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Abstract

This chapter draws on the importance of movement for human perceptual experience and how it influences brain dynamics. By use of Mobil Brain/Body Imaging (MoBI), artists with interest in the experience of art can get insights into human cortical activity during artworks. Specifically, art that depends on action faces challenges regarding the exploration of human brain activity during their artistic acts or performances. We give an account of how architectural experience, which essentially rests on perception and movement, can be investigated using a MoBI method. We present results from studies that indicate fundamental differences in cognitive and behavioural responses when comparing active behaviour compared to passive perception. Consideration of the processes underlying movement and cognition suggests that action alters perception, which in turn alters experience. MoBI is therefore able to reveal aspects of natural cognition, which would otherwise go unnoticed highlighting the advantage of using MoBI in animate forms of art.

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... Although perceptual experience is typically examined by the experience of colors, in this paper, we insist that the 'form' in space holds a quale status. Notably, form is an essential component in the architectural design and essentially integrated with how affordances emerge (Rietveld and Kiverstein, 2014;Pezzulo and Cisek, 2016;Djebbara et al., 2019). The form of space speaks to all sensory systems and thereby reveals how one may explore the space with the whole body (Djebbara, Fich and Gramann, 2020). ...
... SMC already hints that the Virtual supports the actual. Conceiving architectural experience through the lens of process philosophy, at once, the architectural experience can only be captured in its transtemporal dynamics (Djebbara, Fich and Gramann, 2019), and these elements of the transtemporal dynamics entail the body. ...
... See also Friston, 2017, 2018) for the equivalent role of precision in discrete formulations of active inference. This has recently been demonstrated by Djebbara et al. (2019) in a Mobile Brain/Body Imaging experiment using Virtual Reality to change the forms of a transition causing the affordances to change. An electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to analyze visuomotor brain activity. ...
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The perceptual experience of architecture is enacted by the sensory and motor system. When we act, we change the perceived environment according to a set of expectations that depend on our body and the built environment. The continuous process of collecting sensory information is thus based on bodily affordances. Affordances characterize the fit between the physical structure of the body and capacities for movement in the built environment. Since little has been done regarding the role of architectural design in the emergence of perceptual experience on a neuronal level, this paper offers a first step towards the role of architectural design in perceptual experience. An approach to synthesize concepts from computational neuroscience with architectural phenomenology into a computational neurophenomenology is considered. The outcome is a framework under which studies of architecture and cognitive neuroscience can be cast.
... We chose our colours systematically using the Munsell system, but we cannot say whether the results of this study would have been different had different colours been chosen. In addition, there is emerging evidence that prior exposure and experience can impact subsequent responses to dimensions of space in virtual environments (Djebbara et al. 2019), and the same may also hold true for perception of colour in VR. Future research could investigate whether responses to colour are impacted by the sequence in which colours are presented. ...
... The odds are relative to the grey-toned reference colour. Each cluster included between 87 and 99 participants headset that provides six degrees of freedom (pitch, role, and yaw plus positional tracking) rather than three in order to encourage full emersion and movement in the virtual environment, which may impact perception (Djebbara et al. 2019;Banaei et al. 2017). This approach would, however, require that data be collected in a more controlled setting which would likely bring drawbacks in regard to sample size. ...
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... Moreover, increasing numbers of studies have employed mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) to investigate neural dynamics synchronized with body motion capture and other modalities of physiological significance [14]. MoBI reveals new insights into the neural dynamics of active human movement with realistic tasks outside of the laboratory and has been utilized in many kinds of neural imaging studies [15][16][17]. We have recently proposed a post-stroke lower-limb rehabilitation system [18], in the spirit of MoBI, to overcome conventional movement restrictions and comprehensively explore the neural dynamics and behavioral outcomes during active post-stroke lower-limb rehabilitation in the real world. ...
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Mobile brain/body imaging (MoBI) is an integrative multimethod approach used to investigate human brain activity, motor behavior, and other physiological data associated with cognitive processes that involve active behavior. This chapter reviews the basic principles behind MoBI, recording instrumentation, and best practice of different processing and analyses approaches. The focus is on electroencephalography as the only portable method to image the human brain with sufficient temporal resolution to investigate fine-grained subsecond-scale cognitive processes. The chapter shows how controlled and modifiable experimental environments can be used to investigate natural cognition and active behavior in a wide range of applications in neuroergonomics and beyond.
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A new theory is taking hold in neuroscience. It is the theory that the brain is essentially a hypothesis-testing mechanism, one that attempts to minimise the error of its predictions about the sensory input it receives from the world. It is an attractive theory because powerful theoretical arguments support it, and yet it is at heart stunningly simple. Jakob Hohwy explains and explores this theory from the perspective of cognitive science and philosophy. The key argument throughout The Predictive Mind is that the mechanism explains the rich, deep, and multifaceted character of our conscious perception. It also gives a unified account of how perception is sculpted by attention, and how it depends on action. The mind is revealed as having a fragile and indirect relation to the world. Though we are deeply in tune with the world we are also strangely distanced from it. The first part of the book sets out how the theory enables rich, layered perception. The theory's probabilistic and statistical foundations are explained using examples from empirical research and analogies to different forms of inference. The second part uses the simple mechanism in an explanation of problematic cases of how we manage to represent, and sometimes misrepresent, the world in health as well as in mental illness. The third part looks into the mind, and shows how the theory accounts for attention, conscious unity, introspection, self and the privacy of our mental world.
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In the title of the first report about the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) two things are suggested: The CNV is a sign of “sensori-motor association” and the CNV is an index for “expectancy” (Walter et al., 1964). In other words, the CNV reflects processes, which are, at first sight, quite different from the processes discussed in the other chapters in this book. Why then is it important to add a “deviant” chapter to this book? There are two reasons. First, the CNV is also a movement-preceding negativity (MPN), just as the Readiness Potential (RP). The RP reflects processes involved in the preparation of voluntary movements, and the CNV reflects processes involved in the preparation of signaled movements. In other words the RP and the CNV are both reflections of anticipatory behavior, at least as far as the motor system is involved. Moreover it doesn’t seem too difficult to put up a case for the view that most of our motor activity is elicited by the presence of some kind of stimuli, rather than being “voluntary”. This being a sufficient reason for a chapter on the CNV, there is a second reason. Anticipatory behavior is not restricted to the motor system; it involves attention to the surrounding and to stimuli, which are relevant for our ongoing behavior. This becomes clear in a simple paradigm such as the forewarned reaction time task, used to elicit a CNV. In such a paradigm, a warning signal (WS) alerts the subject to an upcoming imperative signal (RS) to which the subject has to respond, e. g. by pressing a button. The consequence is that the CNV is a MPN, confounded by activity related to anticipatory attention for the response signal (RS). This causes serious difficulty for the interpretation of the CNV. I will discuss later on a paradigm in which Separation in time of motor preparation and anticipatory attention is possible. The latter function is reflected in a second category of anticipatory slow waves: the Stimulus Preceding Negativity (SPN).
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Nature is the international weekly journal of science: a magazine style journal that publishes full-length research papers in all disciplines of science, as well as News and Views, reviews, news, features, commentaries, web focuses and more, covering all branches of science and how science impacts upon all aspects of society and life.
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Why do brains have so many connections? The principles exposed by Andy Clark provide answers to questions like this by appealing to the notion that brains distil causal regularities in the sensorium and embody them in models of their world. For example, connections embody the fact that causes have particular consequences. This commentary considers the imperatives for this form of embodiment.
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Speed and accuracy of single movements depend on several factors, such as direction of movement, distance to the target, and accompaniment by simultaneous movements. The relation between speed, accuracy, and distance appears to be determined by the time required to process feedback and to make corrective alterations in the movement. For a repetitive series of movements, there is some evidence suggesting that control is shifted from feedback to a motor program. This view receives further support from demonstrations that the reproduction of single movements may be relevant to understanding perceptual, memory, and motor skills is mentioned. (3 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)