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The present study was conducted to assess & providing baseline information about the socio economic & livelihood status of fishermen in the Habiganj Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh during the period from August to November, 2018. The livelihood status of fishermen community of Habiganj Sadar Upazila was presented in terms of educational status, marital status, religious status, family size & type, housing facilities, electricity facilities, sanitary facilities, drinking water facilities, banking facilities, technical training, annual income. The survey revealed that majority of the fishermen belonged to the age groups of 31-40 years (28.75%), represented by 97% Muslim. 85% of them were married & 15% were unmarried. The family size of fishermen community usually consisted of more than 7 members. It was found that 61% of them lived in nuclear families and 39% live in joint families. About 72.5 % of fishermen were illiterate. Among them 7.25% can't sign but 65% were able to sign. 76% of fishermen had tin shed house, 19% and 5% of the fishermen had katcha & pucca house respectively. The highest number (54%) of the fisher's annual income ranged between 65,000 BDT-80,000 BDT. 61% of the fishermen received health service from District Sadar Hospital, 35% from village doctors and remaining 4% got health service from MBBS doctors. About 65% of fishermen used semi pucca toilet while 29% of fishermen had katcha toilet but only 6% fishermen used pucca toilet for hygiene facilities. Present study had been found that, 57% fishermen used own tube well while 40% used neigh bor's tube well as a source of water. Only 3% used pond water. Most of them (72%) had electricity facilities in their house. Fishermen struggled for their livelihood. For the development of the socio economic status of fishermen expansion of education, technical training, off farm employment opportunity, loan facilities from government agencies and improved management of the local resources should be ensured.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2019; 7(3): 87-92
E-ISSN: 2347-5129
P-ISSN: 2394-0506
(ICV-Poland) Impact Value: 5.62
(GIF) Impact Factor: 0.549
IJFAS 2019; 7(3): 87-92
© 2019 IJFAS
www.fisheriesjournal.com
Received: 03-03-2019
Accepted: 07-04-2019
Sakib Tahmid Rishan
Faculty of Fisheries, Sylhet
Agricultural University,
Bangladesh
Iftekhar Ahmed Fagun
Faculty of Fisheries, Sylhet
Agricultural University,
Bangladesh
Correspondence
Sakib Tahmid Rishan
Faculty of Fisheries, Sylhet
Agricultural University,
Bangladesh
Socio-economic status of fishermen at Habiganj Sadar
Upazila in Bangladesh
Sakib Tahmid Rishan and Iftekhar Ahmed Fagun
Abstract
The present study was conducted to assess & providing baseline information about the socio economic &
livelihood status of fishermen in the Habiganj Sadar Upazila, Bangladesh during the period from August
to November, 2018. The livelihood status of fishermen community of Habiganj Sadar Upazila was
presented in terms of educational status, marital status, religious status, family size & type, housing
facilities, electricity facilities, sanitary facilities, drinking water facilities, banking facilities, technical
training, annual income. The survey revealed that majority of the fishermen belonged to the age groups
of 31-40 years (28.75%), represented by 97% Muslim. 85% of them were married & 15% were
unmarried. The family size of fishermen community usually consisted of more than 7 members. It was
found that 61% of them lived in nuclear families and 39% live in joint families. About 72.5 % of
fishermen were illiterate. Among them 7.25% can’t sign but 65% were able to sign. 76% of fishermen
had tin shed house, 19% and 5% of the fishermen had katcha & pucca house respectively. The highest
number (54%) of the fisher’s annual income ranged between 65,000 BDT-80,000 BDT. 61% of the
fishermen received health service from District Sadar Hospital, 35% from village doctors and remaining
4% got health service from MBBS doctors. About 65% of fishermen used semi pucca toilet while 29% of
fishermen had katcha toilet but only 6% fishermen used pucca toilet for hygiene facilities. Present study
had been found that, 57% fishermen used own tube well while 40% used neigh bor’s tube well as a
source of water. Only 3% used pond water. Most of them (72%) had electricity facilities in their house.
Fishermen struggled for their livelihood. For the development of the socio economic status of fishermen
expansion of education, technical training, off farm employment opportunity, loan facilities from
government agencies and improved management of the local resources should be ensured.
Keywords: Fishermen, socio-economic, livelihood, Habiganj
1. Introduction
Bangladesh is a country of South Asia. It shares land borders with India and Myanmar
(Burma). Fisheries sector is one of the most dynamic and productive sector in Bangladesh. The
fisheries sector contributes 3.61% to GDP and 24.41% to agricultural GDP [1]. More than 11
percent of the total population of Bangladesh is engaged with this sector in full time and part
time basis for their livelihoods [1]. Fish supplements to about 60% of our daily animal protein
intake [4]. In Bangladesh fish and fisheries is the part of cultural heritage [2]. Fish and fishermen
are associated with each other. Fishermen are one of the most important group in Bangladesh.
The number of fishermen who are fully reliant on fisheries sector for their livelihood about
1280000. Among them 770000 are engaged in inland fisheries sector and 510000 in marine
sector [3]. There are about 64 districts in Bangladesh. Habiganj is one of them which is situated
in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh. It is located in between 23°58' and 24°42' north
latitudes and in between 91°09' and 91°40' east longitudes. Its area is 2,636.58 km² and
covered by Sunamganj District to the north, Tripura of India and Maulvibazar District to the
east, Balaganj Upazila of Sylhet to the north-east, Brahmanbaria and Kishoreganj districts to
the west [4]. Habiganj district is riches with fisheries resource. Kushiyara, Kalni, Sutang,
Khowai, Korangi, Barak river are notable in Habiganj district. Habiganj Sadar Upazila situated
on the bank Khowai River. The district comprises nine Upazilas as Ajmiriganj, Baniachang,
Bahubal, Chunarughat, Habiganj Sadar, Lakhai, Madhabpur, Nabiganj, Sayestaganj. The total
area of Habiganj Sadar Upazila is 256 km². In our country fishermen’s socio economic status
is not hearty. They have to struggle for endure. Generation after generation they remain
illiterate and are not able to contribute for the betterment of their community. This study was
carried out for the first time to know the socio economic condition of fishermen community of
the Habiganj Sadar Upazila.
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Study area and period
The investigation was conducted in some selected area of
Habiganj Sadar Upazila (Figure 1) during August to
November, 2018 by using survey and interview method.
Eighty fishermen of the selected area were interviewed during
the survey. The study was carried out in the eight villages
named Umednagar, Poil, Noagaon, Shikarpur, Tongir Ghat,
Panch Paira, Moshajan, Shihaldaria.
Fig 1: Map of Habiganj Sadar Upazila.
2.2 Data collection
2.2.1 Primary sources
For collection of data regarding socioeconomic issues,
interview made with eighty fishermen of eight different
villages Habiganj Sadar Upazila. Ten representative
fishermen from every village were asked with a semi
structured questionnaire. Different social aspects were asked
in the questionnaire.
2.2.2 Secondary sources
The secondary sources of data were Upazila Fisheries of
Habiganj Sadar Upazila, District fisheries of Habiganj and
also different websites and journals.
2.3 Data analysis
After collection of data from the fishermen, they were verified
by asking other localities to eliminate error and
inconsistencies. Then Data were imputed transformed into
digital format carefully. The data were arranged according to
various aspects. The data were categorized and analyzed with
Microsoft Excel 2016.
3. Results
3.1 Age distribution of fishermen
In the study area majority of respondents (28.75%) were 31-
40 years old. On the other hand, 23.75% fishermen were
found 41-50 years old, 18.75% fishermen were found 21-30
years old,10 % fishermen were found 51-60 years and also
between 10 to 20 years old. Rest 8.75% were above 60 years
old. The case study shows that young people are more
involved with fishing activities (Table 1).
Table 1: Age of the fishermen in Sadar Upazila, Habiganj
Age group (years)
No. of Respondents
Respondents (%)
10-20
8
10
21-30
15
18.75
31-40
23
28.75
41-50
19
23.75
51-60
8
10
Above 60
7
8.75
Total
80
100
3.2 Educational Status of Fishermen
In our country most of the fishermen hadn’t received
education. They engaged fishing activity from childhood. In
study area about 72.5 % of fishermen were illiterate out of 80
fishermen. Among them 7.25% can’t sign but 65% were able
to sign. On the other hand, 25% had education up to primary
level and only 2.5% passed S.S.C. The case study shows that
even they haven’t enough education but most of them have
learnt to sign. They were unable to study more because they
were inherited fishing activities by paternal way. But they
understand the importance of education and want their
children to study (Table 2).
Table 2: Educational Status of fishermen in Sadar Upazila, Habiganj
Educational Status
No. of Respondents
Respondents (%)
Cannot sign
6
7.25
Can only sign
52
65
Primary
20
25
SSC
2
2.5
Total
80
100
3.3 Marital Status of Fishermen
Majority (85%) of respondents were married and rest 15%
were unmarried. The case studies showed that most of the
fishermen were married and their families were also
associated with fishing activities. Early marriage and dowry
system found in fishermen community (Fig 2).
Fig 2: Marital Status of Fishermen
3.4 Religion
There were about 97% of fishermen who had religion status
as Muslim. Only 3% were found Hindu (Figure). The study
shows that there was present communal harmony among them
(Fig 3).
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Fig 3: Religion Status of fishermen
3.5. Number of family member
It was found that, Majority (60%) of family consists of more
than 7 family members, 25% Family had 5-6 members and
rest 15% consists of 2-4 family members. The study shows
that those who have more family members suffered from
different types of problems (Fig 4).
Fig 4: Number of family member of fishermen
3.6 Types of Family
Both nuclear and joint family were observed in study area.
Number of nuclear family was higher in study area. It was
found that 61% people lived in nuclear families and 39% live
in joint families. Most of the fishermen live separately from
their paternal family (Fig 5).
Fig 5: Types of family of Fishermen
3.7 Housing condition
There were three types of house found in study area such as
katcha, tinshed and pucca. Majority (76%) of houses were
tinshed and 19% were katcha which were made from
combination of soil, tree leaves and bamboo. Only 5% were
pucca made of brick. Due to the bad financial condition of
fishermen most of them live in tinshed house (Fig 6).
Fig 6: Housing condition of Fishermen
3.8 Electricity facility
It was found that about 72% fishermen have electricity
facilities in their house only 28% have no electricity facilities
in their house. Electricity has reached the houses of fishermen
as the most of the villages are electrified (Fig 7).
Fig 7: Electricity facility of Fishermen
3.9 Mobile, Television and Refrigerator user
It was found that 57 respondent use mobile phone and 23 had
no mobile phone out of 80 people. Most of them used mobile
phone for commination, only small portion favored for
recreational purposes. Many fishermen are using mobile
phones as the network has reached in villages. But a few
number of fishermen can’t afford mobile phone. 20 fishermen
had television in their house but others 60 couldn’t afford
television. Most of television users watching TV at night. In
study area only few fishermen had refrigerator in their house.
Only 7 people out of 80 had refrigerator in their house. As a
result, most can’t preserve their perishable food items (Table
3).
Table 3: Mobile, Television and Refrigerator user among Fishermen
Device
Yes
No
Mobile
57
23
Television
20
60
Refrigerator
7
73
3.10 Drinking Water Facilities
Water is important for our life. This case study shows that
about 57% fishermen had their own tubewell in house. 40%
used neighbor’s tubewell as a source of water. Only 3% used
pond water. No deep tubewell were observed in study area
(Fig 8).
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Fig 8: Drinking Water Facilities of Fishermen
3.11 Sanitary Facility
Sanitation is vital for maintain good health and promote life
span. Diarrhoea, cholera etc. disease caused due to inadequate
sanitation facilities. In the study area 65% of fishermen had
semi pucca (ring) toilet, 29% of fishermen had katcha toilet
made by bamboo, Polythene, leaves, soil etc. Only a small
portion 6% fishermen used pucca toilet for hygiene facilities
(Fig 9).
Fig 9: Sanitary Facility of Fishermen
3.12 Diseases and Medical facilities
There is a proverb that says health is wealth. Majority of
respondents no knowledge about nutritional value of food and
lived in unhygienic environment. So disease outbreak was a
common phenomenon among them. They often suffered from
diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, fever, gastric, malnutrition etc.
It was found that 61% of people received their treatment from
Habiganj Sadar hospital. On the other hand, 35% visited
village doctor. Only 4% took medical facility from MBBS
doctors. Medical facilities was found quite satisfactory in
study area (Fig 10).
Fig 10: Medical Facility of Fishermen
3.13 Bank account holder
There are some government and non-government bank
present in Habiganj sadar such as Sonali bank, Janata bank,
Agrani bank, Rupali bank, Dutch Bangla bank, AB bank,
Prime bank etc. But only a few number of respondent have
bank account. It was observed in the study area that about
22% has bank account but 78% has no bank account. Mobile
banking is also popular among fishermen. They use bKash,
Rocket, Ucash other money transaction system (Fig 11).
Fig 11: Bank account holder Fishermen
3.14 Technical training
Training is necessary to improve knowledge, skills,
performance. Training increase the provide various
information about fish marketing system, storage,
transportation, sustainable use of fisheries resources, harmful
effect of destructive fishing gear. Only 11% of total fisher got
technical training from governments project and Non-
government organizations but majority (89%) had no
technical training (Fig 12).
Fig 12: Technical training of Fishermen
3.15 Occupational Status and Annual Income
There were mainly three types of fishermen (professional,
occasional and subsistence) found in Habiganj Sadar upazila.
But in study area most of them were professional. Majority of
them involved in fishing activity by legacy. However, a small
number of population were involved in agriculture, day labor,
Small trader, Rickshaw puller, Tom Tom driver (Electric auto
rickshaw), Goat and cow rearing, Poultry business etc.
It is troublesome to found appropriate information on annual
income through observation. So, this information was
collected very cautiously. The annual income of fishermen
came from mainly fishing activities as well as secondary
sources. Depending upon their daily and monthly income, the
annual income was estimated. Among 80 fishermen, almost
15% had their annual income 50000-65000 BDT, 54% of
fishermen had annual income in ranges of 65000-80000 BDT,
20% had 80000-95000 BDT. Only 11% fishermen had higher
income above 95000 BDT (Table 4).
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
Table 4: Income status
Income Level
(BDT)
Number of fisherman
(n=80)
Percentage of
fisherman
50000-65000
12
15
65000-80000
43
54
80000-95000
16
20
Above 95000
9
11
4. Discussion
In the study area majority of respondents (28.75%) were 31-
40 years old. On the other hand, 23.75% fishermen were
found 41-50 years old, 18.75% fishermen were found 21-30
years old, 10 % fishermen were found 51-60 and 10 to 20
years old. Rest 8.75% were above 60 years old. Ali et al.,
have found that (2014) [5] the age of the fishermen ranged
from 10-60 years. 10% of fishermen were in the young group,
60% were in the middle age group, where 25% was
represented by group of seniors and 5% being very old
person. Which is more or less similar with our study.
In study area it was observed that about 72.5 % of fishermen
were illiterate out of 80 fishermen. Among them 7.25% can’t
sign but 65% were able to sign. On the other hand, 25% had
education up to primary level and only 2.5% passed S.S.C.
Mia et al. found (2015) [3] that 25-40% illiterate (no
education), 45-50% capable of sign only, 12.5- 17.5 %
primary level, 2.5-7.5% SSC level of education. Kabir et al.
reported that (2012) [6] most of the fishermen were illiterate
(88%). Only small portion of them can sign only (2%). Some
were primary level of educated (10%). Minar et al. found
(2012) [18] that majority of the fishermen were illiterate (80%)
and only minor part of them can sign only (12%). Some were
primary level of educated (8%). The present study is more or
less relevant with previous work.
The case study showed that most majority (85%) of
respondents were married and rest 15% were unmarried.
Bappa et al. stated that (2014) [7] majority (94%) was married
while the unmarried responded was only 6%. Which has
similarity with the present study.
Hassan and Mahmud (2002) [8] stated that the coastal fishing
community in Kuakata the majority of fishermen were
Muslim (93.94%). Billah et al. reported that (2018) [9] there
were about 96% of fishermen who had religion status as
Muslim; rest of fisher had Hindu (6%) and Buddhist (2%). In
our present study there were about 97% of fishermen who had
religion status as Muslim. Only 3% were found Hindu.
It was found that, Majority (60%) of family consists of more
than 7 family members, 25% Family had 5-6 members and
rest 15% consists of 2-4 family members. Bappa et al. showed
that (2014) [7] the highest percentages (47.76%) found for 7-8
members in a family, the lowest percentage (1.27%) was
obtained for 1-2 Members.
It was found that 61% people lived in nuclear families and
39% live in joint families. Billah et al. reported that (2018) [9]
there were about 82% family which belongs to nuclear type
status and rest 18% had joint family. Adhikary et al reported
(2018) [10] that 77% of fish farmer family was jointed and
23% percentage fish farmer family was nuclear.
There were three types of house found in study area such as
katcha, tinshed and pucca. Majority (76%) were tinshed. 19%
were katcha and rest of 5% were pucca. Ali et al., was found
that (2014) [5] 60% households were tinshed with wooden
wall. 20% households were containing of Brick, wood and tin
and only 5% having the Brick and Cemented House. Hossain
et al. (2009) [11] reported that 40.3% of farmers had house of
earthen condition, 46.7% had semi-concrete and 10% had
concrete house.
It was found that about 72% fishermen had electricity
facilities in their house only 28% had no electricity facilities
in their house. Islam et al. found that (2017) [12] about
(93.33%) fish farmers had electricity facilities in their house.
Only few (6.67%) had no electricity in their house. Bappa et
al. observed that (2014) [7] majority households (82%) had no
electricity connection.
It was found that 57 respondent use mobile phone and 23 had
no mobile phone out of 80 people. 20 fishermen had
television in their house but 60 had no television out of 80
fishermen. In study area only few fishermen had refrigerator
in their house. Only 7 people out of 80 had refrigerator in
their house. Sharif et al reported that (2015) [13] 99% fish
farmers use mobile phone and only 1% has no mobile phone.
Billah et al. reported that (2018) [9] 54% respondent had a
television set in to their house, 48% fishermen had own
mobile phone. There was no data available about refrigerator
use in Bangladesh.
Bappa et al. showed that (2014) [7] 82% fishermen used deep
tube well water while remaining 18% collected water from
other sources. Ali et al. found that (2014) [5] 10% fishermen
used their own tube-well, 30% fishermen used shared or
neighbor tube-well and remaining majority part as 60% used
Government tube-well in Schools area. This case study
showed that about 57% fishermen had their own tubewell in
house. 40% used neighbor’s tubewell as a source of water.
Only 3% used pond water. No deep tubewell were observed
in study area.
In the study area 65% of semi pucca toilet were found. 29%
of fishermen had katcha toilet but only 6% fishermen used
pucca toilet for hygiene facilities. Kabir et al. reported that
(2012) [6] 65% of toilets were Katcha while 5% were semi-
paka and 30% of the fishermen had no sanitary facilities. Mia
et al found (2015) [3] that 47.5-50% of toilets were katcha,
while 42.5% were semi-pucca, only 7.5-10% were pucca.
It was found that 61% of people received their treatment from
Habiganj sadar hospital. On the other hand, 35% visited
village doctor. Only 4% took medical facility from MBBS
doctors. Billah et al. reported that (2018) [9] 67% fishermen
took medical facility from village quack doctors, and rest of
33% got from MBBS doctors. Islam et al. found (2014) [14]
80% of the fish farmer in the study area was dependent on
village doctors. Shahriar et al. (2010) [17] found that 64% of
the fishermen households were dependent on village doctors,
24% of the fishermen got health service from upazila health
complex and remaining 12% got health service from MBBS
doctors.
Sharif et al reported that (2015) [13] 45% traders had own bank
account but only 55% traders had no bank account. It was
observed in the study area that about 22% had bank account
but 78% had no bank account.
In the study area only 11% of fishermen received technical
training but majority (89%) had no technical training. Mia et
al. found (2015) [3] that about 50-55% fishermen were trained
from the various types of organization and rest of them had no
training. Hossain et al. found (2015) [16] that only 20%
fishermen had training and 80% had no any training. The
present study is relevant with previous work.
Billah et al. reported that (2018) [9] annual income of
respondents were varied from 30,000 to 70,000 and BDT
above. The highest percentage (26%) earned 30,000 to 40,000
TK per year and the lowest percentage were, (12%) earned
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International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies
70,000 TK and above. In the study area almost majority had
annual income 65000-80000 BDT. Lower income as 50,000-
65,000 BDT had only 15% of fishermen.
5. Conclusion
The present socio economic status of the fishermen of
Habiganj Sadar Upazila was not satisfactory. Most of them
were dependent on only fishing for their livelihood. They
were not well educated, they had no technical training and
capital for proper gear and boat. They lack of off season
employment opportunity. Some of them wanted to change
their profession. Effective initiatives from government & non-
government agencies may lead to a rapid development of the
livelihood status of the fishermen in the study area.
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... Ali et al. (2010) found that 45% fisherman in Tarakanda Upazila in Mymensingh took treatment from public hospital which were more or less similar to this study. According to Rishan and Fagun (2019) 61% of people received their treatment from Habiganj Sadar hospital which is slightly higher than the present study. ...
... Higher number of IHs had bank account than PHs in these two regions (Fig. 9). Present findings were higher than the Rishan and Fagun (2019) outcomes about the bank account of fisherman at Habiganj Sadar Upazila. The monthly income and yearly savings of stakeholders were higher in DFPF than Kishoreganj haor. ...
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The study was conducted to determine the present status of fisheries and socioeconomic conditions of the fishers' community of Eshulia Beel at Gouripur upazila under Mymensingh district for a period from February to November, 2015. Most of the fishermen belonged to the age group of 36-50 years. In case of education, 32.5% were illiterate, 40% can sign only, 15% of the fishers had literacy up to primary level, 7.5% had literacy up to secondary level and 5% had higher secondary and above. 75% of the fishermen's houses are katcha, 17.5% are tinshed and only 7.5% are half building. 50% of the toilets are katcha, 42.5% are semi pucca toilet and the rest are pucca toilet, and 35% of the fishermen have their own tubewell. About 52.5% of the fishermen had high (TK. 100000-TK. 200000) income; 42.5% had medium (TK. 51000-TK. 100000) income and 5% had low (TK. 25000-TK.50000) income. The study revealed that, the fishermen of Eshulia Beel were mostly illiterate, poor income, lack of training exposure and lack of awareness about their health facilities and sanitation. So, provide soft term loan and building people awareness have been suggested to improve the livelihood status of fishermen in Eshulia Beel.
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The present study was conducted to assess the contribution of aquaculture on livelihood status of fish farmer at Noakhali sadar upazila. This research work was carried out during the period of February 2013 to July 2013. A total of 50 fish farmers were interviewed with a well-structured questionnaire. The survey revealed that average pond size was 0.48 ha with 40% of the farmers having ponds of single ownership, 20% having ponds of multiple-ownership, 30% having ponds of single lease and 10% having ponds of multiple leases. Poly culture of Indian major carps and exotic carps has been practiced by most of the farmers. Fish fingerlings were stocked from April to June and average stocking density was 12,370 fingerlings/ha. The average fish production cost was Tk 69,870/ha/yr. Although the living condition of the rural fish farmers were poor, livelihood outcomes were found positive and 88% of the farmers have improved their socioeconomic conditions through fish farming. The gross income and net profit were Tk. 1, 06,400 and Tk. 1, 00,000/ha/yr respectively. The average monthly income was in range of BDT 15,000-25,000. Their basic need like food, cloth, house, education and medical facility had changed after fish farming. The households have broadly improved their food consumption, family education, standards of living, purchasing power, choice and economic ability through fish farming. The constraints for sustainable pond fish farming in the areas were lack of technical knowledge of the farmers, disease of fishes, multiple ownership of the pond, higher production cost (mainly seeds and feed), insufficient supply of fry and fingerlings, lack of money and credit facilities and inadequate extension services. It is therefore essential to provide the necessary training facilities with institutional and organizational supports, credit facilities and extension services for sustainable fish production and livelihoods of rural fish farmers.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the performances of resource poor farmers in fish farming at their homestead ponds in Sadar Upazila under Meherpur district from July to October 2015. Participatory Rural Appraisal tools such as questionnaire interview, cross check interview and secondary information were used to assess the performances in aquaculture activities. Thirty pond fish farmers were purposively selected, among them 10, 5, 5, and 10 participants were involved with carp-mola, carp-tilapia and carp-shing polyculture and vietnam koi mono-culture respectively. The result showed that the majority of the farmers (33.33%) had 51-100 decimal cultivable land followed by 20 and 16.67% participants who possessed 151-200 and >300 decimal of land respectively. It was found that the highest percentage of participants (73.33%) primary occupation was agriculture followed by fish farming (3.33%). A majority of the farmers (53.33%) started fish farming only before 1-5 years influenced by the positive result of fish culture by the villagers and 20% each have started before 6-10 and 11-15 years back. Only 6.67% farmers started fish culture in 16 years before who were the pioneers of fish farming in the region. The average pond size in the area was found 15 decimal with a range of 7 to 35. Before starting fish culture all the farmers got training and inputs support for fish culture from a local NGO called Daridra Bimochon Sangstha (DBS). Prior to start fish farming all of the farmers followed standard procedure of pond preparation and fish fry release in their ponds. Majority farmers (90%) applied homemade feed, whereas rest applied commercial feed to their fish. By contrast, 90% farmers used to feed their fish and rest was reluctant to provide feed to the fish. Almost twenty seven percent respondents annual income was between BDT 61,000 to 80,000 followed by 20 and 10% whose income was 100000-150000 and >150000 BDT per year. During the culture operation, farmers usually had some problems such as pond drying, disease outbreak, dike erosion, shade of tree over the ponds, theft, snakes eating the fish etc.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the livelihood status of fishing community of the Kirtonkhola River adjacent to the Barisal town during the period from April to November, 2011. The investigation was conducted on Beltala, Rasulpur and Amanatganj area of the Barisal town adjacent to the river using structured questionnaire. It was found that most of the fishermen were belonged to the age groups of 31 to 40 years (56.00%), represented by 88% muslim. The family size of fishing community is usually consisted of 5-6 members and medium family is the predominant (70%) among the fishermen but in a joint family (84.00%). Over 80% of the fishermen primary occupation was fishing, 10% was engaged in agriculture and daily labour activities respectively. About 12% of the fishermen were only could write name while 80%, 8% and 0% of the fishermen were illiterate, primary and secondary level of education, respectively. About 70% of the fishermen received health service from village doctors, 24% from upazila health complex and remaining 6% got health service from MBBS doctors. About 74% of the fishermen used katcha sanitary while 10% used semi-pucca sanitary, and 16% of the fishers had no sanitary facilities. Around 14% fishermen used their own tube-well, 62% used shared tube-well and remaining 24% used neighbors tube-well for drinking water purpose. The government provides no kind of VGF cards for them. Lack of scientific knowledge, illiteracy, and lack of government providation were the major constraints. They were the poorest of the poor in the society and they have no alternative livelihood options to earn their bread other than fishing in the area.
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The study was conducted to determine the socio-economic condition of the fisher’s community over an area of 4 kilometers of Meghna River at Ashuganj upazila under Brahmanbaria district from January to April 2009. In this study, 10 fishers were randomly selected from each kilometer, thus the total sample size was 40. Studies on socio-economic conditions of Meghna river fishermen were carried out in terms of religious status, age structure, educational status, health facilities, and drinking water facilities, housing condition, sanitary facilities and annual income, catch and species composition. It was found that 90% of the fishermen were Hindus and 10% were Muslim in study area 1 and 65% of the fishermen were Muslim and 35% were Hindus in study area 2. About 2.5% had literacy up to secondary level and 45% can sign only. About 75% and 80% of the fishermen had katcha house while 7.5% and 2.5% fishermen had half-building house in study area 1 and study area 2 respectively. Sanitary conditions of the fishermen were very poor and most of the toilets (50%) were katcha. About 15% of the fishermen have their own tube well and 50% of the fishermen used katcha toilet in study area-1 and in study area-2 47.5% of the fishermen used katcha toilet, 42.5% used semi pucca toilet and the rest of them used pucca toilet. Family size of the fishermen consisted of 2-11 persons. Among those, small family consisted of 2-4 members and large family consisted above 7 members. The highest income of fishermen from Tk 1,00,000-2,00,000/year was 52.5% and the lowest income of fishermen from Tk 25,000-50,000/year was 5%. Besides, various recommendations and necessary measures have been suggested to improve livelihood of fishers’ community of the Meghna river.
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The study was conducted at pitambarpur, under the union of shinghajhully, Chaugachha, Jessore in Bangladesh. The study period was carried out during September to December, 2014. In the selected areas, the study was conducted on 45 persons. The collected information was totally interview and observation based study. In the study area it was found that 54% farmers used semi pucca, 19% of fish farmers used to live pucca houses and rest of 27% farmers used to live earthen houses. The percentage of age distribution was 5% farmer was 25-35 years, 10% farmer was 35-40 years and rest 85% farmer has the age of 40 and above. It was observed that 5% of finance are contributed by farmers, 73% farmers got finance from bank whereas 22% farmers took finance from local moneylenders. About 97% of the fish farmers used tube well and rest 3% of the farmer uses pond water. In Pitamborpur 90% of farmers are illiterate and rest 10% farmers are literate. About 45% traders has own bank account but only 55% traders has no bank account. They exchange their money by cash or liquid money. It was found that 5% of concrete toilet and 50% has earthen toilet and 45% has semi-pucca toilet. After toilet work 100% farmer and farmer's family member use soap or basic substance. In case of illness 95% of traders and farmer's family served by quack doctor treatment, only 5% farmer goes to MBBS doctor. Almost 98% farmer's children are used to go school. Rest of 2% children is used to go with his father's work. About 97% of total income comes from fish business and 3% involve in others occupation. The rest 3% has secondary business like tea stall business, agricultural activity, and motorized vehicle operation etc. About 99% farmers use mobile phone and only 1% has no mobile phone. In Pitamborpur all of the farmers are Muslim. Most of the farmers and traders has 5to 6 member in family, and usually they lived as a nuclear family. In the present study area 86% of farmer and trader have nuclear family. Rest of 14% has joint family.
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The study was conducted the fish farmers in some selected area at sadar upazila in Jessore under the district of Jessore from September to December 2013. A total of 100 fishermen were selected by stratified random sampling method and interviewed. The average me mbers of single family were 5-6 people per household. Single families were much more (62 %) than joint families. Most of the fish far mers were Muslims 92% and few of them were Hindus 8%Most of them had the secondary educational background and some of them with different levels of higher education. It was found that the number of school going children was 2-3 per house. Full katcha (17 %) houses were few, while the semi-pucca (40%) and pucca (43%) houses were more abundant. Regarding health and sanitation, 31% fishermen reported to suffer fro m gastric and 17% suffered from fever. Most of the interviewees were found to take credit facilities from different sources for the subsistence of their family and their venture. The 98% were found to have their tube-wells, others using Governmental tube-well, or those belonging to schools or neighbors However, they need more institutional, organizational, and technical and credit support for their better socioeconomic and sustainable livelihood.
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This study was carried out to assess the socio-economic status of fishermen of the Marjat Baor at Kaligonj of Jhenidah district. Fifty fishermen from 50 families were interviewed. Results revealed that 94% respondents were married and age varied between 30 and 45 years. Almost all the fishermen were Hindus (96%). Most of the people of the community were illiterate (60%) and among all of the school going children (58%) were boys and (42%) were girls. Above fifty percent people lived in nuclear family. 40% people lived in earthen house, constructed by grass leaves and mud. Only a few (18%) of them were found to be use electricity. Primary occupation of 60% respondents was fishing and few were also involved in agriculture. They were often found to suffer from various diseases due to lack of pure drinking water. Majority of them got fever and receive treatment from quack. Only twelve percent (12%) women were engaged in making nets for fishing. Annual household income of maximum beneficiaries (44%) was below BDT 30,000 and above BDT 50,000 found in only 4% cases. In the present study, educational, organizational, and technical credit support were very crucial to develop their better socio-economic conditions.
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There are 2.8 million hectares seasonal floodplain beels which require effective management for the welfare of poor fishermen. These natural resource management actions depend on livelihood status of the beneficiaries and policies need to implement should relate with the socioeconomic status and demands of the stakeholders. This study conducted a survey of socioeconomic condition of the landowners (LO) and landless (LL) fishermen group who fully or partly depend on fishing activities in two seasonal floodplain beels in Rajshahi district, Bangladesh in year 2006-2007. It was found that most of the fishermen were at the age group 31-40 years, larger family size (5.6-5.8) belong to LL fishermen. 46.6% LL fishermen on both the sites were illiterate with no person above secondary level. Among LOs rate of illiteracy were lower and 13-20% were educated above secondary level. Housing condition of LL fishermen is mostly Katcha (60-67%) and of LOs mostly semi-pucca (60-73%). The average annual household income of the LO fishermen ranges from TK 77396-96888 whereas average annual household income of the LL fishermen ranges from TK 36407-37990 which is much below the poverty line. Agriculture is the main occupation and aquaculture, fish trade and business are the main secondary occupations for the LO farmers. LL fishermen are mainly fulltime fishermen with agriculture and aquaculture labor being the main secondary occupations. Average fish consumptions for all types of farmers are 1.38 kg/capita/month. Fish culture can improve their socioeconomic condition. They need to be educated and trained to actively participate to water productivity enhancing activities in these seasonal floodplain aquatic ecosystems.