Reviving urban spaces through tactical urbanism in Baghdad: Five common tactics

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This research investigates the socio-spatial causes and consequences of tactical urbanism practices in Baghdad. It attempts to identify the main creators of these practices and their motivations. It recognizes five common practices of tactical urbanism in Baghdad, public art, pop-up rest areas, pavement plazas, guerrilla gardening, and open streets. This research argues that the applications of tactical urbanism in Baghdad could revive urban spaces and positively impact local communities, and that it could have various implications for urban policies. This article examines evidence from fieldwork and interviews with individuals involved in tactical urbanism projects. It also employs a questionnaire which addresses the opinions of individuals in the profession of architecture and urban design regarding the impact of tactical urbanism.

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... This configuration can change the street into social area, mixing and leading directly to neighbourhoods where the space used daily by residents which extends bigger and bigger in the open air [Hill, 2020]. Here, we can point out the importance of the role of tactical urbanism in the development of city streets by restore and revive the urban spaces to activate positively impact local communities [Hussein & Abrahem, 2019]. According to the above, this project allows local residents to have direct control over their surroundings and transform their streets into healthy, safe, and sustainable places where the streets represent the basic unit of the city and all systems converge in it, so the street space is the starting point for change, spreading culture, enhancing identity, and building sustainable societies. ...
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Motives: COVID-19 pandemic has caused worldwide implementation of unprecedented measures of physical distancing to decrease the potential of the COVID-19 infection. As cities respond to closure measures in order to flatten the infection curve, the challenges associated with the spread of the epidemic and the increasing numbers of infected and deaths that compel us to fundamentally rethink the formation of our cities, especially their streets, the research presents an urban review of the impact of the pandemic on cities and find solutions to recover, achieve a safe and sustainable healthy environment, and prepare better for any pandemic that may occur in the future, the research seeks to strengthen the theory of prevention, which the research proposes to call (urban immunity) by including social distancing as a design criterion in the city that has proven effective in flattening the curve. Aims: This paper focuses on the mechanisms related to sustainable mobility after COVID-19 in shaping urban mobility and initiating a green transformation in urban transportation rapidly by decarbonizing and promoting cycling and walking across all over the city. The research methodology depends on identifying the most important urban problems that Al-Dhubat Street suffers from and proposing solutions that reduce dependence on private transportation and move towards sustainable mobility as an important step in strengthening urban prevention against any epidemics that may occur in the future, and then testing indicators on the Al-Dhubat Street to identify effective indicators. Results: The research concluded that social distancing is the way back to active mobility by relying on walking and bicycles and works to restore the right of pedestrians in the streets and sidewalks instead of cars and thus achieve sustainable urban development, which enhances the urban immunity of the city against any other epidemics may occur in the future. With the proposed interventions on Al-Dhubat Street we can keep car use low and promote walking and cycling for a sustainable, equitable, habitable, and healthy community after the pandemic.
... the intention is a philosophical concept that describe consciousness or thought behind any subject, which because of its presence it becomes an internal reality or the base of consciousness, reflect its meaning and its essence for the purpose to reaching its reality [2], and the intention is not new idea, in the greek philosophy intention was refer to the ( power of the super spirit), while in medieval philosophy it was refer to the subjects and psychological phenomena where the first intentions of thought, obtained by directing towards the subject and realizing it directly, while thinking about these perceptions is carried out by reference to the thought itself, it is called the second intention and is the subject of logic as the saint Thomas Aquinas [3] understanding intention as a tool of perception and consciousness wherever the mind becomes its inner potential affordable to match the fact by absorbed subject in the idea at the level of sense and mind, [4] To explain the transition of the mind to what's general and holistic Ockham puts intention term by the thought actions [5], logical and psychological symbols towards certain topic, while recently, this term has been used by Germans like Brentano and Husserl [6] [7] where they both sees the aim of intentional theory is to explain and analyze the association of thought with a topic for explaining the reality of certain subject, and therefore the speculation of (hussar) within the designedly known as ( Perspicacity ) , like the water footprint can offer low urban open inexperienced areas [8], so the location of pedestrians crossing and identifying them from the remainder of the passageway ought to be processed by the variety of surfaces [9] It is often represented as ineligible and informal. Yet, it can be financially useful to the people UN agency created it [10] to understand the longer term, one should think about the longer-term at this time, as a result of "the future exists within the same sense because of the past" [11]. ...
Research Proposal
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Intention in architecture is a distinctive feature of architectural expertise in design, as it analyzes consciousness by providing us with a description of all the currents of architecture as simultaneous currents that support intellectual awareness. Where the architect intends to intentionally create that text through the use of the vocabulary of the language and the artistic form expressing his design ideas and thus the text embodies the image of life in the architectural consciousness and intentionality is the objective unit that gives harmony and interdependence to the parts of the architectural idea. The meaning of the architectural idea does not emanate from the outcome of the structural and semantic relationships of the expressive text of architecture, but rather is a clear presence on the textual units and its place is the architectural awareness and its reason is the intention of the architect as a whole, so that the research problem is (knowing the role of the architect's intention in analyzing the architectural text) and its goal It is (analyzing the architectural text according to the intention of the architect) by identifying its fields, factors and foundations, and the most important application to selected projects for the postmodern architecture stream.
... The location of pedestrians crossing and distinguishing them from the rest of the corridor should be clarified by the diversity of surfaces [2] It can be described as illegal and informal. Yet, it could be financially beneficial to the individuals who created it [3] so the water footprint will provide low urban open green areas [4], to understand the future, one must think of the future at present, because "the future exists in the same sense as the past" [5]. ...
The problem of housing and the provision of housing requirements is one of the major problems in the civilized world today, which requires deep planning and implementation policies at various stages, especially in developing countries and for low-income community groups. And one of the approved housing policies in many countries of the world is the prefabricated method, which provides many advantages that contribute to the development of society and the fulfillment of its housing needs such as providing job opportunities through the need for employment at the levels of craftsmanship and quantity as well as provides a field to support the local economy by supporting the local product Of building materials, equipment and accessories of additives, which contribute to the operation of local government and private laboratories supported by the state as the ready-to-build method is an economic and rapid means that provides production and construction of housing units in large numbers that meet the continuous need for several years. The research provides information from a survey prepared by the Housing Corporation in 2000. Survey points indicate that housing shortages were required at that time to implement approximately 135,000 apartments annually, in both sectors: urban and rural, for a period of 20 years.
...  If there is an intersection between a pedestrian passage and another or a street, there should be a clear change in the surfaces to attract the attention of those with impaired vision of these intersections (transit place).  Pavement plazas are created by converting space on the sidewalks of main streets to usable pedestrian plaza or commercial space [13].  Lighting poles, signs, seats on the sides of corridors should be placed. ...
At the international level, attention is focused on the possibility of integrating people with special needs into their communities in a way that reduces their sense of disability by providing their public needs in the urban environment. The architectural and building codes in Arab societies have neglected the humanitarian considerations associated with this category for a long time, where people with disabilities in Arab societies, especially the Iraqi society, have many difficulties that lead to determining their movement in the urban environment of contemporary cities, which has a negative impact on how this group adapts within these societies and the difficulty of their integration, although the Iraqi government has sought to develop the constitution to support people with disabilities, However, these attempts were just theoretical but do not adopt a real binding application for urban development projects in the current reality of the cities in the twenty-first century , which calls for the introduction of real standards with well-studied dimensions and depends on multiple global standards to provide flexible solutions to transform the urban environment into an environment that can embrace the people with disabilities and provide sufficient flexibility in movement solutions which helps to develop their mental and physical abilities in a series and appropriate manner in the current Iraqi society, therefore the research study includes the following:-  Criteria and requirements of people with special needs in the urban environment to reach the appropriate architectural standards for them.  Experiences and legislation suitable for people with special needs in third world countries and Arab countries.  Architectural foundations are suitable for people with special needs in the Iraqi cities.
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In the present world scenario, construction of tall building is being preferred due to rapid increase in the cost of land, lack of land availability and also to preserve land in rural areas for agricultural use (Smith and Coull 1991). The design of tall buildings is primarily governed by wind and seismic loads (Chaudhary et. al. 2019). The performance of the buildings depends on the structural configuration and the present study aims at comparing the performance of tall building with different configurations. In the present study, tall buildings have been investigated under the effect of seismic loads with different structural, namely, (i) special moment resisting frames, (ii) frame-shear wall buildings, (iii) outrigger systems, (iv) braced model and (v) hybrid model. The building models are assumed to be located in Guwahati, Assam which is one of the most earthquake-prone zones in India.Adetailed analysis of the building system is done by modeling the geometry, material section properties and boundary conditions. The sections are discretized using FE mesh using software “ETABS 2016”. Appropriate finite elements are assigned to beams and columns; slab is modeled as a rigid diaphragm to simulate the dynamic behavior of tall building structures. Initially, a modal analysis has been performed to get the natural frequency/period of the buildings. Further, seismic analysis has been carried out to get the performance levels and other responses. Firstly, pushover analysis is performed to obtain the collapse states of the buildings. Then, time-history analyses are carried out to get the dynamic behavior of the buildings. Five spectrum compatible ground motions compatible to Indian design spectrum at maximum earthquake level are considered for the time-history analysis. With the results obtained, a comparison is made for the performances of different structural systems. A detailed procedure of analysis of tall building systems has been discussed. The braced building has performed better as compared to the rigid frame structure. However, the frame-shear wall buildings give the best performance out of all building types. The outrigger and hybrid stiffening buildings over-estimate the performance levels. The conclusions drawn from this study are expected to be useful for academicians and structural designers/practicing engineers.
Floods are perceived to be the most common and wide-spread natural disaster with vast adverse consequences on the life, land and properties. Coastal areas and low-lying lands are more susceptible to flash-flood events where the post-event reclamations are quite laborious and time consuming. In this paper, we provide an effective design and innovative construction approach in providing safe, strong and simple housing solutions for the flood rehabilitants during their early recovery period. The proposed housing can rest on an elevated platform using supportive columns and the body frames can be quickly connected to complete the construction using the principles of Tactical Urbanism in Construction (TUC). Use of cavity walls, mezzanine flooring and sheet-metal roofing are preferred to considerably reduce the dead-load. The structural design consists of attaining optimized dimensions for the selected building components using the principles of Pre-Engineered Buildings (PEB). The roof design consists of an inner water-proof sheet covered with metal sheets as claddings. The structure is tested for its stability under additional weight-loading and wind effects. The limit-state based design approach confirmed the structural stability and safety under given conditions. In addition, considering the real-time scenario, efficient place-making design is adopted for safe storage and easy access of emergency accessories inside the house. In order to enhance the sustainability attributes of the model, additional features are provided to make the structure strong and appealing. There will also be provisions to provide solar panels for energy storage and gutters for draining the rain water. In order to safeguard the inhabitants from water-borne health risks, the floor tiles can be made of clay along with CsAgO2 (0.2 µm fraction heated to 200 ºC–550 ºC) to provide bactericidal property. In addition, the steel frames of the PEB are paintable with mosquito repellent paints to safeguard from the vector-borne transmitting diseases. The structure can also have provisions to produce sustainable electricity using the high TDS content of the floodwater using chargeable electrodes. By using this design approach, the PEB can significantly reduce the cost of construction while TUC can help in saving time, space and embodied energy.KeywordsFloodsPEBTactical urbanismTemporary structuresSustainable construction
There are numerous ways in which people make illegal or unauthorized alterations to urban space. This study identifies and analyzes one that has been largely ignored in social science: explicitly functional and civic-minded informal contributions that I call "do-it-yourself urban design." The research, which began as an investigation into more "traditional" nonpermissable alterations, uncovered these cases-from homemade bike lanes and street signs to guerrilla gardens and development proposals-that are gaining visibility in many cities, yet are poorly accounted for by existing perspectives in the literature. This article examines the existing theories and evidence from interviews and other fieldwork in 14 cities in order to develop the new analytical category of DIY urban design. I present findings on the creators of these interventions, on their motivations to "improve" the built environment where they perceive government and other development actors to be failing, and on the concentration of their efforts in gentrifying areas. This introduces the possibility of conflict and complicates their impact. I argue that DIY urban design has wide-ranging implications for both local communities and broader urban policy.
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