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Models and concepts of curriculum implementation, some definitions and influence of implementation



Mezieobi (1993), conceptualized the term implementation simply as a process of putting an agreed plan, decision, proposal, idea or policy into effect. Hence curriculum implementation includes the provision of organized assistance to staff (teachers) in order to ensure that the newly developed curriculum and the most powerful instructional strategies are actually delivered at the classroom level. Esu, Enukoha &Umoren (2004) also conceived curriculum as all learning experiences a child has under the guidance of a teacher. According to Offorma (2005), curriculum is a programme which is made up of three components: programme of studies, programme of activities and programme of guidance. Curriculum as viewed by Alebiosu (2005) also as an instrument that dictates the affairs of every educational system. It is the vehicle through which knowledge and other learning activities are disseminated. Curriculum implementation process involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or experience. It is important to note that curriculum implementation cannot take place without the learner. The learner is therefore the central figure in the curriculum implementation process. Although there are various factors that also influence Curriculum Implementation like the resource materials and facilities, the teacher, the school environment, culture and ideology, Instructional supervision and assessment. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the intended experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively in a society. Therefore putting the curriculum into operation requires an implementing agent. Stenhouse identifies the teacher as the agent in the curriculum implementation she argues that implementation is the manner in which the teacher selects and mixes the various aspects of knowledge contained in a curriculum document or syllabus into practice. Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be delivered to students. The implementation, as an essential part of curriculum development, brings into existence the anticipated changes. The changes can occur in several ways. The two most obvious ways are: i) Slow change: this occurs for instance, when we incorporate minor adjustments in the course schedule, when we add some books to the library or when we update the unit plan, etc. is a slow change.
Mezieobi (1993), conceptualized the term implementation simply as a process of putting an
agreed plan, decision, proposal, idea or policy into effect. Hence curriculum implementation
includes the provision of organized assistance to staff (teachers) in order to ensure that the newly
developed curriculum and the most powerful instructional strategies are actually delivered at the
classroom level.
Esu, Enukoha &Umoren (2004) also conceived curriculum as all learning experiences a
child has under the guidance of a teacher. According to Offorma (2005), curriculum is a
programme which is made up of three components: programme of studies, programme of
activities and programme of guidance. Curriculum as viewed by Alebiosu (2005) also as an
instrument that dictates the affairs of every educational system. It is the vehicle through which
knowledge and other learning activities are disseminated.
Curriculum implementation process involves helping the learner acquire knowledge or
experience. It is important to note that curriculum implementation cannot take place without the
learner. The learner is therefore the central figure in the curriculum implementation process.
Although there are various factors that also influence Curriculum Implementation like the
resource materials and facilities, the teacher, the school environment, culture and ideology,
Instructional supervision and assessment.
Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the intended experiences, knowledge,
skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the same learner to function effectively in a
society. Therefore putting the curriculum into operation requires an implementing agent.
Stenhouse identifies the teacher as the agent in the curriculum implementation she argues that
implementation is the manner in which the teacher selects and mixes the various aspects of
knowledge contained in a curriculum document or syllabus into practice.
Curriculum implementation therefore refers to how the planned or officially designed
course of study is translated by the teacher into syllabuses, schemes of work and lessons to be
delivered to students. The implementation, as an essential part of curriculum development, brings
into existence the anticipated changes. The changes can occur in several ways. The two most
obvious ways are:
i) Slow change: this occurs for instance, when we incorporate minor adjustments in the course
schedule, when we add some books to the library or when we update the unit plan, etc. is a slow
ii) Rapid change: this happens as a result of new knowledge or social trends influencing the
curriculum, such as computers education being introduced in the curriculum, etc.
Traced to its roots, the term curriculum is derived from the Latin word “currer” which means a
race course taken by horses. In education, curriculum may be taken to mean a race course taken
by the educational process. Before 1918, courses offered in learning institutions were only
known as subjects.
The term curriculum had not been coined until Franklin Bobbit after working on a
number of courses and after studying the social, economic and political changes which came
with World War I coined the term curriculum to mean those experiences that the learner acquires
in a learning institution. Zumwalt in Akwesi (2012) asserted that curriculum implementation is
the practical application of theory into practice in a way that the eventual outcome is evidenced
through the learners’ performances in and outside the classroom. When teachers deliver both the
curriculum contents and instructional strategies in the way and manner they were designed to be
delivered, curriculum implementation is said to have occurred. However, the ability and
effectiveness of the teacher to carry out curriculum implementation depends to large extent on
some variables like knowledge/experience qualification, availability of resources and
motivational issues among others.
In order to achieve the objectives of education, an instrument that serves as a vehicle of
operation is required, that instrument is the curriculum which can be defined as all the learning
experiences and intended learning outcomes systematically planned and guided by the school
through the reconstruction of knowledge which recognized as cognitive, affective and
psychomotor development of the learner in (Aneke, 2016, & Akundolu in Eya 2012).
Steps to be Taken in Curriculum Development
To ensure the quality of education, schools should be actively involved in curriculum
development and implementation. Curriculum development involves the following steps:
(1) Identifying the learning needs of the children;
(2) Setting priorities in these learning needs for curriculum
(3) Searching and retrieving resources from within and outside the
(4) Designing curriculum programmes;
(5) Implementing curriculum programmes;
(6) Evaluating the effectiveness of curriculum programmes;
(7) Making adaptations to curriculum programmes.
To meet the needs of an increasingly globalized world, educators, politicians, parents, and
corporations across the globe have called for major school reforms by restructuring the
Hameyer (2003) noted, the quality of a curriculum can only be as good as the quality of
the curriculum process, the word (curriculum) itself is used in many different contexts, by
principals in schools, by teachers, by curriculum writers in education systems, and increasingly
by politicians. It can mean different things in each of these contexts. When a new curriculum has
been developed, it is essential that the people who will be affected by it whichever way or have
some stakes in it are informed so as to understand its relative merit over the previous one.
This is to ensure their support for the new curriculum and contributions are enlisted. Such
people include the teachers, educational officers from the Ministry of Education headquarters to
field officers, parents, religious leaders, politicians, professional bodies and the general public.
Through their effort they will enhance the success of the entire curriculum process and forestall
any resistance, sabotage or indifference to it.
Afangideh (2009), describes the concept of curriculum implementation as the actual engagement
of learners with planned learning opportunities. Marsh and Stafford (1988) also highlight three
dimensions of curriculum concept. First, they explicit that curriculum includes not only syllabi or
listing of contents, but also a detailed analysis of other elements such as aims and objectives,
learning experiences and evaluation as well as recommendations for interrelating them for
optimal effect.
Second, curriculum comprises planned or intended learning, calling attention to
unexpected situations which necessarily may occur in the classroom practices. Thirdly,
curriculum and instruction are inextricable. Lovat and Smith (2003) rightly contend that
curriculum is part of teaching, not separate from it. Therefore, the most agreed basic notion of
the curriculum is that it refers to a plan for learning (Todd 1965; Neagley & Evans, 1967; Zais
1976, Marsh & Stafford, 1988; Van den Akker, Kuiper & Hameyer, 2003 and Lovat& Smith,
2003). This concept of curriculum as (Van den Akker 2003) limits itself to the core of all
definitions, permitting all sorts of elaborations for specific educational levels, contexts, and
representations. In discussing this curriculum concept, Marsh and Stafford (1988) argues that
curriculum is an interrelated set of plans and experiences which a student completes under the
guidance of the school.
Stages in curriculum process when in the midst of learning activities, the teacher and
learners are involved in negotiation aimed at promoting learning. This is the interactive stage of
the curriculum process this takes place in the classroom through the effort of the teachers,
learner, school administrators and parents. It also integrates the application of physical facilities
and the adoption of appropriate pedagogical strategies and methods. The quality of curriculum
implementation of any society is the bedrock of its political, economic, scientific and
technological well-being.
Another name for the teacher is curriculum implementer. The teacher is the one who
translates the curriculum document into operating curriculum through a joint effort of his/her
learners and other interest groups as viewed by Mkpa (1987). This implies that the task of
implementing the curriculum lies on the teacher. The teacher does not just implement the content
as it is, rather he breaks the content into teachable units.
Curriculum conceptualized broadly as culture. (Joseph, Bravmann, Windschitl, Mikel,
and Green 2000) expound this notion of curriculum, as culture link. Using a cultural lens, we can
begin to regard curriculum not just as an object (content), but as a series of interwoven dynamics.
Curriculum conceptualized as culture educates us to pay attention to belief systems, values,
behaviors, language, artistic expression, the environment in which education takes place, power
relationships, and most importantly, the norms that affect our sense about what is right or
appropriate (p.19). Chen (2007), states it as a functions as a mirror that reflects cultural beliefs,
social and political values and the organization.
Hidden curriculum contains underestimated importance of the dynamics of human
interactions in organizational behavior which are imperceptible, but have a powerful influence on
institutional culture/climate (Nieto, 2007). In this sense, culture refers to the values and symbols
that affect organizational climate. According to Owens (1987), the symbolic aspects of school
activities e.g. traditions, rites, and rituals are subsumed, for these are “the values that are
transmitted literally from one generation of the organization to another” (p. 168).
There are several models of curriculum implementation but for the purpose of this work only the
selected ones that are applicable in implementing curriculum in our various institutions are
discussed below:
ORC model (Overcoming Resistance to Change)
The letters 'ORC' stands for 'Overcoming Resistance to Change'. This model rests on the
assumption that the success or otherwise of curriculum implementation primarily depends on the
impact the developer make on the users of curriculum such as, teachers, students and the society
in general. If we desire change then we must address people's misgivings, their
misapprehensions, or other such related factors.
We must point out to them that what the curriculum incorporates, wherever possible and
appropriate, their values, assumptions and beliefs. And while addressing the persons within the
system, we should remember that to get the desired result the subordinates should be motivated
rather than ordered. Curriculum developers should, therefore, identify and deal with the concerns
of the staff in various educational institutions when implementing new curriculum. We can group
the concerns into the following four broad developmental stages:
Developmental stage versus Developmental concerns: they are the following
1. Unrelated Concerns: At this stage, teachers do not perceive a relationship between
themselves and the suggested changes. For example, if a new programme is being developed, a
teacher at this stage may or may not be aware of this effort. If he/she is aware of it, he/she may
not consider it something that concerns him her. The teacher would not resist the change, because
he/she really does not perceive the change as something that influences his/her own personal or
professional domain.
2. Personal Concerns: At this stage, the teacher will react to the innovation in relation to his/her
personal situation. He/she is concerned with how the new programme compares to the one
already in use.
3. Task-related Concerns: This stage relates to the actual use of the innovation. The teacher at
this stage will be concerned with the time required for teaching the new programme, availability
of materials, strategies to be adopted, etc.
4. Impact-related Concerns: The teacher at this stage will be concerned with how the innovation
will influence others. When working with the ORC model, we must deal directly with the
concerns at stages 2, 3 and 4 in order to serve the purpose for which the change is effected.
LOC model (Leadership-Obstacle course model)
LOC is the acronym for 'Leadership-Obstacle Course' model. This model treats staff resistance to
change as problematic and proposes that we should collect data to determine the extent and
nature of the resistance in implementing the curriculum. This can be carried out by the following:
i) the organisational members must have a clear understanding of the proposed innovation;
ii) individuals within the organisation must be given relevant skills so that they possess the
capabilities requisite for carrying out the innovation;
iii) the necessary materials and equipment for the innovation must be furnished;
iv) if need be, the organisational structure must be modified so that it is compatible with the
innovation being suggested;
v) the participants in the innovation must be motivated to spend the required time and effort to
make the innovation a success.
The LOC model considers educational change as a sequence of three stages:
i) initiation;
ii) attempted implementation; and
iii) incorporation.
We should note here that implementation obstacles solved at one point at a time using this model
may arise again at another point. This model, therefore, has a feedback and monitoring
mechanism to determine if problems once solved keep reappearing and so on.
Linkage model
The 'linkage' model recognises that there are innovators in research and development centres
such as the universities. Educators in the field sometimes however, find some attempts that are
innovative and inappropriate for solving the problems. What is therefore needed is a match
between the problems and innovations to establishment of linkages with the established research
This model envisages two systems: user system and resource system. There has to be a
link between these two systems. The resource system should have a clear picture of the
curriculum user's problems, if it is to retrieve or create appropriate educational packages. A
successful resource system must proceed through a cycle of diagnosis, search, retrieval,
fabrication of solution, dissemination and evaluation in order to test out its product. Thus, in the
linkage model, the basic process is the transfer of knowledge.
RCA (Rand Change Agent model)
The Rand Change Agent (RCA) model suggests that organizational dynamics seem to be the
chief barriers to change. As in ORC and LOC models it puts forward the following three stages
in the change process:
i) Initiation: At this stage, the curriculum developers work to secure the support for the
anticipated change. To support a change, such as a new programme people must understand and
agree that it is legitimate. Thus, curriculum implementation activity requires the personal
backing of the individuals involved. For example, at this stage, we should inform the teachers
about the need for change and how it might take place.
ii) Implementation: At this stage, the proposed change, i.e., the new programme and the
organisational structure are adjusted to operationalize the change.
iii) Incorporation: During this stage, the changes implemented become part of the established
programme. The assumption behind this is that the success of the implementation is a function
i) the characteristics of the proposed change;
ii) the abilities of the academic and administrative staff;
iii) the readiness of the local community; and
iv) the organisational structure.
During the incorporation stage, the changes implemented become part of the established
programme. At this stage the programme implemented is provided with the necessary personnel
and financial support
The term curriculum implementation had been defined in different ways by different scholars.
Garba (2004) viewed curriculum implementation as the process of putting the curriculum into
work for the achievement of the goals for which the curriculum is designed. Okebukola (2004)
described curriculum implementation as the translation of the objectives of the curriculum from
paper to practice. In a nutshell, Ivowi (2004) sees curriculum implementation as the translation
of “theory into practice”, or “proposal into action”.
Mkpa and Izuagba (2009) in Obilo and Saugoleye (2015). Also maintained that
curriculum implementation is the actual engagement of the learner with planned learning
opportunities; this planning includes the instructional materials that will be used for its
implementation at the appropriate stages. Yobe (2011) in Aneke (2015) also viewed curriculum
implementation as the task of translating the curriculum concept into operating curriculum by the
combined efforts of the teachers and society.
Fullan in Owusi (2009) is of the opinion that curriculum implementation is a process of
putting a document or an instructional programme into practice. Leithwood (1982), like most
other curricularists, considers implementation a process that attempts to reduce the difference
between existing practices and the practices suggested by innovators or change agents.
Implementation is the act of putting the prescribed curriculum into practice in the school. It is the
ultimate objective of curriculum development process because only after this has been done will
learners have the opportunity to experience the curriculum and benefit from it. In line with the
above, Agangu (2009) in Aneke (2015) maintained that curriculum is the mechanism through
which the educational system inculcate into the learner, the knowledge, skills and attitudes which
the society has prescribed.
Curriculum is the vehicle that contains the good (contents), the teacher is the driver who
delivers the goods (Contents) to the consumers of the goods learners. Therefore the teacher is at
the centre of activities in curriculum implementation. Alebiosu (2005) in Obilo and Sanugoleye
(2015) is of the opinion that curriculum is the instrument that dictates the affairs of every
educational system.
The first issue of implementation is poor involvement of teachers in matters relating to
curriculum implementation either in planning or reform and that make good performances
impossible, no matter the teachers methodological competence; unfortunately teachers are not
involved at this stage of curriculum process. Ibrahim (2003) in Nwanze (2015) stated that the
involvement of teachers in curriculum planning induces good quality into the curriculum,
enriches the activities and also makes them more worthwhile.
He further maintained that, the conditions under which education can be made to serve
the expressed aspirations of any nation revolve around the quality of the teachers. This quality
will be optimally enhanced if the teachers are fully involved in the curriculum planning and other
curriculum processes not only in the classroom implementation. The teacher takes the final
decision as regards the actual learning experiences to be provided and so not involving or
incorporating him in the planning and development process is like separating the curriculum
from instruction. (Mkpa and Izuagba (2009) in Obilo and Sangoleye (2015).
The second issue is excess contents added to the curriculum to be covered by both the
students and teachers posses serious challenges in curriculum implementation. Some global and
emerging issues, such as family life education. Citizenship education, education on HIV/AIDS
and drug abuse among others which are recently introduced in the school curriculum as contents
to be learnt by student/pupils without extentending the instructional hours affect its
implementation. Afangideh (2009) in Obilo and sangoleye (2010) states that some teachers are
having issues with such topics already, hence making it implementation a challenge. He further
maintained that the above is in addition to the already existing subjects. Obilo and Saugoleye
(2010) further maintained that the time allotted for the implementation of these heavy academic
loads is not adequate enough. A followed up issue on this matter is that when these new courses
are introduced or included in the existing curriculum, new personnel who specialized in them
were not usually employed neither do government send the old staff on training on how to
implement them.
The third issue is concerned with the provision and distribution of materials that will
enhance the achievement of the teaching and learning objectives. Such materials include:
textbooks, instructional, desks etc. this is because for the curriculum contents to be effectively
implemented at any stage of the educational system, some materials which are expected to
compliment the classroom activities of the teacher should be provided for effective
implementation at the classroom levels of any of the educational programmes. Sometimes the
curriculum is implemented without these resources making it difficult for learners to assimulate
lessons. Fullan, (2001), argued that, if obstacles to implementation were not removed, instead of
moving ahead from the implementation phase to the continuation phase, a change would suffer
from the failure to be used in the intended manner and the rejection by decision-makers.
The fourth issue of curriculum implementation is non-involvement of the society’s
culture in the curriculum implementation. Curriculum is the instrument through which the
society via the schools educates its citizens, both adult and young. Therefore, the quality of
education of every society is subject to the quality of the society’s curriculum. Even though large
sums of money are spent on implementing new curriculum, several of these efforts have failed.
According to Alade (2011), the main reason for the failure is the lack of understanding of the
culture of the school by both experts outside the school system and educators in the system.
Successful implementation of curriculum requires understanding the power relationships, the
traditions, the roles and responsibilities of individuals in the school system.
The next issue is planning the implementation: it is essential that we plan the
implementation of a curriculum it will certainly help us to implement it successfully. Planning
process addresses needs and changes necessary and requisite resource for carrying out intended
actions. Put it differently, implementation-planning should focus on the following factors: People
(learners, educationists, policy makers, and the like); programmes; and processes.
Although, these three factors are inseparable, usually we consider any one of them for
implementation. For example, the opinion has been that to really facilitate the implementation of
a major change, curriculum developers need to deal primarily with the people-factor. Some,
however, consider that the primary focus should be the programme. The argument here seems to
be that people will adapt, if we furnish them with different ways to meet the objectives of a
programme through planning, this will facilitate smooth implementation of the curriculum.
Communication is the next important issues that influence curriculum implementation
stage. We know that communication deals with messages, so sending and receiving is not
sufficient enough to ensure that communication will be effective or that messages sent will be
accurate or of high quality. The curriculum specialists, therefore, must be sure that the
communication network is comprehensive and that avenues for sending messages exist at all
levels of the curriculum implementation process.
For instance, if we want to communicate some factual details about a new programme
being launched, we can use such means as letters, memos, articles, books, bulletins, research
reports or speeches. Supposing the new programme is a major change from the existing one, we
can communicate it effectively through workshops, conferences, demonstrations and the like.
Thus, it is essential that we should be able to create an atmosphere conducive to effective
communication among all members of the educational staff and community. Further, we need to
inform them that their views are welcome and that they all have a responsibility to participate in
sending and processing messages of curriculum implementation activity.
Once effective communication is established, we can be sure of cooperation in
implementing the curriculum. Without the cooperation of all those who will be 'affected' by the
new curriculum, we cannot implement it successfully. For instance, teachers have traditionally
not been included in the process of curriculum activity. This is so, despite the fact that research
supports the practice of engaging teachers in curriculum activity that will find expression in their
classrooms. For example, in many ways, teachers are the experts in the given context. Their
commitment to the new curriculum, therefore, is especially of vital importance. If teachers
actively participate in curriculum development, the likelihood of successful implementation is
The discovery of implementation problems occurred mainly in the late 1960s and early 1970s
(Kanter, 1983; McLaughlin, 1998; Sarason, 1971) and this lead to the influences of curriculum
implementation. It was also recognized that unless what was meant was actually implemented,
the initiation of a curriculum change merely created the illusion that change had occurred (Fullan
and Pomfret, 1977; Hall and Loucks, 1975; Kennedy et al., 1984). Nnabuike (2012) identified
some factors that could hinder the achievement of instructional objectives which is the focus of
curriculum implementation include the following:
Inability to manage the classroom among others. Where the instructional objectives are
not achieved as result of one or combination of the above factors will influence curriculum
implementation, Utilization of Instructional Materials and the importance of instructional
materials in teaching and learning can also influence curriculum implementation. Instructional
materials promote efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning
(Adeoye 2010).
The use of instructional material enhances permanent retention. It is unfortunates that
despite all the advantages of instructional materials, and the fact that they are part of the
curriculum planning and design, some government do not based on the importance of TLMs to
implement new curriculum.
The Teacher
As Whitaker (1979) asserts in the University of Zimbabwe (1995) module, the teachers view
their role in curriculum implementation as an autonomous one. They select and decide what to
teach from the prescribed syllabus or curriculum. Since implementation takes place through the
interaction of the learner and the planned learning opportunities, the role and influence of the
teacher in the process is indisputable, you could be thinking, teachers are pivotal in the
curriculum implementation process, but what is their role in the curriculum planning process?” If the
teacher is to be able to translate curriculum intentions into reality, it is imperative that the teacher
understand the curriculum document or syllabus well in order to implement it effectively
The Importance of Teachers Involvement in Curriculum Development
Without doubt, the most important person in the curriculum implementation process is the
teacher. With their knowledge, experiences and competencies, teachers are central to any
curriculum development effort. Better teachers support better learning because they are most
knowledgeable about the practice of teaching and are responsible for introducing the curriculum
in the classroom. If another party has already developed the curriculum, the teachers have to
make an effort to know and understand it. So, teachers also influence curriculum
Their opinions and ideas should be incorporated into the curriculum for development. On
the other hand, the curriculum development team has to consider the teacher as part of the
environment that affects curriculum (Carl, 2009).The teachers’ involvement in the curriculum
development process is essential in meeting the needs of society (Ramparsad, 2000). As a result,
I think that there should be major advances in teacher development in order for teachers to
actively reflect on society's needs in each stage of the curriculum development process.
On the other hand, in any curriculum implementation process not all teachers will have
the chance to be involved in these processes. Professional development of teachers is as an
important factor contributing to the success of curriculum development and implementation
(Handler, 2010). So, we should think about what extent teacher education programs are needed
for prospective teachers to study curriculum development. The teacher involved in curriculum
organization has many roles and responsibilities. Teachers want to enjoy teaching and watching
their students develop interests and skills in their interest area.
The teacher may need to create lesson plans and syllabi within the framework of the
given curriculum since the teacher's responsibilities are to implement the curriculum to meet
student needs (Carl, 2009). Many studies support empowerment of teachers through participation
of curriculum development. For example, Fullan (1991) found that the level of teacher
involvement as a center of curriculum development leads to effective achievement of educational
reform. Therefore, the teacher is an important factor in the success of curriculum development
including the steps of implementation and evaluation. Handler (2010) also found that there is a
need for teacher involvement in the development of curriculum. Teachers can contribute by
collaboratively and effectively working with curriculum development teams and specialists to
arrange and compose textbooks, and it’s content. Teacher involvement in the process of
curriculum development is important to align content of curriculum with students needs in the
Although teachers are the implementers of curriculum and this is usually facilitated by
Education Officers, Quality Assurance and Standards Officers (Q.A.S.O) and the school system
the principals / head teachers, deputy head teachers fellow teachers, teachers advisory centers
(T.A.Cs) among others. Several essential steps should be taken to ensure effective
implementation of the developed curriculum
The Learners
Learners are also a critical element in curriculum implementation. While teachers are the arbiters
of the classroom practice, the learners hold the key to what is actually transmitted and adopted
from the official curriculum. The official curriculum can be quite different from the curriculum
that is actually implemented. The learner factor influences teachers in their selection of learning
experiences, hence the need to consider the diverse characteristics of learners in curriculum
implementation. For example, home background and learner ability can determine what is
actually achieved in the classroom.
Resource Materials and Facilities
No meaningful teaching and learning take place without adequate resource materials. This
applies to curriculum implementation as well. For the officially designed curriculum to be fully
implemented as per plan, the government or Ministry of Education should supply schools with
adequate resource materials such as textbooks, teaching aids and stationery in order to enable
teachers and learners to play their role satisfactorily in the curriculum implementation process.
In Curriculum Implementation, it is suggested that the central government must also
provide physical facilities such as classrooms, laboratories, workshops, libraries and sports fields
in order to create an environment in which implementation can take place. The availability and
quality of resource material and the availability of appropriate facilities have a great influence on
curriculum implementation.
Interest Groups
A number of these interest groups exist in almost all societies. These include parents, parents’
and teachers’ associations, religious organizations, local authorities, companies and private
school proprietors. These groups can influence curriculum implementation in the following
Provide schools with financial resources to purchase required materials.
Demand the inclusion of certain subjects in the curriculum.
Influence learners to reject courses they consider detrimental to the interests of the group.
It is therefore important to involve these groups at the curriculum planning stage.
The School Environment
One other factor that influences curriculum implementation concerns the particular
circumstances of each school. Schools located in rich socio-economic environments and those
that have adequate human and material resources can implement the curriculum to an extent that
would be difficult or impossible for schools in poor economic environments to implement.
Culture and Ideology
Cultural and ideological differences within a society or country can also influence curriculum
implementation. Some communities may resist a domineering culture or government ideology
and hence affect the implementation of the centrally planned curriculum.
Instructional Supervision
Curriculum implementation cannot be achieved unless it has been made possible through the
supervisory function of the school head. The head does this through:
deploying staff,
allocating time to subjects taught at the school,
providing teaching and learning materials, and
creating an atmosphere conducive to effective teaching and learning.
As stated in Curriculum Implementation, the head “monitors and guides curriculum
implementation through ensuring that schemes of work, lesson plans and records of marks are
prepared regularly”. The head teacher maintains a school tone and culture that create the climate
of social responsibility. Effective curriculum implementation does not take place in a school
where the head is incapable of executing supervisory functions.
Assessment in the form of examinations influences curriculum implementation tremendously.
Due to the great value given to public examination certificates by communities and schools,
teachers have tended to concentrate on subjects that promote academic excellence and little else
on the rest. This action by the teacher obviously can affect the achievement of the broad goals
and objectives of the curriculum.
Unconducive School Environment: it is believed that learning can only take place in a
conducive environment. By a conducive learning environment we meant spacious and well-
ventilated classrooms and seats. There should be no distraction of any kind or noise, no
interference to disrupt the learning activities. A school environment where all these ingredients
are found wanting, curriculum implementation will be hindered and the teacher in question will
not be able to carry out his/ her duties effectively and efficiently. This implies that the school
environment is not student friendly.
Heavy Academic Load: according to Afangideh (2009) in Obilo and sangoleye (2010), some
global and emerging issues such as family life education, citizenship, HIV/AIDS, drug abuse
among others are introduced as curriculum content to be learnt by students/pupils. This is in
addition to the already existing school subjects. time allotted for the implementation of these
heavy academic load is not adequate teachers now combine normal class period with school
lessons especially in the primary and secondary schools, whereas in the tertiary institutions they
combine both sandwich, evening and regular programme with other programmes like distance
and weekend programmes. All this posses big challenge for the teacher as a curriculum
Teacher Factor: Teachers are the determinant of effective and efficient curriculum
implementation at every level, so they should be graded in their respective areas of
specialization. National Policy on Education, NPE (2004), stated that no nation will rise above
the qualities of its teachers. Teachers of today once they are employed, they feel they don’t need
education/learning again, they relax and become lazy and at the same time, obsolete. This posses
a big challenge to them for they can no longer move along with the emergence of different
teaching and learning innovations.
Student Factor: Students practice examination malpractice, extortion of money, they threaten
their teachers once they discipline/punish them for unruly behaviour in the school. This
constitute a big challenge to the teacher as a curriculum implementer.
Parent Factor: Most parents, especially the illiterate and ignorant ones do not know the value of
education and so don’t provide their children/wards with school materials like textbooks, writing
materials. Most at times they threaten the teachers for punishing their children either due to
truancy or any other form of indiscipline.
Working Conditions: Government does not take good care of the teachers as should be.
Teachers are being neglected by the government. Teachers’ salaries are being delayed together
with their allowances. They are not being properly placed in terms of salary structure. Due to
these kind of working conditions, teachers have no job satisfaction and so their working
condition posses a big challenge to them that can influence curriculum implementation.
In short, no curriculum will be perfect, as a finished product cast in stone, or free from criticism,
but to be effective it must be accepted by teachers and must be deemed educationally valid by
parents and the community at large. In educational practice, these factors interact with each other
and generate influences that cannot be attributed to one factor or another. This requires an
understanding of the purpose of the program, the roles people will play, and those affected, this
process needs to be planned, but not rigid.
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... Furthermore, teachers should be well trained on how to implement the revised curriculum to avoid a gap between the intended curriculum/goals and the enacted one. According to Bediako (2019), teachers and learners are the most important tool in the process of curriculum implementation. Therefore, teachers need to make efforts to know and understand the content of the new curriculum very well and align it with the needs of the learners in the classroom. ...
... According to Kanu (2011), the success of curriculum development depends on the roles of teachers in the development process since they are the implementers and key contributors to educational changes and quality education. Hence, changes in curriculum reform have to be always situated in the society, culture, and the education system of the country in which the reform takes place (Bediako, 2019). ...
... In retrospect, the teacher training framework also should have no deadlocks, improving the learning for every individual child independent of the learning challenges they may have (Abudu & Mensah, 2016). According to Bediako (2019), the teacher training in Namibia did not begin off on the smooth ground. The instruction amid the time when the politically-sanctioned racial segregation development was still enforced and the training in Namibia was coordinated essentially on the apartheid law. ...
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The review/developing process of a national curriculum is a mammoth task that involves different stakeholders of which the facilitators are the main ones. They have to eventually see to it that this curriculum is implemented the correct way to ensure that the learner is fully prepared for the next phase. The Junior Secondary Teachers are the most important ones as they lay the schooling foundation of the learners in preparation for the remaining basic education phases. The process of reviewing and or developing a curriculum differs from country to country, and can both be centralized and decentralized. The research aimed to research a rethinking of the implementation process of the revised curriculum for basic education at four junior secondary schools in the Khomas region. The research questions that guided this research were: what are the challenges influencing the effective implementation of the revised curriculum of the Junior Secondary phase; what type of support structures and skills are necessary for effective implementation and what are the teacher’s perceptions regarding the implementation process of the revised basic curriculum. The researcher made use of a qualitative design approach, based on a case study. The researcher used non-probability sampling, that is, convenience and judgmental sampling. The total sample size was eight teachers and three principals. Teachers were interviewed and principals were given questionnaires. From the findings it was noted that some of the teachers have a negative attitude toward the implementation of the new curriculum, some of the teachers lacked ICT skills which are needed in this modern era, and there were inadequate resources for the implementation of the new curriculum to be effective, educators were not involved in the decision-making process during the curriculum design process and over-crowdedness in class was another challenge which hinders the successful implementation of the new curriculum. The researcher, however, noted that the findings from the study were in correspondence with the related literature review. The study, therefore, recommends that teachers should be equipped with ICT skills so that they may be able to apply them during the implementation process of the curriculum, and teachers should not develop a negative attitude towards curriculum change. They should embrace the change with both hands, responsible authorities should provide the necessary materials and resources that are required for the successful implementation of the new curriculum, and teachers should be involved in every stage of the curriculum design process.
... These resources according to Bediako (2019) include the instructor/teacher, the learners, learning materials/facilities, instructional strategy, instructional supervision, assessment, culture, school environment, among others. In essence, without these resources, it is almost impossible to effectively implement the physics curriculum at the secondary school levels. ...
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The study evaluated the effective implementations of the recommended instructional resources in Physics curriculum. An evaluation design involving the use of context, input, process, output (CIPP) model was adopted. Six research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised 85 physics teachers in all public schools in education zone C area of Benue State. All the teachers were used for the study, as such, no sampling was done. The study used Implementation of Instructional Resources in Physics Curriculum Questionnaire (IIRPCQ) as instrument for data collection. Cronbach alpha method was used to establish the internal consistency reliability indices for the instruments to be 0.73, 0.81, 0.88, 0.79 and 0.85 for clusters, I, II, III, IV and overall, respectively. The research questions were answered using frequency, percentage, mean, and standard deviation while t-test was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that the contents of senior secondary school physics curriculum are adequate for its implementation. The result also showed that majority of the physics teachers (56%) are not qualified. Among others, the study also found that male physics teachers significantly (p<0.05) used the stipulated instructional strategies more than the female teachers. Thus, it was recommended among others that adequate instructional materials should be provided by the government and relevant stakeholders to ensure effective implementation of physics curriculum.
... In addition, it helps the school to make adequate preparation for learning resources, effective teaching and learning as well as enabling environment for desired outcomes. Bediako (2019) posits that It could also mean the provision of relevance assistance to teachers who will practice the curriculum with appropriate instructional strategies to deliver its contents at the classroom level. However, learning is central to every curriculum implementation process but the teacher is the major actor, and the curriculum implementer who should build an engaged relationship between the learner and contents. ...
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The aim of teaching is to learn, and more importantly to relate what is learnt with real world experience. Therefore, this paper explores best practices for curriculum implementation using the experiential learning cycle for effective classroom interactions. It discusses: the curriculum; the curriculum implementation; experiential learning cycle to show the impact of Engagement, Exploration, Integration; evaluation to enhance classroom interactions; how can the experiential learning cycle support curriculum implementation; benefits of curriculum implementation.
... According to the respondents, the Government of Kenya, acting through the Ministry of Education, has contributed textbooks in the subjects of English, mathematics, and the sciences to the educational institutions in Marigat Sub-County. This study is in line with the findings that were presented by Bediako (2019), who argues that successful teaching requires the supply of sufficient teaching and learning materials across all subject areas. In addition, having sufficient human resources readily available is of the utmost significance for enhancing the quality of education. ...
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In Kenya, many projects have been done in the education sector to improve the quality of education, and among these projects is the Secondary Education Quality Improvement Project (SEQIP). Since the SEQIP inception in 2017, much has been done in public primary and secondary schools and little has been reported. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influences of the SEQIP on the education sector in Marigat Sub-County in Kenya. A descriptive survey design was used where structured questionnaires alongside interviews were administered to the sampled respondents to collect the data which was analyzed using Excel. Descriptive statistics such as frequencies and percentages were used to summarize the data. The data were collected from 68 schools; 17 from each zone and 3 teachers from each school, all 4 curriculum support officers (CSOs) from each Zone, an SCDE, and a TSC Sub-County director which formed the sample size. The study found that the SEQIP project has helped in the improvement of quality as said by 73% of the respondents. The project also was found to have improved the rate of retention in classes 7 and 8 and also the transition to secondary school as said by 60% of the respondents. It was further established that 93% of the respondents agreed that the project has enhanced the adoption of new curriculum reforms. The study came to the conclusion that SEQIP made a significant contribution to the creation of curriculum designs and teacher training. The study suggests that the School-Based Teacher Support System (SBTSS) application in teaching should be monitored and reported on. The Sub-County education quality assurance officers should be tasked with checking the proper implementation of the training’s contents in school by the teachers.
... According to Bediako (2019), it is only those curriculum reform programs and innovations that enjoy the support and favor of teachers at the implementation stage that have a higher chance of succeeding than those without this blessing. In Zimbabwe little research has yet been done to examine online geography teachers' teaching practices and preparedness for online teaching in the COVID-19 era especially in the disadvantaged rural secondary schools. ...
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Unprecedented COVID-19 lockdowns forced schools to close and to adopt online teaching and learning methodologies. In Zimbabwe, underprivileged schools were the worst affected by this directive. This qualitative study, carried out in one cluster of rural secondary schools explored the preparedness of geography teachers to adopt e-learning strategies. Data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. Findings indicate that teachers at day schools were not well prepared to adopt e-learning strategies while their counterparts at boarding schools were better prepared. Teachers stuck to their traditional classroom roles and failed to adopt additional online roles resulting in feelings of boredom due to lack of social interaction with students. A lack of teacher training and support and inadequacies in infrastructural facilities were the major impediments militating against teacher preparedness. WhatsApp emerged as the most popular application used to communicate with students. It is recommended that stakeholder support be mobilized towards teacher capacitation.
... The CRDD therein confirms the importance of practical skill development in the visual arts education with reference to the percentage distribution. Besides, successful implementation of the curriculum lies greatly on the availability of adequate facilities (Bediako, 2019). Repercussions of these phenomena could be a key factor leading to poor performances of students during the West African Secondary School Examinations (WASSCE) as revealed in the 2014 Chief Examiner's Report for visual arts subjects. ...
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This article examined available facilities (tangible and intangible) in selected Ghanaian public Senior High Schools to find out if they possess what it takes to impact the needed skills in students to meet the demands of the 21st Century job market. Four schools were purposefully selected to fairly represent the various grades of senior high schools in the Central Region of Ghana. Data was collected through interviews and observations whereas analysis was done using the thematic approach. Findings indicate that facilities in schools were highly inadequate. Visual arts teachers were not motivated to teach while students lack basic learning resources thereby impacting negatively on performance outcomes of both teachers and students. The future of Visual Arts education in Ghanaian Senior High Schools is feared to remain sustainable as a practical programme as authorities continually fail to provide needed basic art facilities
... The meaning of the learning experience that is shared by students The implementation of the national curriculum in the form of an operational curriculum in the school will create certain characteristics that characterize the school (Yulianti 2015;Bediako 2019). Of course, the learning that is carried out is quality and effective learning, indicated by the accuracy of the selection of learning components, so that collaboratively these components support learning in learning participants, gain maximum learning experiences, and achieve predetermined learning goals (Le, Janssen, & Wubbels 2018). ...
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The purpose of this study is to present an overview of implementation of the national curriculum into the operational curriculum in accordance with the notion of multiple intelligences theory. As data sources, Laboratory Elementary School of Indonesia University of Education, 471 pupils, and 31 teachers participated in the mixed-methods study. Observation, testing, and in-depth indirect communication were used to acquire the data. Observation sheet was used to collect qualitative data on the implementation of the national curriculum into the operational curriculum of the school, Student Self-Multiple Intelligence (SSMI) was used to collect quantitative data on students' Multiple Intelligence scores, and Open-Minded Sharing (OPM) was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data on the impact of the teacher's actions on students. The results demonstrated that the implementation of the national curriculum in the form of an operational curriculum based on multiple intelligences theory showed that the Laboratory Elementary School of Indonesia University of Education is concerned with moral and spiritual values in order to instill noble morals in its pupils, and that it has been successful in assisting its children with the development of various intelligences. We conclude that it has an impact on the characteristics of the school and the learning process which both its own uniqueness.
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This research aimed to comprehend the preparedness of teachers to transfer their existing ICT skills to an e-learning teaching environment during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study investigated the main issues and challenges that teachers, HODs, and the principal faced during the COVID -19 pandemic, their sudden and unexpected transition from face-to-face to emergency remote education, and their main worries and concerns during this period of implementing e-learning, as well as their perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process, using a semi-structured interview and clear questions. The study also generated teachers' ideas for strengthening education in the event of future lockdowns and in the post-COVID-19 era, based on their experiences during the lockdown period. Teachers, HODs, and the principal were among the fifteen (15) participants in this study. The qualitative research was situated in a case study design. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using inter-rater reliability analysis to discover labels, codes, and themes from semi-structured interviews. The valuable insights gained from this study illustrate how important it is for teachers' voices to be heard by the management and the Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture. It is therefore pivotal for the Ministry of Education, Arts, and Culture (MoEAC) to include e-learning implementation in their budgeting and steady implementation using a top-down approach. Keywords: COVID-19; e-readiness; teachers’ perception; teaching practices; teachers’ preparedness; Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT); lockdown.
Teacher autonomy is vital component for the productive development of the school and as well as profession. This study determined the mediating effect of organizational climate on the relationship between instructional leadership and teacher autonomous behavior, specifically in the Municipality of Talaingod, Division of Davao del Norte. This study employed a mediation analysis with 300 samples with a thorough interpretation of the data collected through statistical treatments (Mean, Pearson r, Med-graph using Sobel z-test). The findings of the study showed that there is a strong relationship between Instructional Leadership and Teacher Autonomous Behaviour. It was also revealed that Organizational Climate partially mediated the relationship between instructional leadership and the autonomous behavior of Talaingod Public-School Teachers. The result implies that giving opportunities for the teacher to have autonomy when it comes to the teaching-learning process is an integral part of being a great instructional leader.
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MANI curriculum implementation process considers both intrinsic and extrinsic factors of curriculum implementation that can be valuable in the process of implementation.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.