) the research on the education of the gifted and talented suggests. Although several of the considerations derive from traditional practice in the field, some reconsideration is warranted because of more currently researched differences in how the gifted learner intellectually functions. It is argued that thinking of the gifted learner as idiosyncratic, not necessarily one of many classified as “the gifted,” requires a reconceptualization of how to appropriately and fully serve this unique learner. The research synthesized here covers the period from 1861 to present and represents the entire body of published research studies and representative literature (theory, program descriptions, and persuasive essays). Implications for service development and implementation are also discussed.
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On the topic of stratification in secondary schools, this paper uses ethnographic research to interpret the findings of survey analyses and uses survey studies to assess the causal implications and generalizability of ethnographic findings. The authors criticize survey research for ambiguity concerning the measurement of within-school stratification and for lack of attention to the mechanisms through which the effects of grouping and tracking occur. At the same time, ethnographic research is seen as limited by an inability to demonstrate the significance of between-track differences in social and instructional conditions and by the failure to disentangle track effects from the influence of social class and other preexisting circumstances. The authors advocate longitudinal, quantitative research that is sensitive to the actual dimensions of stratification in schools, and to classroom conditions and processes that vary across levels of the academic hierarchy.
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Research into educational stratification has consistently demonstrated an effect of tracking on pupils' achievement. Teachers' instructional practice forms a possible mechanism through which tracking affects achievement. I aim to test quantitatively this mediating role of instructional practice. I use data of 3,760 pupils and 745 members of staff in 34 secondary education schools in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses show that the school type (general or technical-vocational) affects the pupil's chance of failing, controlling for individual pupil features (e.g., ability), and that the academic staff culture mediates this effect of school type.
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With the introduction of the literacy and numeracy hours, children are being grouped by ability within the primary classroom. Within-class ability grouping is seen as a means of raising attainment that avoids the social and emotional disadvantages of streaming. This research examined within-class grouping for mathematics in six classes in one primary school. The aim of the research was to examine whether pupils' placement in ability groups was consistent with their ability, as indicated by a standardised test, and to explore the relationships between pupils' self-concepts, their mathematical ability and their placement in groups. The sample consisted of 145 children in years 3 to 5. Standardised mathematics test scores and a measure of self-concept were collected for each child. Teachers provided information about the ability groups in their classes. Seven children were selected for interview on the basis of their mathematics self-concept scores. The analysis revealed considerable overlap between the standardised test scores of children in the high-, middle- and low-ability groups. There was a significant but weak correlation between mathematics ability and mathematics self-concept. The interviews revealed that children whose self-concept scores were consonant with their ability group thought they had been correctly placed, but those with discrepant scores were less happy. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation the salience of ability grouping within the classroom.
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Several decades ago it was shown that the differentiation of pupils into tracks and streams led to a polarization into ‘anti‐school’ and ‘pro‐school’ cultures. Support for this differentiation–polarization theory is mainly based on case studies. This paper presents findings of a quantitative study in Belgium (Flanders). Attention is given to the conceptualization of the polarization component of the differentiation–polarization theory. The findings suggest that the culture of pupils is less study‐oriented in technical/vocational schools than in general (grammar) schools. The differentiation–polarization theory also applies to school staffs: the staff culture is less academically‐oriented in technical/vocational schools than in general schools. Moreover, staffs' attitudes towards pupils—their judgements on the teachability of pupils and the trust they place in pupils—are different.
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Researchers have demonstrated a strong correlation between antisocial behavior and academic failure among students.Yet current educational programs designed to modify one or both of these patterns of conduct tend to be limited in at least two fundamental ways. First, they tend to treat conditions associated with academic achievement as separate from those associated with violent or other antisocial behavior. Second, they often focus narrowly on modifying selected cognitions or personality characteristics of the individual (e.g., changing attitudes and beliefs).Yet both antisocial behavior and academic failure are context specific; each occurs within a climate in which conditions can be identified that reasonably predict problematic behavior and can be modified to reduce such behavior.The success of prevention and intervention programs, therefore, hinges on their ability to identify and modify climates in which academic failure and antisocial behavior emerge. In this article we examine the role of school climate in guiding programs designed to reduce academic failure and antisocial behavior among students defined as "at risk." Suggestions are offered for improving such educational programs in a manner consistent with research on school climate and effective schools.
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This study examined the links among students' effort, tracking, and students' achievement. It found that students in higher tracks exert substantially more effort than do students in lower tracks. These differences in effort are largely explained by differences in prior effort and achievement, as well as students' experiences in their classes. Students' effort is strongly related to students' learning, and track differences in students' effort account for a modest portion of track differences in students' learning. Finally, the effect of students' effort on students' learning is roughly the same, regardless of the track in which a student is placed.
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This paper examines the polarization model from qualitative research in both Great Britain and the US, which claims that educational stratification practices polarize students into pro- and anti-school orientations. Because few researchers have adequately conceptualized school attitudes and behavior, social bonding theory (Hirschi, 1969) is used to provide a framework for examining the polarization hypothesis. Relying on High School and Beyond data from the US, an attempt is made to develop measures of respondents’ social bonding to school, including college expectations, absenteeism, disciplinary problems, and engagement. The polarization hypothesis is supported by these US data when examining educational stratification effects on the school bonding measures. Compared to academic-track students, general- and vocational-track students have Iowa college expectations, more disciplinary problems, and are less academically engaged, controlling for prior school orientations and for selection bias due to dropping out of school. For absenteeism, the general track has a significant positive effect, while vocational-track students do not differ from those in the academic track. In addition, students in the nonacademic tracks are more likely to drop out of school between the 10th and 12th grades compared to academic-track students.