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Aronia melanocarpa berries: Phenolics composition and antioxidant properties changes during fruit development and ripening

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Aronia melanocarpa E. (black chokeberry, aronia) is cultivated in Poland, the USA, Korea and many other countries worldwide. It is known that its ripening and ripe berries are a very rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants, however, there is no data concerning unripe fruits. In this work, the changes in the content of anthocyanins, procyanidins, total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity (measured with ORAC and DPPH-EPR tests) of Aronia melanocarpa E., Nero cultivar, during the whole fruit development and ripening period were studied. The highest content of total polyphenols (up to 20 g/100 g d.w.), procyanidins (10-15 g/100 g d.w.) and flavonoids (7-11 g/100 g d.w.) as well as the highest antioxidant activity (up to 100 mmol Trolox/100 g d.w.) was observed for unripe fruits. Procyanidins content declined during fruit development and then increased slightly in later maturation stages. Anthocyanin biosynthesis initiated at the beginning of fruit ripening and reached the highest level (2-3 g/100g d.w.) in mature fruit. Thus, although as for now only ripe berries are processed to obtain juice and extracts for foods, our results suggest that green berries rich in procyanidins and other phenolics may be an interesting raw plant material for both food and pharmaceutical industries.
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214 Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019
Aronia melanocarpa berries: phenolics composition and
antioxidant properties changes during fruit development
and ripening
Małgorzata Gralec, Iwona Wawer, Katarzyna Zawada*
Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Laboratory Medicine Division, Medical University of Warsaw, Banacha 1 Str.,
PL02097 Warsaw, Poland
INTRODUCTION
Though Aronia melanocarpa E. (black chokeberry, aronia)
is native to eastern North America, it is cultivated
extensively in Europe and in Asia. The aronia fruit is
a very rich source of dietary antioxidants (Oszmiański
and Wojdyło, 2005; Kulling and Rawel, 2008). Ripe
A. melanocarpa berries contain various types of compounds:
anthocyanins, procyanidins and flavonols (quercetin
glycosides) (Wu et al., 2004; Slimestad et al., 2005). These
polyphenolic components of fruits make them a valuable
material which can be used as food or food supplements
dedicated to protect from oxidative stress (Battino et al.,
2009). On the other hand, it has been suggested that
also unripe fruits can be a valuable material with better
antioxidant properties than mature fruits (Wang and Lin,
2000; Castrejón et al., 2008, Tulipani et al., 2011). However,
although the properties and chemical composition of ripe
aronia fruits are well known, green aronia fruits have not
been studied so far. Green aronia fruits are sour and bitter
and are not suitable for direct human consumption. Still,
procyanidins, avonoids and other secondary metabolites
can be benecial for human health when extracted from
fruits.
The consumption of A. melanocarpa berries could have
a positive impact on human health (Banjari et al., 2017;
Chrubasik et al., 2010; Gawryś et al., 2012; Jurikova et al.,
2017; Kokotkiewicz et al., 2010; Kulling, 2008). Numerous
studies indicated that aronia extracts from ripe fruits have
anticancerous (Gasiorowski et al., 1997; Malik et al., 2003),
antidiabetic (Simeonov et al., 2002, Baum et al., 2016) and
anti-inammatory (Ryszawa et al., 2006) properties, reduce
blood pressure (Bell and Gochenaur, 2006) and alleviate the
toxicity of heavy metals (Kowalczyk et al., 2003).
Phenolic compounds and the antiradical activity of different
cultivars of aronia were compared during two consecutive
years (Jakobek et al., 2012). Although the profile of
Aronia melanocarpa E. (black chokeberry, aronia) is cultivated in Poland, the USA, Korea and many other countries worldwide. It is known
that its ripening and ripe berries are a very rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants, however, there is no data concerning unripe fruits. In
this work, the changes in the content of anthocyanins, procyanidins, total polyphenols, avonoids and antioxidant activity (measured with
ORAC and DPPH-EPR tests) of Aronia melanocarpa E., Nero cultivar, during the whole fruit development and ripening period were studied.
The highest content of total polyphenols (up to 20 g/100 g d.w.), procyanidins (10-15 g/100 g d.w.) and avonoids (7-11 g/100 g d.w.) as
well as the highest antioxidant activity (up to 100 mmol Trolox/100 g d.w.) was observed for unripe fruits. Procyanidins content declined
during fruit development and then increased slightly in later maturation stages. Anthocyanin biosynthesis initiated at the beginning of
fruit ripening and reached the highest level (2-3 g/100g d.w.) in mature fruit. Thus, although as for now only ripe berries are processed to
obtain juice and extracts for foods, our results suggest that green berries rich in procyanidins and other phenolics may be an interesting
raw plant material for both food and pharmaceutical industries.
Keywords: Aronia melanocarpa; Chokeberry; Antioxidants; Polyphenols; Anthocyanins; Green fruit
ABSTRACT
Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. 2019. 31(3): 214-221
doi: 10.9755/ejfa.2019.v31.i3.1921
http://www.ejfa.me/
RESEARCH ARTICLE
*Corresponding author:
Katarzyna Zawada, Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy with the Laboratory Medicine Division, Medical University of
Warsaw, Banacha 1 Str., PL02097 Warsaw, Poland . Tel.: +(48) 225720950, E-mail: katarzyna.zawada@wum.edu.pl
Received: 21 January 2019; Accepted: 30 March 2019
Gralec, et al.
Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019 215
polyphenols was the same, some differences were found
in the content of these compounds. Such differences were
also observed by Howard et al. (2003) for various cultivars
of blueberries and by Lestario et al. (2017) for Java plum.
The present research work describes the major chemical
changes and antioxidant activity of Polish cultivar “Nero”
during three seasons of fruit development. The aim of the
study was the determination of the optimal collection time
in order to get aronia berries rich in particular groups of
polyphenolic compounds.
Although there are available numerous studies on the
changes in bioactive compounds during aronia maturation
process (Jeppsson and Johansson, 2000; Banjari et al., 2015;
Bolling et al., 2015), there is no information concerning the
rst stages of development, i.e., unripe fruits. Thus, the
composition of phenolic compounds in fruits in different
development stage (i.e., unripe, ripening and ripe) was
examined. Since the biological activity of A. melanocarpa
components is usually attributed to their antioxidant
properties, these characteristics of aronia berries in
different stages of development were studied as well.
Many assays are used for estimating antioxidant activity
of a vegetable or fruit matrix. DPPH and ORAC are
the two most common tests, and have been used to
measure the antioxidant activity of e.g. sweet orange juice
(Giuffrè et al., 2017a), coffee (Yashin et al., 2013), guava
fruit extracts (Thaipong et al., 2006) as well as edible
vegetable oils (Giuffrè et al., 2016; Giuffrè et al., 2017b).
Therefore, DPPH and ORAC tests were chosen, as they
are the assays most often applied to aronia fruit as well, to
enable comparison with earlier studies on the antioxidant
properties of berries.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant material
Fruits of Aronia melanocarpa E. (“Nero” cultivar) were
collected from May to August in 2012, 2013 and 2016 at
the plantation in Mazowieckie District, Poland. The plants
were six years old. The local climate is warm-summer
humid continental climate, “Dfb” according to the
Kppen classication. The average annual temperature and
precipitation of the region are of 7.5°C and 550–600 mm,
respectively. The plants were rain-fed only (no irrigation).
The fertilization pattern was the same in all studied years,
mineral fertilization only, applied in May.29 May was
arbitrarily taken as the rst day of fruit development
(day 0). Collected fruits were frozen and stored at -15oC.
They were classied according to their color as unripe
(green fruit), ripening (pink tinted green to red fruit) and
ripe (purple-black fruit).
Sample preparation
The extraction procedure was based on that proposed
by Oszmiański and Wojdyło (2005). Frozen chokeberries
were lyophilized and ground. Three independent batches
from every sample (described by date of collection, 1 g
each) were extracted with methanol acidied with 1 g/kg
HCl. The extraction was performed by sonication for
20 minutes at room temperature. After that, the samples
were centrifuged and supernatants were used for further
analysis of antioxidant activity, as well as the content
of anthocyanins, procyanidins and flavonoids. Some
studies were performed immediately after the collection
of supernatants, and for other analyses the samples were
stored at -30oC for a maximum of two weeks.
Analytical procedures
Total anthocyanins content
The content of anthocyanin was determined using the
pH-differential method (Giusti and Wrolstad, 2001) using
Evolution 60S spectrophotometer (Thermo-Fisher, USA).
The content of anthocyanin pigment was calculated
for each extract and expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside
equivalent (C3GE) in g/100 g d.w. of fruits.
Total avonoids content
The method proposed by Christ and Müller (1960)
was used to determine the content of avonoids. The
absorbance at 510 nm was measured using Evolution 60S
spectrophotometer (Thermo-Fisher, USA). The results
were expressed as catechin equivalent (CE (g/100 g d.w.)).
Total procyanidins content
Procyanidin content was determined with vanillin method
and the parameters were based on the study of Sun et al.
(1998). The absorbance was measured at 500 nm by Evolution
60S spectrophotometer (Thermo-Fisher, USA). Results were
expressed as epicatechin equivalents (EE (g/100g d.w.)).
Total phenolics content (TP)
Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method (Singleton et al., 1999)
was used to determine total phenolics. Briey, 20 μl of a
diluted extract samples were placed in each microplate’s
well and then 100 μl of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (0.3 mol/L)
was added to each well. The mixture was kept in the dark
for 5 minutes at room temperature. Then 50 μl of 200 g/L
sodium carbonate was added. The mixture was incubated
for 20 minutes at 37°C. The absorbance at 765 nm was
measured using microplate reader Synergy Mx (Biotec,
USA). The results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents
(GAE (mg/100g d.w.)).
DPPH-EPR radical scavenging assay
The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical
scavenging test was used to determine the antioxidant
Gralec, et al.
216 Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019
activity (Sanna et al., 2012). The extracts are coloured
and/or cloudy, thus for popular spectrophotometric
UV-vis measurements the background corrections for
absorbance are necessary. Therefore, radical scavenging
activity was estimated by electron paramagnetic resonance
(EPR) spectroscopy. EPR spectra were measured at
ambient temperature (298 K) on a MiniScope MS200
EPR spectrometer (Magnettech, Germany). The samples
were diluted with methanol (30-100 fold). Equal volumes
of a diluted extract and of DPPH methanolic solution
(3.4 mmol/L) were mixed, and after 20 minutes EPR
spectra were taken. The intensity of registered EPR spectra
was compared with the control sample (methanol in
place of an extract). The results were expressed as Trolox
equivalents (TE) in mmol TE and recalculated for 100 g d.w.
ORAC-uorescein (ORAC-FL) assay
The method is based on that proposed by Ou et al. (2001).
All solutions were prepared in PBS (phosphate-buffered
saline), pH 7.4. For measurements, 30 μl of the chokeberry
extract diluted with PBS (100-500 fold), standard (Trolox)
solution or, in case of a blank, 30μl of PBS buffer, were
mixed with 180 μl of 112 nmol/L uorescein solution in
a well of 96-well plate and thermostated for 15 minutes
at 37°C. Then, 100 μl of 100 mmol/L AAPH solution
was added. Fluorescence was measured with F-7000
Fluorescence Spectrophotometer (Hitachi, Japan) equipped
with a Micro Plate Reader every 70 s for 90 minutes. The
reaction mixture was thermostated at 37°C. ORAC values
expressed as Trolox equivalents (TE (mmol/100g d.w.))
were calculated using the standard curve.
HPLC/MS characterization of fruit contents
Characterization of contents of methanolic extracts from
unripe, ripening and ripe aronia fruit was performed using
Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatograph ACQUITY
UPLC I-Class (Waters Inc) coupled with Synapt G2-S
HDMS (Waters Inc) mass spectrometer equipped with an
electrospray ion source and q-TOF type mass analyzer.
The ACQUITY UPLCR BEH C18 1.7um (WATERS)
column was used. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1%
formic acid in water (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B)
with the following gradient conditions: 95% A at 0–2 min,
95–0% A at 2–15 min, 0% A at 15-22 min, 0–95% A at
22–22.10 min and 95% A at 22.10–25 min. The ow rate
was 0.3 mL/min.
Statistical analyses
Statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA, correlation analysis)
was performed with Statistica 10 (StatSoft Inc.) software.
The Scheffe test was applied to assess signicant differences
(p < 0.05) between samples.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The content of bioactive compounds
The content of the main groups of compounds:
anthocyanins, avonoids and procyanidins, as well as the
content of total phenolics, change in time during fruit
development and ripening. The results are shown in Fig. 1.
At the beginning of fruit development, the berries are
green and do not contain anthocyanins. These compounds
appear later as the fruits are ripening. An increase in the
anthocyanin pigment concentration was observed in aronia
fruits between 30th and 80th day of fruit development
(Fig. 1a). The content of anthocyanins increases from
about 1 g/100 g of dry weight in the last days of July
(50th - 55th day of fruits development) to 2-3 g/100 g
Fig 1. Content of (a) anthocyanins, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalent (C3GE) in g/100 g d.w., (b) avonoids in aronia berries,
expressed as catechin equivalent (CE [g/100 g d.w.]), (c) procyanidins in aronia berries, expressed as epicatechin equivalents (EE [g/100g d.w.]),
(d) total phenolics in aronia berries, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE [mg/100g d.w.] in aronia berries as the function of time during
three vegetation seasons. Error bars correspond to standard deviation of three repetitions. Samples with the same letters are not signicantly
different (one-way ANOVA, Sheffe test, p>0.05).
Gralec, et al.
Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019 217
in August (80th - 90th day). The highest concentration
of anthocyanins was recorded in ca. 80 day-old fruit.
A slight, 10%, decrease in 2013 observed at the end of
collection period may be due to a decrease in acidity. It was
observed (Holcroft and Kader, 1999) that the stability of
anthocyanins as well as their biosynthesis could decrease
with the decrease in acidity. This tendency of changes in
anthocyanin content is similar to that observed by other
authors (Jeppsson and Johansson, 2000; Andrzejewska
et al., 2015; Bolling et al., 2015). It should be noted, though,
that in previous studies the fruits were collected only during
the ripening period and later (August - October).
The tendency of changes in anthocyanin content is similar in
all three vegetation seasons, but fruits collected in 2016 have
lower nal content of anthocyanins than those harvested
in previous years. The differences in concentrations and
the progress of ripening could be tentatively connected
with weather, as the vegetation season of 2016 was
characterized by lower, than in previous years, temperature
in August (the average temperature in this month in 2012
was 18.9oC, in 2013 19.3oC and in 2016 16.9oC (https://
www.wunderground.com/history/). Weather conditions,
such as temperature and insolation, inuenced phenolics
content in juice of aronia, as shown recently (Tolić et al.,
2017). As there was no change in irrigation or fertilization
pattern among years, these differences cannot be caused
by the variation of cultivation conditions.
The analysis of anthocyanins content conrmed that ripe
Aronia melanocarpa fruit is a rich source of these phenolics
(2-3 g/100 g d.w.). It is consistent with the ndings of
Oszmiański and Wojdyło (2005) (2 g/100 g d.w. of ripe
aronia fruit) as well as of Kapci et al. (2013) (about
2 g/100 g d.w., assuming the average water content of
ca. 800 g/kg of fresh fruit). Aronia fruit contains more
anthocyanins than blueberry (about two times more), açaí
(about four times more) and goji (even 350 times more)
(de Moura et al., 2018).
The highest level of avonoids, determined by Christ and
Müller method, was observed in unripe fruits. It amounts
from 7 g/100 g d.w. in 2012 and 2013 up to 11 g/100 g d.w.
in 2016. The content of these compounds is declining to
about 4 g/100 g d.w. as fruits are ripening, as illustrated in
Fig. 1b. It stays at the same level in August, until the end of
observation. More rapid decrease of avonoid content is
observed in case of fruits collected in 2016 than for these
collected in 2012 and 2013. The results of our analysis are
similar to the ndings of Oszmiański and Wojdyło (2005)
(2.1 g/100 g d.w. of all analysed by HPLC avonoids,
i.e., sum of anthocyanins and quercetin glycosides). Kapci
et al. (2013), using the Christ-Müller method, obtained
values of 1.99 and 1.25 g/100 g for dried chokeberry fruits.
It is worth mentioning that in the conventional oven-drying
of fruit there is usually a larger decrease in avonoid
content than during freeze-drying (Thi and Hwang, 2016)
which was used in our work. It could be the reason of
lower values of Kapci et al. (2013). As Bolling et al. (2015)
analyzed the bioactive compounds in juice obtained from
aronia fruits harvested at different time points during the
ripeness period (August September), it is difcult to
compare values of avonoid content. Still, in their work no
apparent trend of changes by harvest date was observed,
similarly to our work.
Fig 2. Correlation between: (a) total phenolics content and procyanidin content (the correlation parameters: r = 0.81, p < 0.05), (b) the results of
DPPH test and total phenolics content (the correlation parameters: r = 0.70, p < 0.05), (c) the results of ORAC test and total avonoids content
(the correlation parameters: r = 0.77, p < 0.05) of aronia berries in different stages of development.
Gralec, et al.
218 Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019
Similar situation to the one with avonoids is observed in
the case of procyanidins. Their concentration decreases
during maturation of fruits. The amount of these
compounds is within 10 g to 15 g/100 g d.w. in May and
June (0-28 day), for green fruits, and declines in August
(70-88 day) to about 8 g/100 g d.w. in 2012, 4-5 g/100 g d.w.
in 2013, and even to 1 g d.w. in 2016. It stays at this level
in ripe fruits (Fig. 1c). It is in agreement with the ndings
of Wu et al. (2004) (about 2.5 g in ripe aronia, assuming
800 g/kg water content of fresh fruit). The larger decrease
of procyanidin content is observed in fruits collected in
2013 and 2016 than in 2012. The content of procyanidins
observed by us during the whole ripeness period is contrary
to that noticed by Bolling et al. (2015), where this content,
determined with DMAC method, increased with time.
Aronia showed the highest total phenolics concentration
during the initial stage of fruit development; ca. 20 g/100 g
d.w. was recorded in 30 day-old fruit (Fig. 1d). It is a much
higher value than the one obtained for unripe blueberries
(4 – 7 g/100 g d.w.) (Castrejón et al., 2008) or thornless
blackberry (2 g/100 g d.w.) (Wang and Lin, 2000). Later,
there was a signicant reduction in total phenolics from
30th to 90th day of fruit development. A decrease in phenolic
compounds content with maturation and ripening has also
been reported in guava (Bashir and Abu-Goukh, 2003),
blueberry (Castrejón et al., 2008) and other fruits.
The positive correlation between total content of phenolic
compounds and procyanidins has been observed (illustrated
in Figure 2a). No significant correlation was observed
between other groups of active compounds present in the
berries. Thus, procyanidins are mainly responsible for the
changes in total phenolics content of A. melanocarpa fruits
during ripening. A weak correlation between total phenolic
compounds and procyanidins content was also observed by
Bolling et al. (2015) for ripe aronia berries collected from
August to September, which is in agreement with our ndings.
Although there was no correlation between total
anthocyanin and total polyphenol content when the
whole season has been taken into account, a decrease
in total phenolics (Fig. 1d) coincided with an increase in
anthocyanin pigment content (Fig. 1a). A similar effect was
observed for blueberries by Castrejón et al. (2008) during
fruit development and ripening. A decrease in the content
of total phenolics and especially procyanidins reduces the
astringency of fruit which is a desirable sensory attribute.
The increase of anthocyanins concentration enhances the
color and visual attractiveness of the fruit.
Antioxidant activity
Oxidative stress is suspected to be an important factor
in developing neurodegenerative (Patel and Chu, 2011)
and cardiovascular diseases (Csányi and Miller, 2014).
Consuming food rich in antioxidants could protect our
bodies from oxidative stress (Bjørklund and Chirumbolo,
2017). The radical-scavenging-linked antioxidant properties
of the extracts from black chokeberry cultivated in Korea
was investigated (Hwang et al., 2014). The results suggest
that black chokeberry extracts could be considered as a
good source of natural antioxidants and functional food
ingredients.
As the biological activity of A. melanocarpa berries is
often ascribed to their antioxidant properties, it seemed
worth checking the relation between the content of
active substances and antioxidant activity of fruits. The
antioxidant activity of aronia fruits collected at various
stages of development was determined with the DPPH-
EPR and the ORAC tests.
DPPH radical scavenging assay is the most popular
screening test for antioxidants. It is usually performed with
spectrophotometric monitoring of DPPH concentration.
It should be noted, though, that many food components
can interfere with such measurements as their absorption
spectra overlap with the DPPH radical UV-vis spectrum.
Furthermore, in polar solvents the aggregation of DPPH
could take place and inuence the results. Both problems
Fig 3. Antioxidant activity determined with (a) DPPH-EPR assay, (b)
ORAC assay, expressed as Trolox equivalents (TE [mmol/100g d.w.]),
as the function of time during three vegetation seasons. Error bars
correspond to standard deviation of three repetitions. Samples with the
same letters are not signicantly different (one-way ANOVA, Sheffe
test, p>0.05).
Gralec, et al.
Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019 219
can be avoided with the use of EPR spectroscopy, as it is
sensitive only to substances with unpaired electrons and also
immediately shows the DPPH aggregation (Sanna et al., 2012).
ORAC assay is based on the ability of antioxidants present
in the sample to inhibit the oxidation of a probe by peroxyl
radicals. Recently, a move to widen the spectrum of reactive
oxygen and nitrogen species used in this test in order to
better predict the in vivo activity of a given antioxidants
source has been proposed (Prior et al., 2016).
The results of antioxidant activity determination are
presented in Fig. 3. Results of these tests indicate that
unripe fruits of A. melanocarpa collected at the beginning of
growth have higher antioxidant activity than the ripe ones.
There is a statistically signicant difference in antioxidant
activity of unripe and ripe aronia fruits. A similar
tendency in ORAC values was observed for other berries,
e.g. black raspberry or thornless blackberry (Wang and
Lin, 2000), however, the obtained values (16 and 18 mmol
Trolox/100 g d.w., respectively) were much lower than for
aronia (up to 100 mmol Trolox/100 g d.w.).
The antioxidant activity was similar, considering their values
as well as the tendency to decrease during fruit growth
and maturation, for fruits harvested in all three vegetation
seasons. The fruits collected at the end of May (day 0) and
at the beginning of June (days 3-6) exhibited the highest
antioxidant activity. Then it decreased signicantly during
July (days 32-63), when maturation took place, to reach
plateau in August (days 64-95).
Antioxidant properties of aronia determined with the DPPH
test positively correlate with the content of total polyphenols
both for ripe and unripe fruit, as illustrated in Fig. 2b, while
the results of ORAC test positively correlate with the
content of total avonoids, as illustrated in Fig. 2c. It may
be explained by different mechanisms of these antioxidant
assays. There is no signicant correlation between antioxidant
properties determined by any of the assays and the content
of anthocyanins. Thus, it suggests that the antioxidant activity
of A. melanocarpa berry extracts is due to different groups of
bioactive compounds than anthocyanins.
HPLC/MS analysis
According to the HPLC chromatograms and the mass
spectrometry results, the main anthocyanin in aronia
fruit was cyanidin-3-galactoside, which was detected in
ripening and ripe fruit (Table 1). The presence of second
anthocyanin, cyanidin 3-arabinoside was observed only in
ripe fruit, whereas the catechin was detected only for unripe
(green) fruit. The highest concentration of chlorogenic
acids and quercetin derivatives was determined for ripe
fruit, followed by unripe fruit. For ripening fruit the
temporary decrease in their concentration was observed.
CONCLUSIONS
The Aronia melanocarpa fruits are a rich source of phenolics.
Chemical composition of the berries signicantly changes
during fruit development and ripening. Collection of the
berries as a food and food supplements material should
take into account the changes in chemical components
during ripening. The green, unripe fruits have the highest
antioxidant activity due to the high content of procyanidins
and avonoids, in spite of the absence of anthocyanins.
Thus, the extracts of green fruits could be potentially used
as a dietary supplement in prophylactics as well as dietary
support of the therapies. The polyphenol-rich extracts may
be especially useful for patients with metabolic syndrome
where the severe oxidative stress occurs. In our opinion, the
extract of green berries, rich in polyphenols and exhibiting
strong antioxidant activity, could be an interesting new
material for dietary supplements and deserves further
studies. On the other hand, fruits harvested in August
are characterized by the highest content of anthocyanins,
and could be used as an important dietary component
for people with diabetes and as the support of therapy
of cardiovascular diseases. In summary, the current study
revealed that fruit development and ripening process
affects polyphenolic compounds composition and content.
Understanding the pattern of their concentration changes
can contribute to improving breeding and harvest strategies.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by the Polish National Science
Center [grant number 2015/17/B/NZ7/03089].
Table 1. HPLC-MS identication of phenolic compounds in
A. melanocarpa fruit in different stages of development
Gralec, et al.
220 Emir. J. Food Agric ● Vol 31 ● Issue 3 ● 2019
Authors’ contributions
M.G. collected plant material, M.G. and K.Z. performed
the measurements, I.W. and K.Z. were involved in planning
and supervised the work, M.G. and K.Z. processed the
experimental data, performed the analysis, drafted the
manuscript and designed the gures. All authors discussed
the results and commented on the manuscript.
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... Moreover, the activity of scavenging nitric oxide and superoxide anion was demonstrated, as well as inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the liver. On the other hand, recent research has pointed to unripe chokeberry fruits as a valuable source of biologically-active compounds with high antioxidant activity [19,20]. Gralec et al. [19] observed the highest content of total phenolics, procyanidins, and flavonoids, as well as a higher scavenging activity of peroxyl and DPPH radicals for green and pink tinted green fruits than for red and purple-black fruits of Nero cultivar. ...
... On the other hand, recent research has pointed to unripe chokeberry fruits as a valuable source of biologically-active compounds with high antioxidant activity [19,20]. Gralec et al. [19] observed the highest content of total phenolics, procyanidins, and flavonoids, as well as a higher scavenging activity of peroxyl and DPPH radicals for green and pink tinted green fruits than for red and purple-black fruits of Nero cultivar. Similar changes during A. melanocarpa fruit development for three other varieties, Viking, McKenzie, and Kingstar K1, were shown by Yang et al. [20]. ...
... Despite the various chemical and biological evaluations performed for black chokeberry fruits, there have been very limited studies on the nutrient composition at various stages of fruit development [19,20]. This is an important issue, because during growth and ripening of fruits, a series of biochemical reactions are switched on that lead to the production or degradation of both primary and secondary plant metabolites. ...
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The present study investigated the nutrients, biologically-active compounds, as well as antioxidant and anti-lipase activities of chokeberry fruits across four different stages of development, from the unripe green to mature black forms. The highest content of total phenolics (12.30% dry weight (DW)), including proanthocyanidins (6.83% DW), phenolic acids (6.57% DW), flavanols (0.56% DW), flavonols (0.62% DW), and flavanones (0.10% DW), was observed in unripe fruits. The unripe green fruits were also characterized by the highest content of protein (2.02% DW), ash (4.05% DW), total fiber (39.43% DW), and chlorophylls (75.48 mg/100 g DW). Ripe black fruits were the richest source of total carotenoids (8.53 mg/100 g DW), total anthocyanins (2.64 g/100 g DW), and total sugars (33.84% DW). The phenolic compounds of green fruits were dominated by phenolic acids (above 83% of the total content), the semi-mature fruits by both phenolic acids and anthocyanins (90%), while the mature berries were dominated by anthocyanins (64%). Unripe fruits were the most effective inhibitor of pancreatic lipase in triolein emulsion, scavenger of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation, and reducer of ferric ion. Biological activities were mainly correlated with total proanthocyanidins and total phenolics. Considering their strong anti-lipase and antioxidant activities, unripe chokeberry fruits may have potential applications in nutraceuticals and functional foods.
... Among these different methods, functionalized nanomaterials showed rapid activity in eliminating water pollution [12][13][14]. Wild shrubs Sorbus pohuashanensis (SP) and Aronia melanocarpa (AM) fruits extracts contain flavonoids and polyphenols, which were used as reducing reagents and stabilizers reagents for synthesizing functionalized-NPs, to achieve the multi-level and efficient utilization value [15]. The chemically modified nanomaterials demonstrate the physical and chemical activities in the experiment. ...
... Meanwhile, the NPs were chemically modified in the hydrothermal synthesis process. The broad peaks ranging from 3650 to 3000 cm −1 were attributed to the polyphenols hydroxyl -OH bond, which is associated with SP/AM fruits extracts [19]; 1630 cm −1 absorption peaks were associated with the C=C bond of benzene; 2942 and 1404 cm −1 absorption peaks derived from C-H bond; 1738 cm −1 absorption peaks were originated from C=O; The absorption peaks at 1265 cm −1 were bound to the O-H bond; The 1074 cm −1 peaks showed the stretching vibration of the C-O bond [15,20,21]; FTIR spectrums indicated that NPs surface contained SP/AM fruits extracts component preliminarily, which also indicated the specific interaction between NPs and polyphenols of fruits extracts. The fruit extracts FTIR peaks originated from the active composition (polyphenols, flavonoids and polysaccharides). ...
... Sorbus pohuashanensis (SP) and Aronia melanocarpa (AM) are perennial wild shrubs, which are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere; The fruits of SP and AM appeared orange and purple in appearance, which contained flavonoids and polyphenols active substance [14,15]. To achieve multi-level and efficient utilization of the active compounds of SP and AM, the flavonoids and polyphenols substances in SP and AM fruits could be used as stabilizer reactants to participate in the synthesis and preparation of ZnO NCs. ...
... The FTIR peaks of fruits extracts came from the flavonoids, polyphenols, and polysaccharides chemical composition, while the FTIR peaks of ZnO NCs powder came from the coating of active substances of fruits extracts. The broad absorption peaks at 3423cm −1 were ascribed to hydroxyl -OH bond vibration from the polyphenols of the plant extracts; The absorption peaks at 2942 cm −1 and 1404 cm −1 were derived from C-H vibration; The absorption peaks at 1738 cm −1 originated from an aldehyde or ketone C=O bond; The absorption peaks at 1630 cm −1 were derived from the benzene C=C bond; The absorption peaks at 1265 cm −1 were bound to the O-H bond; The 1074 cm −1 peaks were the stretching vibration of the C-O bond [11,[13][14][15]; ...
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ZnO nanoclusters (ZnO NCs) had been widely utilized in optoelectronics, sensors, dye removal, and antibacterial fields. To reduce or avoid the use of toxic, harmful, and costly chemical reagents, the Sorbus pohuashanensis and Aronia melanocarpa extracts were used to green synthesize ZnO NCs with superior adsorption ability for the organic dyes. The obtained ZnO NCs were characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy (UV–vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). TEM and SEM results indicated that the ZnO NCs tended to aggregate into large branching and sheet structures. EDS measurement confirmed the presence of zinc ions on the ZnO NCs. FTIR results revealed that the components of the fruits extracts were bounded on the surface of ZnO NCs. The primary application experiments demonstrated that the Sorbus pohuashanensis and Aronia melanocarpa extracts functionalized ZnO NCs possess effectively removing activity for organic dyes.
... Chokeberry, blueberry, and cranberry juice contain phenolic compounds with cardioprotective effects [44], including rutin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and others [45], which were also found in the apple/berry juice (Table 2). Indeed, the black chokeberry fruit has one of the greatest in vitro antioxidant activities among berry fruits and is one of the richest sources of edible phenolic compounds [46]. Based on the literature, the content of phenolics in chokeberries is reported to be more than 2000 mg/100 g [15], which is a much higher amount than of blueberries (258-531 mg/100 g), cranberries (120-709 mg/100 g), and apple (185-347 mg/100 g) [47,48]. ...
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Polyphenol-rich foods protect the cellular systems of the human body from oxidative damage, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated the effect of phenolic-rich apple/berry juice (chokeberry, blueberry, and cranberry) on lipidemic profiles in overweight/obese women. The 6 week single-arm pre–post intervention study involved 20 women (mean age 52.95 ± 5.8 years, body mass index ≥25 kg/m2, and ≥1 CVD risk factors) consuming 300 mL/day of the apple/berry juice. Lipid profile, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions assessed using Lipoprint® electrophoresis, and other parameters related to cardiovascular risk (C-reactive protein, glucose, blood pressure) were analyzed before and again after the intervention in the monitored group of women. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increased from 1.30 ± 0.29 to 1.55 ± 0.32, magnesium from 0.85 ± 0.03 to 0.90 ± 0.05, and total antioxidant status from 1.68 ± 0.08 to 1.81 ± 0.10. The LDL/HDL ratio significantly decreased from 3.40 ± 0.99 to 2.66 ± 0.63 mmol/L, and the glucose from 5.50 ± 0.72 to 5.24 ± 0.74 mmol/L. However, the hs-CRP did not change significantly. Women with atherogenic subfractions LDL3-7 at baseline (n = 6) showed a significant reduction from 0.45 ± 0.19 to 0.09 ± 0.07 mmol/L. Overweight/obese women may benefit from apple/berry juice as part of a healthy lifestyle to improve their lipid profile, and thus, contribute to cardiovascular health.
... Cherry part of coffee also contains a high polyphenol value as one important factor for AA, which will depend on ripening stage and fruit species. Gralec, Wawer, & Zawada (2019) informed that the composition of phenolic compound and antioxidants in fruits depends on their ripening and post-harvest processing. According to Patay et al. (2016a), Liberica (1.86 percent) as local Africa coffee and Bengal (3.67 percent) as a wild species are larger for TPC in immature cherry than Arabica coffee (1.63 percent). ...
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The research attempts to analyze the phytochemical compositions of both the leaves and the cherries of coffee and examine preference through the sensory evaluation of consumers consuming tea products of Robusta coffee from Songkhla, Thailand. The methods used for the phytochemical analysis were conducting an antioxidant content analysis using the Ferric ion reducing antioxidant power method, conducting total phenolic and tannin contents analysis using the Folin-Ciocalteau method, and conducting a total flavonoid content measurement using the aluminum chloride colorimetry method. For the sensory evaluation of tea products (leaves and cherries of coffee), a set of questionnaires was used as the survey observation tools to collect the data from consumers at some coffee and tea shops. The data analysis was using T-test for phytochemical composition and F-test on sensory evaluation. This study shows that Robusta coffee leaves and cherries contained phytochemical compounds of different values. Compared to the cherries, the leaves had higher values of phytochemical compositions. Based on the sensory evaluation of consumers, tea products made from leaves and cherries were highly rated. Coffee cherry tea demonstrated a higher percentage of interest compared with coffee leaf tea.
... Black chokeberries are recognised as one of the richest sources of anthocyanins among other berry fruits, accounting between 25% [17] and 41% [32] of total polyphenols. [33]. ...
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Black chokeberries are a valuable source of anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds, but they are underutilized due to their unpalatable astringent taste. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of using black chokeberry juice as a health-promoting ingredient in apple juice with a view to develop a new functional food product and to increase the dietary consumption of bioactive compounds. Mixed juices were prepared from apple (A) juice and black chokeberry (BC) juice at 95:5 (ABC5), 90:10 (ABC10), 85:15 (ABC15), and 80:20 (ABC20) volumetric ratios. Comparative studies on the effect of heat treatment (90 °C, 10 min) and storage (four months, 20 °C) on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of apple, black chokeberry, and mixed juices were carried out. The soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant activity increased while the total soluble solids/titratable acidity ratio decreased with increasing addition levels of BC juice. Mixing A juice with BC juice at 95:5 and 90:10 volumetric ratios improved the color and enhanced the palatability and general acceptability of the juice. The percentage losses of anthocyanins and polyphenols registered after heat treatment and storage increased with increasing addition levels of BC juice.
... Bibliographic sources attest that the variety, cultivation and harvesting conditions can significantly influence the total polyphenol content, the values of which can reach up to 8000 mg/100 g DW [36]. Gralec et al., demonstrated that the ripening state of the aronia fruits influenced the flavonoid content, showing that during the ripening period it decreased from 7-11 g/100 g DW to 4 g/100 g DW [37]. According to the study by Tolic et al., in dried fruits and powders of aronia the flavonoid content varied between 867 mg GAE/100 g DW and 3317 mg GAE/100 g DW [38]. ...
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The article examines the opportunity to use extracts and Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot fruit powders in the production of sugar confectionery for the substitution of synthetic dyes. In the technology of manufacturing confectionery masses, synthetic dyes are used that can cause various allergic reactions, as well as hyperactivity syndrome and lack of concentration in children. The composition of hydroalcoholic extracts was analyzed, and the metabolites of polyphenols, individual anthocyanins and organic acids were quantified. Antioxidant capacity and CIELab chromatic parameters were tested. The technology for manufacturing confectionary masses with extract and powder of aronia was developed. The sensory profile, physicochemical and microbiological quality parameters, antioxidant activity and color characteristics of the confectionary masses with the extract and powder of aronia addition were determined on the 1st and 50th day from the production date. The evolution of DPPH antioxidant activity of confectionery masses during storage was measured in vitro, in the conditions of gastric digestion. The results showed that Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliot extract is rich in polyphenols, flavonoids and tannins, the main organic acids being represented by malic, citric, acetic and ascorbic acid. During the 50th storage day, the antioxidant activity was higher in confectionery masses containing aronia compared to the control. The sensory and microbiological testing of confectionary masses demonstrated that the combination of extract and aronia powder ensures the optimal shelf life and organoleptic scores. It was demonstrated that during the storage of confectionery masses with aronia, the physicochemical indicators of quality were in accordance with the regulated admissible values. Positive effects of aronia were observed on confectionery masses’ color saturation. These results underline the opportunity to use aronia extract and/or powder in confectionery industry to replace synthetic dyes and obtain products with enhanced functionality.
... Application of different fruit processing and juice extraction techniques on the one hand, the time and period of harvesting and level of ripening on the other, may cause variations in the phenolic content of chokeberry fruits and fruit products, including pomace and juice [4,39,[48][49][50]. However, chokeberry products, including juices, remain very rich in phenolic compounds and high in antioxidant activity [51]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aronia melanocarpa L. (black chokeberry), belonging to the Rosaceae family, contains high amounts of polyphenolics and therefore exhibits one of the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities among berry fruits. Chokeberries are used in the food industry for juice, nectar, and wine production and as colorants. We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of three chokeberry juices commercially available in the local market as sources of beneficial phytochemicals. Using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, we performed the identification and quantitation of polar compounds and polyphenolics. The concentrations of 13 amino acids, including 6 essential amino acids, 10 organic acids, 20 sugar alcohols and derivatives, 14 saccharides, 12 fatty acids and esters, and 38 polyphenols, were estimated. One of the analyzed juices had the highest polyphenolic content (5273.87 ± 63.16 µg/mL), possibly due to 2.9 times higher anthocyanin concentration compared to anthocyanins in other tested juices. This study provides new data concerning phytochemical composition in terms of amino acids, organic acids, sugar acids, fatty acids and their esters, and polyphenols as phytocomponents of commercially available chokeberry juices. Results show that after all processing techniques and possibly different plant growth conditions, chokeberry juices are a valuable source of health-promoting phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, pro-anthocyanins, and anthocyanins, thus considering them as functional foods. We demonstrated a diversity of the active substances in bioactive foods marketed as "same"; therefore, the standardized therapeutic effect could be expected only by the utilization of food supplements with guaranteed constant content.
... Чорноплідна горобина корисна при лікуванні окремих форм діабету. Плоди чорноплідної горобини містять 5-6 % фенольних сполук, 4,6-2,4 % цукрів, 2,5 % пектинових речовин, фолієву, нікотинову, аскорбінову кислоти та мікроелементи: йод, молібден, мідь, бор, кобальт та інші [6]. Порошки з горобини чорноплідної можна використовувати для виробництва чаїв, купажувати з іншими порошками і використовувати як наповнювачі для виробництва продукції оздоровчого і лікувально-профілактичного призначення та лікарських засобів. ...
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The research was aimed to analyze the possibility of using fruit and berry powders to produce health-improving, therapeutic and prophylactic agents, and their application in practical medicine. The methodology included a comprehensive analysis and generalization of the available practical, scientific, and applied material and making corresponding conclusions and proposals. The following methods of scientific knowledge were used: the dialectical method, the systemic-structural method, the terminological method, the systemic-functional method, the historical method, the legal-dogmatic method, the method of generalization. The health-improving, therapeutic and prophylactic properties of fruit and berry powders (concentrates) produced according to modern, innovative, universal, zero waste technologies developed by the researchers of the King Danylo University in collaboration with the researchers of the Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University and successfully implemented at the agricultural enterprise of health-improving products “Agrotechnologies” in Olesha territorial community of Ivano-Frankivsk region, Ukraine, were highlighted. Technologies allow for turning all types of fruit, berry and vegetable raw materials and mushrooms into high-quality semi-finished powders (concentrates) and a wide range of dry foods. Infrared drying process, which takes place at low temperatures, is aimed at removing water from the product, while completely preserving the structure of the plant cell, vitamins, and trace minerals. The main technological processes are as follows: inspecting, washing, cutting, if necessary, drying, crushing, sifting, fractionating, packing. Fruit, berry and vegetable raw materials and mushrooms are harvested in forestry enterprises of western Ukraine and cultivated in sufficient quantities on eco clean soils of the Dniester canyon. Powders (concentrates) obtained from eco clean raw materials are the versatile and effective raw material for manufacturing a wide range of health-improving, therapeutic and prophylactic nutritional products, medications, and biologically active additives. They can serve as effective fillers for bakery, pasta and confectionery products, soft drinks, ice-creams, yoghurts, jellies, food concentrates; they can be blended, when producing various beverages and condiments. Conclusions. The authors structured and summarized the therapeutic and prophylactic properties of fruit and berry powders (concentrates), provided examples of their application in practical medicine, as well as when manufacturing certain types of health-improving products. The advantage of fruit and berry and vegetable powders over other semi-finished products (extracts, syrups, purees, concentrated juices) and raw materials is that they are well preserved, easy to transport, contain more nutrients per unit weight. The obtained results can be used by food companies, research and manufacturing research laboratories for developing new formulations for products of higher biological value and organizing their production, as well as creating new highly effective medicines and food additives.
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Diabetes is a global pandemic which warrants urgent attention due to its rising prevalence and economic burden. Thus, many alternative therapies are being researched for anti-diabetic properties, given the inefficacy of current medicinal treatments. From this perspective, Aronia melanocarpa or Black Chokeberry has been investigated for its therapeutic properties in many studies, especially for its ability to combat hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and the macrovascular complications of diabetes including cardiovascular disease. Though A. melanocarpa is native to the eastern areas of North America, it has been planted extensively in Europe and Asia as well. Several in vivo studies have displayed the antioxidant properties of A. melanocarpa berry juice and plant extract in rat models where oxidative stress markers were observed to have significant reductions. Some of the potent bioactive compounds present in the fruits and other parts of the plant were identified as (-)-epicatechin, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3-galactoside. Overall, A. melanocarpa could be considered a good source of antioxidants which is effective in combating hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress.
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In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the utilization of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) represents a lesser known fruit species utilized mainly as juices, purees, jams, jellies and wine, as important food colorants or nutritional supplements. The fruit is valued as a great source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols), particularly cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside, as well as (−)-epicatechin units. The berries of A. melanocarpa, due to the presence and the high content of these bioactive components, exhibit a wide range of positive effects, such as strong antioxidant activity and potential medicinal and therapeutic benefits (gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory activities). They could be also contributory toward the prevention of chronic diseases including metabolic disorders, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, because of supportive impacts on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure levels.
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Chokeberries are a subject of numerous studies due to a high phenolic compound content, antioxidant properties and potential positive influence on the health. Effects of weather conditions on fruit quality attributes, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice over three consecutive years were investigated. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids range were from 8834 to 11093 mg/L and from 6993 to 9710 mg/L, respectively. High variations and discrepancy during different growing seasons are due to the different air temperature, sunlight and rainfall rate. The highest concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolics were observed in fruits harvested in 2012, which is most likely due to the favorable weather conditions (temperature and bright sunshine hours). All chokeberry juices possess high antioxidant activity (12.9–14.6 mmol/L; 128–167 mmol/L). Strong correlation implies that flavonoids and non-flavonoids were the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity. This study indicates that although the examined properties vary considerably through the growing seasons (p≤0.05), chokeberry juices can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals in a human diet.
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BACKGROUND: Fruits and berries are known to contain relatively high amounts of antioxidant/bioactive compounds. Several methods have been used for measurement of antioxidant capacity (AC), but not all methods have direct relevance to in vivo antioxidant status. OBJECTIVE: Determine AC in berry/fruit samples, processed berry products, and purified compounds by utilizing 5 different biologically relevant free radical/oxidant sources. METHODS: Samples were assayed for AC capacity using 5 different free radical/oxidant sources: peroxyl radical (ORAC), hydroxyl radical (HORAC), peroxynitrite (NORAC), superoxide anion (SORAC) and singlet oxygen (SOAC)]. Total AC (sum of AC with 5 individual radicals) was expressed as Oxygen Radical Absorption Capacity using Multiple Radicals (ORACMR5). RESULTS: SOAC contributed more than 60 of ORACMR5 in blackberries, sweet and tart cherries; and no detectable levels of SOAC were found in strawberries, black currants and raspberries. Whole fruit purees of mango, wild blueberry and cherry contained 95, 85 and 67 respectively of total ORACMR5 from SOAC. However, freeze dried wild blueberry powder from same production season had only 28 as SOAC and 42 and 22 as ORAC and HORAC. Blueberry/Pomegranate and Mango/Pineapple smoothies had 67 and 77 of ORACMR5 as SOAC. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidant quenching potential using 5 different radical/oxidant sources of different berries and fruits varied widely and understanding this variation may be helpful in understanding health benefits of different berries and foods.
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Blood orange juice from Citrus sinensis (L) Osbek cv Moro was compared to a concentrated blood orange juice and both juices were studied during frozen storage at -20 °C. Analyses were conducted on pH (3.33 - 3.81) and titratable acidity as citric acid (11.14 - 13.16 g/L). The formol number decreased in both blood orange juice and concentrated blood orange juice during frozen storage, while vitamin C showed a very slight decrease. Scavenging abilities of the juices for the DPPH∙ radical ranged from 53.39% to 42.55% in blood orange juice and from 39.16% to 33.75% in concentrated blood orange juice during frozen storage. Although anthocyanins showed a diminution during storage in both the concentrated and non-concentrated blood orange juice, they were always higher in the non-concentrated juice fruit. Four phenolic acids were detected: gallic, chlorogenic (the highest quantity, 13-27 mg/L), caffeic and ferulic, the latter showed the lowest content. Ten flavonoids were identified, 2 flavonols (rutin and quercetin) and 8 flavanones: narirutin (the second highest flavonoid), naringin, hesperidin (the highest quantity), neoeriocitrin, didymin, eriocitrin, neohesperidin, and hesperitin. Concentration and duration of frozen storage were found to influence the physicochemical properties of blood orange juice in different ways.
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Diet may be defined as a complex process that should involve a deeper comprehension of metabolism, energy balance, and the molecular pathways involved in cellular stress response and survival, gut microflora genetics, enzymatic polymorphism within the human population, and the role of plant-derived polyphenols in this context. Metabolic syndrome, encompassing pathologies with a relatively high morbidity, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease, is a bullet point of the big concern about how daily dietary habits should promote health and prevent metabolic impairments to prevent hospitalization and the need for health care. From a clinical point of view, very few papers deal with this concern, whereas most of the evidence reported focuses on in vitro and animal models, which study the activity of phytochemicals contained in the daily diet. A fundamental issue addressed by dietitians deals with the role exerted by redox-derived reactive species. Most plant polyphenols act as antioxidants, but recent evidence supports the idea that these compounds primarily activate a mild oxidative stress to elicit a positive, beneficial response from cells. How these compounds may act upon the detoxifying system exerting a scavenging role from reactive oxygen or nitrogen species is still a matter of debate; however, it can be argued that their role is even more complex than expected, acting as signaling molecules in the cross-talk mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum and in enzymatic pathways involved in the energetic balance. In this relationship, a fundamental role is played by the brain-adipose tissue-gut axis. The aim of this review was to elucidate this topic and the state of art about the role of reactive species in cell signaling and the function of metabolism and survival to reappraise the role of plant-derived chemicals.