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Activity of ginseng on central nervous system
Abstract and Figures
The experiment was done on albino Wister rat in elevated plus maze and Rotarod apparatus by using dried ginseng roots from which it can be stated that the Panax ginseng has CNS stimulant properties. In elevated plus maze apparatus the P ginseng and caffeine treated animals shows increased numbers of entries than the untreated or controlled animals. In other hand in rote rod apparatus the animals treated with caffeine and P. ginseng spend more time on rod than the controlled or untreated animal. From the above findings it was evident that the Panax ginseng extract has shown significant CNS stimulant activity as the results were statistically calculated. Introduction Ginseng is a medicinal plant widely used for the treatment of various conditions. The pharmacological effects of ginseng have been demonstrated in cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and have been used for promoting immune function, central nervous system (CNS) function, relieving stress, and for its antioxidant activities . The root of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, which is known as Korean or Asian ginseng, is a valuable and an important folk medicine in East Asian countries, including China, Korea, and Japan, for more than 2000 years. P. anaxis derived from the word "panacea," which means a cure for all diseases and a source of longevity as well as physical strength and resistance. As the use of traditional Chinese herbs for medicinal and dietary purposes becomes increasingly popular in Western countries, sales of P. ginseng are increasing in North America and Europe as well as in other parts of the world. The major bioactive components of P. ginseng are the ginsenosides, a group of saponins with dammarane triterpenoid structure . Almost 50 ginsenosides have been isolated from P. ginseng root (white and red ginsengs), and novel structures continue to be identified, particularly from Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) and Panax japonica (Japanese ginseng) as well as their berries [3-6]. In this chapter, we review the structural and pharmacological properties of ginseng, and its active constituents, including ginsenosides, polysaccharides, and polyacetylene alcohols. The pharmacological and clinical usages of ginseng, particularly ginsenosides, are discussed in relation to its anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory functions, and improving CNS functions including learning, memory, and neurodegenerative diseases.
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