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Ecdysteroids as non-conventional anabolic agent: performance enhancement by ecdysterone supplementation in humans


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Recent studies suggest that the anabolic effect of ecdysterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone claimed to enhance physical performance, is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. In comparison with the prohibited anabolic agents (e.g., metandienone and others), ecdysterone revealed to be even more effective in a recent study performed in rats. However, scientific studies in humans are very rarely accessible. Thus, our project aimed at investigating the effects of ecdysterone-containing products on human sport exercise. A 10-week intervention study of strength training of young men (n = 46) was carried out. Different doses of ecdysterone-containing supplements have been administered during the study to evaluate the performance-enhancing effect. Analysis of blood and urine samples for ecdysterone and potential biomarkers of performance enhancement has been conducted. To ensure the specificity of the effects measured, a comprehensive screening for prohibited performance-enhancing substances was also carried out. Furthermore, the administered supplement has been tested for the absence of anabolic steroid contaminations prior to administration. Significantly higher increases in muscle mass were observed in those participants that were dosed with ecdysterone. The same hypertrophic effects were also detected in vitro in C2C12 myotubes. Even more relevant with respect to sports performance, significantly more pronounced increases in one-repetition bench press performance were observed. No increase in biomarkers for liver or kidney toxicity was noticed. These data underline the effectivity of an ecdysterone supplementation with respect to sports performance. Our results strongly suggest the inclusion of ecdysterone in the list of prohibited substances and methods in sports in class S1.2 “other anabolic agents”.
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Archives of Toxicology
Ecdysteroids asnon‑conventional anabolic agent: performance
enhancement byecdysterone supplementation inhumans
EduardIsenmann1,2· GabriellaAmbrosio3· JanFelixJoseph3,4· MonicaMazzarino5· XavierdelaTorre5·
PhilippZimmer1,6· RymantasKazlauskas7· CatrinGoebel7· FrancescoBotrè5,8· PatrickDiel1· MariaKristinaParr3
Received: 8 March 2019 / Accepted: 16 May 2019
© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019
Recent studies suggest that the anabolic effect of ecdysterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone claimed to enhance
physical performance, is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. In comparison with the prohibited anabolic agents
(e.g., metandienone and others), ecdysterone revealed to be even more effective in a recent study performed in rats. However,
scientific studies in humans are very rarely accessible. Thus, our project aimed at investigating the effects of ecdysterone-
containing products on human sport exercise. A 10-week intervention study of strength training of young men (n = 46) was
carried out. Different doses of ecdysterone-containing supplements have been administered during the study to evaluate the
performance-enhancing effect. Analysis of blood and urine samples for ecdysterone and potential biomarkers of performance
enhancement has been conducted. To ensure the specificity of the effects measured, a comprehensive screening for prohib-
ited performance-enhancing substances was also carried out. Furthermore, the administered supplement has been tested for
the absence of anabolic steroid contaminations prior to administration. Significantly higher increases in muscle mass were
observed in those participants that were dosed with ecdysterone. The same hypertrophic effects were also detected invitro
in C2C12 myotubes. Even more relevant with respect to sports performance, significantly more pronounced increases in
one-repetition bench press performance were observed. No increase in biomarkers for liver or kidney toxicity was noticed.
These data underline the effectivity of an ecdysterone supplementation with respect to sports performance. Our results
strongly suggest the inclusion of ecdysterone in the list of prohibited substances and methods in sports in class S1.2 “other
anabolic agents”.
Keywords Sports performance· Doping· Ecdysterone· Spinach extract· Humans· Resistance training
Eduard Isenmann and Gabriella Ambrosio contributed equally.
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (https :// 4-019-02490 -x) contains
supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
* Maria Kristina Parr
1 Department forMolecular andCellular Sports Medicine,
Institute forCardiovascular Research andSports Medicine,
German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, Germany
2 Department ofFitness andHealth, IST University ofApplied
Sciences, Duesseldorf, Germany
3 Institute ofPharmacy, Pharmaceutical andMedicinal
Chemistry (Pharmaceutical Analysis), Freie Universitaet
Berlin, Koenigin-Luise-Str. 2 + 4, 14195Berlin, Germany
4 CoreFacility BioSupraMol, Department ofBiology,
Chemistry, Pharmacy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin,
5 Laboratorio Antidoping FMSI, Rome, Italy
6 Division ofPhysical Activity, Prevention andCancer,
German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) andNational
Center forTumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg, Germany
7 Australian Sports Drug Testing Laboratory, National
Measurement Institute, NorthRyde, NSW, Australia
8 Department ofExperimental Medicine, “Sapienza”
University ofRome, Rome, Italy
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Ecdysteroids are widely marketed to athletes as dietary
supplements advertising to increase strength and muscle
mass during resistance training, to reduce fatigue and to
ease recovery. Several studies have reported a wide range
of pharmacological effects of ecdysteroids in mammals,
most of them beneficial to the organism. The most active
phytoecdysteroid, ecdysterone (a “Russian secret”, chemi-
cal structure in Fig.1), was already suspected to be used
by Olympic athletes since the 1980s. At present, increasing
numbers of dietary supplements containing ecdysteroids
are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Their advertis-
ings promise to increase strength and muscle mass during
resistance training, to reduce fatigue, and to ease recovery.
Extensive investigations on the possible growth-promoting
effects of ecdysterone in various animal species (rats, mice,
Japanese quail and cattle) and a few in humans were reported
(Bathori etal. 2008; Courtheyn etal. 2002; Dinan 2001,
2009; Dinan and Lafont 2006; Gorelick-Feldman etal. 2008;
Haupt etal. 2012; Kumpun etal. 2011; Lafont and Dinan
2003; M McBride 2013; Parr etal. 2014; Slama and Kod-
koua 1975; Slama etal. 1996; Tchoukouegno Ngueu 2013;
Toth etal. 2008; Wilborn etal. 2006). Stimulation of pro-
tein synthesis was already reported in the 1960 (Arking and
Shaaya 1969; Burdette and Coda 1963; Okui etal. 1968)
and Bathori etal. (Bathori etal. 2008) reported its anabolic
effect in humans.
Conversely to anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS) that
increase muscle mass mainly through their binding to andro-
gen receptor (AR), no nuclear receptor that is homologous
to the ecdysone nuclear receptor (EcR) found in insects has
yet been described in mammals (Gorelick-Feldman etal.
2008). Ecdysterone has been characterized as devoid of
binding ability to either AR, estrogen receptor (ER, where
ERalpha was targeted), or glucocorticoid receptor (Bathori
etal. 2008; Seidlova-Wuttke etal. 2010). However, only
recently, binding of ecdysterone to the ERbeta could be
shown invitro and in silico (Parr etal. 2013, 2014, 2015b).
An effect even exceeding that of the AAS metandienone
was found invitro (Parr etal. 2015a) and Chermnykh etal.
reported that ecdysterone showed an anabolic effect stronger
than that of metandienone already without combination with
training while metandienone, in contrast, showed no effect if
not combined with training (Chermnykh etal. 1988). Doses
higher than 5μg/kg body weight (BW) were reported as
active while lower doses did not result in anabolic activities
(Bathori etal. 2008; Chermnykh etal. 1988; Wilborn etal.
2006). Even if there are lots of rumors on ecdysterone mis-
use by athletes, only few scientific studies are available to
demonstrate its performance-enhancing effect. After 20days
of supplementation, Azizov reported a significant increase
in running capacity of mice. In forced swimming tests, they
reported that rats supplemented with ecdysterone were
able to swim significantly longer than the control animals
(Azizov and Seifulla 1998). An increased grip strength in
rats was also reported and a phosphatidylinositol-3-phos-
phate kinase (PI3K)-mediated mechanism is discussed
(Gorelick-Feldman etal. 2008).
In contrast to cell culture and animal studies, ecdysterone
supplementation to improve performance has not yet been
extensively investigated in humans. Apart from the working
group around Wilborn (Wilborn etal. 2006), no detailed
investigation in humans has yet been carried out. Therefore,
in our study, we report on the evaluation of the effect of
a long-term administration of an ecdysterone-containing
dietary supplement with a special focus on the increase in
performance during resistance training in humans.
Serum and urine samples were analyzed for endogenous
hormones and liver enzymes. Furthermore, a complete
anti-doping screening was carried out to exclude under-
lying effects from potential cross contaminations in the
Training investigation (in vivo)
Forty-six voluntary healthy male subjects (n = 46) took par t
in the investigation successfully. Six subjects were noticed
as drop out due to missing at more than ten percent of all
training sessions in the study period or personal reasons.
At the beginning, they were 25.6years (SD 3.7 years),
181.9cm (SD 6.3cm) tall and weighed 80.0kg (SD
9.1kg). All subjects provided a 1-year barbell training
experience and ability to perform basic strength exercises
as back squat, deadlift, and bench press. For inclusion
Fig. 1 Chemical structure of ecdysterone
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in the study, all subjects were non-smokers, did not take
any medication or other dietary supplements, and were
injury-free for at least half a year.
This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of
the German Sport University Cologne and carried out
on the basis of the Helsinki agreement in double-blind
design. All participants provided written informed con-
sent prior to their participation. They were assigned to
four different groups (matched according to performance
and body composition): placebo group (PL, n = 12),
ecdysterone1 group (Ec1, n = 12), ecdysterone2 group
(Ec2, n = 10), and control group (CO, n = 12).
Supplements anddosage
As source of ecdysterone, the dietary supplement “Peak
Ecdysone” (PeakPerformance Products SA, Roodt-sur-
Syre, Luxemburg) was used. The product is labelled to
contain 100mg of ecdysterone from spinach extract plus
100mg of leucine.
The volunteers out of the Ec1 group took two cap-
sules of “Peak Ecdysone” per day as recommended on the
label of the product. The Ec2 group took a high dosage
of ecdysterone (eight capsules of “Peak Ecdysone” each
day) over the entire intervention period. The PL group
took two placebo capsules each day over the same period.
The CO group took only two capsules of “Peak Ecdysone”
without training. Each group took half of their nutritional
supplementation dose in the morning after breakfast and
the other half on training days immediately after training
or on non-training days in the evening.
Training system
The PL, Ec1, and Ec2 participated in a 10-week resistance-
training program with three training sessions a week and a
two split training plan (details as supplemental material).
Each training plan consists of six barbell exercises for the
whole body. Every training day was followed by a resting
day. In weeks 1–6, the subjects performed three sets of 12
repetitions for each exercise. After week 6, they performed
only three sets with eight repetitions. Participants increased
their training weight (2.5–5kg) under the supervision of
the supervisor every week, except in weeks four and seven
(recovery weeks), starting with an intensity of 70% of their
one-repeat ability (1-RM). The technically correct execution
of the respective exercises was always in focus. If this could
not be guaranteed, the weight was reduced or not increased
according to plan. Before (t1) and after (t2), the training
period medical examination as well as performance evalu-
ations were carried out. Between the tests and the training
intervention, there was a 72–96h break. Endocrinological
and compliance parameters (anti-doping screening) were
also checked after 5 weeks (thalf). The complete examina-
tion procedure is shown in Fig.2.
Outcome measures
Anthropometric parameters
In the pre- (t1) and post-test (t2) medical examination,
anthropometric parameters as weight and height of the par-
ticipants were determined. All subjects were requested to be
sober to the decreases (12h of no food intake). Body compo-
sition (fat-free mass, muscle mass, fat mass, and total body
water) was measured by bio-electrical impedance analysis
using Akern BIA 101 (Akern GmbH, Mainz, Germany).
Fig. 2 Investigation design and procedure
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Test parameters forperformance
After the medical examination, a standardized breakfast
[60g of cornflakes, two bananas, and 300mL of milk (1.5%
fat)] was provided. Afterwards, performance tests were per-
formed as described below. Tests for training effects were
performed as counter movement jump (CMJ, power), one-
repetition (1-RM) back squat (BS, lower body strength), and
1-RM bench press (BP, upper body strength). As measure
for CMJ, the flight time was determined with an optojump
photo cells (Microgate, Bozen, Italy). All subjects had three
attempts with best result being recorded. For the strength
measurements, four warm-up sets were performed (started
with 50% of 1-RM and 10 repetitions followed by weight
increase and number of repetitions reduction), followed by
four maximum force tests. The weight was steadily increased
after a successful test. If a load was not successfully mas-
tered twice in a row, the test was terminated.
Blood andurine samples
Serum and urine samples were collected for further analyses.
Blood serum concentrations of estradiol (E2), testosterone
(Testo), luteinizing hormone (LH), insulin-like growth factor
1 (IGF1), and thyroxin (T4) were determined using specific
immunoassays (ELISAs) at t1 and t2. In addition, serum
concentrations of Testo, LH, and T4 were also determined
at thalf.
To identify potential side effects, clinical parameters for
liver and kidney toxicity were determined in the blood serum
at t1 and t2. Analyzed parameters were creatinine, gluta-
mate–oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate–pyru-
vate transaminase (GPT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase
(GGT). Analysis was performed in a laboratory specialized
in clinical routine diagnostics (Labor Dr. Wisplinghoff,
Cologne, Germany).
Urine samples were used for anti-doping screening to
exclude intentional or unintentional co-administration of
prohibited substances in sports. Furthermore, the urinary
profile of endogenous steroids may also provide evidence on
biological influences potentially induced by the administra-
tion of ecdysterone. The analyses were performed in accord-
ance with the procedures used in the WADA-accredited
Anti-Doping Laboratory of Rome, Italy (Laboratorio Anti-
doping FMSI). According to the technical document, the
“steroid profile” is composed of the following analytes (as
free steroids content obtained from the unconjugated steroid
fraction plus those released from the conjugated fraction
after hydrolysis with β-glucuronidase from E.coli): andros-
terone (A), etiocholanolone (Etio), 5α-androstane-3α,17β-
diol (5αAdiol), 5β-androstane-3α,17β-diol (5βAdiol), testos-
terone (Testo), and epitestosterone (EpiT) as well as ratios
of specific steroid pairs, i.e., Testo/EpiT; A/Testo; A/Etio;
5αAdiol/5βAdiol; and 5αAdiol/EpiT. A detailed descrip-
tion of the analytical methods is given in Supplementary
Statistical analyses
The current version of Gpower (, Universitaet Dus-
seldorf, Germany (Faul etal. 2009)) was used for expres-
siveness and power analysis to determine the sample size.
The data collected were used to test for normal distribution
using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Subsequently, with a
2 × 4 Ankova and Bonferroni test time × group effects and
with paired T test, the individual time and group effects were
analyzed. The current version of SPSS (25.0, IBM Statistics,
Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Significant differences are
set at p < 0.05.
Cell culture investigation ofsupplement activity (in
For invitro investigation of the supplement activity, a
C2C12 cell line-based assay was used. The standard proto-
col for C2C12 cells was adhered to as in Zheng etal. (Zheng
etal. 2018). This myoblast cell line derived from murine
satellite cells has shown its potential as an invitro model
to study muscle hypertrophy. To obtain the test solution,
4.8mg of the capsule content (according to the labelling
2.4mg of ecdysterone and 2.4mg of l-leucine) were dis-
solved in 10mL of DMSO. This solution is diluted 1:1000
(v:v) prior to the assay.
After 48h treatment of the C2C12-derived myotubes with
solutions of the supplement, the diameters of the myotubes
were determined. Reference solutions of dihydrotestosterone
(DHT), estradiol (E2), and ecdysterone were used as con-
trols. The test procedure was performed as three independent
Anthropometrical parameters
After 10 weeks of treatment (training and/or supplement
administration) anthropometrical, medical and performance
parameters were evaluated.
The body weight of pre- and post-tests did not show sig-
nificant differences within all groups (details provided as
in Fig.3, left and in Supplementary Materials). The par-
ticipants from Ec1 and Ec2 increased their body weight
significantly over 10weeks (Ec1 = 2.58kg (SD 1.90kg);
Ec2 = 3.11kg (SD 1.51kg), p < 0.05; *). There is also a sig-
nificant difference in body weight change between Ec2 and
CO (time × group effect, p < 0.05; #). In muscle mass (MM),
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a time effect could also be observed in Ec1 and Ec2 (Fig.3,
right, p < 0.05; *). In change of MM, there was a significant
difference between the PL and Ec2 (time × group effect,
p < 0.05; #). The Ec2 group increased MM more than 2kg
[2.03kg (SD 1.76kg)], while the PL reduced the MM in
average 0.35kg (SD 1.73kg). The Ec1 group also increased
their MM (in average 1.58kg (SD 1.88kg)), but without
significant difference (p = 0.115) to PL. The CO has only a
slight change in the MM of 0.25kg (SD 2.02kg), with no
significant difference to a training group (Fig.3 right).
In fat mass (FM) and total body water (TBW), there was
no significant difference in pre- and post-tests within the
groups and no time × group effect could be observed.
Power andstrength performance
Power performance: counter movement jump (CMJ)
After 10 weeks of nonspecific bounce training, all three
training groups increase their jump height [PL: 1.94cm (SD
1.74cm); Ec1: 2.01cm (SD 1.99cm); Ec2: 2.39cm (SD
1.62cm), details are provided as Supplementary Material].
There are time effects in all three training groups. However,
there is no significant difference in time × group effects in
Strength performance: 1‑RM back squat andbench
All three training groups increased their 1-RM back
squat. The PL group improved their squat from 107.5kg
(SD 15.34kg) to 124.17kg (SD 13.59kg), improvement:
16.67kg (SD 4.49kg), 15.5%). Ec1 had an increase of
18.50kg (SD 6.16kg) from 104.17kg (SD 18.58kg) to
122.71kg (SD 17.90kg) (improvement 17.75%) and Ec2
from 100.50kg (SD 11.06kg) to 120.00kg (SD 13.23kg)
(improvement 19.50kg, 19.4%). However, no significant
difference between the groups and no time × group effect
was observed (Fig.4 left). In the second strength perfor-
mance test parameter, the 1-RM BP, it was observed that
all three training groups increased their performance sig-
nificantly. The PL group had an increase of 3.33kg (SD
Fig. 3 Individual changes in body weight (in kg, left) and of muscle mass (in kg, right) at pre- and post-intervention test, * indicates time effect;
# represents group × time effect (both p < 0.05)
Fig. 4 Results of strength tests performed pre- and post-intervention, 1-RM back squat (left), 1-RM bench press (right), * indicates time effect; #
represents group × time effect (both p < 0.05)
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3.74kg) (relative 3.59%) from 92.71kg (SD 13.46kg) to
96.04kg (SD 11.15kg). In contrast, both supplement groups
increased their 1-RM bench press more than 8kg. In Ec1
an increase from 82.92kg (SD 15.73kg) to 92.50kg (SD
13.73kg), improvement 9.58kg (SD 2.79kg), 11.5%) and in
Ec2 from 88.75kg (SD 13.08kg) to 97.25kg (SD 10.30kg),
improvement: 8.50kg (SD 4.44kg), 9.5%) was observed
(Fig.4 right).
Supplement analyses
The extraction procedure for ecdysterone resulted in an
amount of 6mg ecdysterone per capsule for this product.
In addition, the supplement was checked for the absence
of contamination with other performance-enhancing drugs.
No contamination of these products with substances that are
prohibited in sports was found (Supplementary Material).
Serum sample analyses
Serum concentration ofecdysterone inblood sample
Serum concentrations of ecdysterone were determined in
the groups and results are displayed in detail in Fig.5. As
expected, concentrations increased with time. Furthermore,
dose-dependent values were detected, i.e., the highest ecdys-
terone concentration was obtained in Ec2 group, where vol-
unteers took the highest dose (8 capsules) of supplement.
Baseline values of ecdysterone (concentrations close or even
below LOQ) were seen prior to administration (t1) and in
the PL group.
Endocrine hormone analysis
To investigate potential effects of ecdysterone, training
and combinations thereof on the endocrine system blood
serum concentrations of E2, Testo, LH, IGF1, and T4 were
determined at t1 and at t2. In addition, Testo, LH, and T4
serum concentrations were also determined at thalf.
The average change of the respective serum hormone
concentrations between t1 and t2, normalized for individual
serum concentrations of the participants at t1, is shown in
No changes in serum Testo and LH were seen. How-
ever, in IGF1 serum concentrations, a significantly differ-
ent pattern of change compared to the placebo group (time
effect, p < 0.05; * and time × group effect p < 0.05; #) was
observed. While training resulted in a decrease of IGF1 for
the placebo group at thalf, treatment with ecdysterone could
antagonize this. In E2 each group decreased its concentra-
tion, but only in Ec1, a time effect was observed (p < 0.05;
The decrease of T4 concentrations induced by training
was the same in the ecdysterone groups compared to the
placebo group (time effect, p < 0.05; *). The comparison
with the concentrations determined at thalf confirmed this.
Five-week uptake of ecdysterone resulted in a significant
change in the T4 serum concentrations compared to the
control group (p < 0.05; #) (Supplementary Material). After
10 weeks, there was no significant difference between any
group any more.
Testo and LH serum concentrations were also determined
at thalf (Supplementary Material). In Testo, each group
decreased their concentrations. In PL, Ec2, and CO, a time
effect is also observed (p < 0.05; *) Despite significant dif-
ferences in various endocrinological parameters at different
times, no change can be attributed exclusively to ecdysterone
Biomarker analysis forside eects
Serum concentrations of the biomarkers of liver and kid-
ney toxicity [creatinine, glutamate–oxaloacetate transami-
nase (GOT), glutamate–pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and
Fig. 5 Serum concentrations of
ecdysterone ([ng/mL of serum],
grouped boxpots) in the differ-
ent treatment groups at t1, thalf,
and t2, one outlier (Co group)
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gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT)] did not change signifi-
cantly over the 10-week intervention period for all groups.
Urine sample analyses
No hint on significant alteration of the steroid profile after
administration was detected. No other performance-enhanc-
ing drugs or significant alterations in the urinary steroid pro-
file were detected in anti-doping screening.
In vitro investigation ofthesupplement
C2C12 cells, a myoblast cell line derived from murine
satellite cells, have been used as an invitro model to study
muscle hypertrophy through ecdysterone. After 48h of
treatment, the diameters of myotubes were determined.
The results are compared with different controls (Supple-
mentary Material). The results show an anabolic activity
of the supplement extract (Ecdy cap) invitro. Increased
diameters of C2C12 derived myotubes were detected,
which were significantly different from the control
(time*group effect, p < 0.05; #). Hypertrophy was found
similar to that obtained by dihydrotestosterone (DHT),
estrogen (E2), or pure ecdysterone reference (Ecdy lab).
There are no differences within the treatment with the dif-
ferent hormones.
Fig. 6 Average change of the respective hormone serum concentra-
tions between T1 and T3, setting the individual serum concentrations
of the participants, normalized for individual serum concentrations of
the participants at T1. * Indicates time effect; # represents group ×
time effect (both p < 0.05)
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Our data showed positive effects of ecdysterone on
anthropometric (BW and MM) and performance param-
eters (1-RM BP). These results could be confirmed by the
invitro study. In addition, a dose-dependent effect could
also be observed in various parameters (BW, MM, and
serum concentration of ecdysterone). Furthermore, side
effects that are explicitly attributable to ecdysterone sup-
plementation could not be demonstrated. Negative effects
on creatinine, GOT, GPT, or GGT could not be observed.
Similarly, no significant alteration of urinary steroid
hormones was detected. This suggests that the anabolic
effect of ecdysterone is based on a mechanism that is dif-
ferent than that of testosterone, DHT, and synthetic AAS.
Furthermore, this is also in line with no pseudo-endoge-
nous steroid administration, either as non-compliance to
the study protocol or due to a cross contamination of the
Anthropometric andperformance parameter
The positive effect of ecdysterone administration and
training on body weight (BW) and muscle mass (MM)
could be clearly shown (Fig.3). In both parameters, a posi-
tive time effect was generated in Ec1 and Ec2. In addi-
tion, a dose-dependent effect could be observed. Ec2 (high
dose) additionally showed significant time × group dif-
ferences to CO and PL. Similar positive effects on body
weight and muscle hypertrophy have been demonstrated
in 600mg testosterone administration (Bhasin etal. 1996).
Although the effects are not as strong as with testoster-
one supplementation (in human), significant differences
between PL, Ec1, Ec2, and CO can be detected. These
results are corroborated by the invitro study (hypertrophy
in C2C12 myotubes). The anabolic effects of the Ecdy
cap are similar to the hypertrophic effects of DHT, E2,
and Ecdy lab (Supplementary Material). Similar ana-
bolic effects invitro have been reported earlier by differ-
ent groups (Parr etal. 2014, 2015a; Zheng etal. 2018).
In addition, the positive effect of ecdysterone in various
animal experiments was also demonstrated earlier as well
(Bathori etal. 2008; Courtheyn etal. 2002; Dinan 2001,
2009; Dinan and Lafont 2006; Gorelick-Feldman etal.
2008; Parr etal. Parr etal. 2014, 2015a). As a result, it
can be concluded that ecdysterone has a positive anabolic
effect on muscle growth in humans, similar to cell culture
and animal studies.
In performance, all three training groups increased
their power (CMJ) and strength (1-RM BS, 1-RM BP)
performance significantly. In CMJ, the improvement of
the training groups was most likely due to motoric learn-
ing. Thus, the increased leg strength may have caused the
increase in performance (Wisløff etal. 2004). However,
on average, the jump performance is not fully developed,
so that neural adaptations are more likely to improve the
jump performance. For the training intervention, a lin-
ear periodization model was used, which systematically
increases the weight to maximize strength. In 1-RM BS,
the improvement in each group is similar to the investiga-
tion of Schoenfeld etal. (Schoenfeld etal. 2015) and Joao
etal. (Joao etal. 2014), who also used a linear periodiza-
tion model. This means that the conceptual training design
achieves similar results as the previous studies. Compared
to the strength development during testosterone supple-
mentation and strength training (Bhasin etal. 1996), there
was no significantdifference between the placebo and the
two ecdysterone groups. However, there is a tendency for
an increase in performance by the supplementation of
ecdysterone as well as a dose-dependent effect (Fig.4 left).
This can be confirmed by the enhancement of the aver-
age training weights in the squat of the individual training
groups (Supplementary Material). In upper body strength
development, significant differences between the groups
were observed. Both ecdysterone groups increased their
performance significantly compared to the placebo group
(Fig.4 right). These results are in contrast with Wilborn
(Wilborn etal. 2006), who found no differences between
ecdysterone and the placebo group. The different observa-
tions can be attributed to different training systems as well
as ecdysterone concentrations. Wilborn etal. did not use a
systematic linear training model, but a wave-shaped train-
ing model with individual increase and a different ecdys-
terone concentration. Both factors play a decisive role,
which can lead to different observations. In this study, it
can be clearly recognized that ecdysterone has a positive
effect on upper body performance.
Supplement analyses
The quantification of ecdysterone in the supplements revealed
an amount of 6mg per capsule, which is considerably lower
than the amount labelled on the bottle (i.e. 100mg per cap-
sule). Thus, a daily dose of 12mg of ecdysterone, i.e. 0.15mg/
kg BW in an 80-kg volunteer, was administered in Ec1 and
CO, while the high-dose group (Ec2) received a daily dose of
48mg of ecdysterone or 0.6mg/kg BW in an 80-kg volunteer.
In agreement to this, a dose-dependent increase of ecdysterone
serum concentrations after ingestion (Fig.5) and bioactivity
of the supplement extract in the invitro assay were detected
(Supplementary Material). The label of the supplement also
indicated leucine as ingredient (100mg/capsule). Effects of
leucine administration on skeletal muscle performance have
been reported. However, in these studies, the daily uptake
Archives of Toxicology
1 3
of leucine was in the range of 80mg/kg bodyweight, which
would mean 6.4g in a 80kg person (Borack and Volpi 2016;
Gnanou etal. 2006). Therefore, we can exclude that the small
daily dose of leucine provided via the capsules may have any
relevance for the observed physiological effects in this study.
Serum parameters
Serum concentration ofecdysterone
The determination of ecdysterone in blood serum resulted
in increasing concentrations in all supplementation groups
(Ec1, Ec2, and CO) during the study. A clear dose-dependent
increase in ecdysterone is detected; thus, concentrations in
Ec2 group (administration of 8 capsules) were considerably
higher than in Ec1 and CO group (both administration of 2
capsules). Variances in concentrations in all groups most likely
result from different individual pharmacokinetic parameters
and slightly different time intervals, since last supplement
administration, even if all volunteers administered the last cap-
sule in the morning when also sample collection took place.
Detectable baseline concentrations of ecdysterone (most of
them close to the lower limit of quantification) at t1 as well as
in thalf and t2 of the placebo group (PL) most likely resulted
from regular diet.
Endocrine hormone parameters
During the 10-week intervention study, various hormonal
changes were observed. However, no change can be exclu-
sively related to the supplementation of ecdysterone (Fig.6
and Supplementary Material). Possible tendencies and posi-
tive effects on IGF1 could possibly be explained by intensive
training. Intensive training may negatively affect IGF1, which
could be counteracted by supplementation with ecdysterone
(Fig.6). However, further investigations will be needed to con-
firm this assumption.
Furthermore, an influence of the intensive training on T4
could be determined. There are no differences between the
three training groups (PL, Ec1, and Ec2).
For Testo, E2, and LH, no explicit change by supplemen-
tation and/or training was observed. This corroborates the
assumption that ecdysterone has no direct influence on expres-
sion of Testo, E2, or LH. In summary, further investigations
are, therefore, necessary to obtain more detailed information
on the influence of ecdysterone on hormone expression.
This project demonstrates the performance-enhancing effect
of ecdysterone in humans. Thus, our results strongly suggest
including ecdysterone in class S1 “Anabolic Agents”. As it is
reported in the literature, the mechanism of action of ecdys-
terone appears as independent from the androgen receptor
activation, but it is rather exhibited by the activation of the
estrogen receptor beta. However, further investigations on
the activity of ecdysterone are recommended. They should
also include a controlled administration trial of ecdysterone
in humans to elucidate the metabolism of ecdysterone and
to evaluate possibilities for its improved detection in doping
control analyses.
Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the financial support
from the World Anti-Doping Agency (grant no. WADA 15C18MP).
Dr. Jan F Joseph, Core Facility BioSupramol, Freie Universitaet Berlin
(FUB), Germany, is acknowledged for analytical support and Steffen
Loke, Institute of Pharmacy, FUB, for copyediting.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest The authors declare no conflict of interest.
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... PDs possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic and hepatoprotective properties [24,29]. Previous studies reported that 20E possesses anabolic, neuroprotective, and antitumor effects, restores renal dysfunction, and decreases triglycerides [28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. It has the potential to prevent adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia [35,36], while PA possesses anabolic activity [29]. ...
... The current study aimed to evaluate the phytochemical profile of R. carthamoides rhizomes and roots extract (RCE) via an innovative high-performance thin layer chromatog- PDs possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antidiabetic and hepatoprotective properties [24,29]. Previous studies reported that 20E possesses anabolic, neuroprotective, and antitumor effects, restores renal dysfunction, and decreases triglycerides [28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. It has the potential to prevent adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia [35,36], while PA possesses anabolic activity [29]. ...
... Several reports have proposed the potential of 20E to benefit metabolic disturbances such as obesity [36,68]; in addition, it has been reported to exert anti-diabetic [36,65,69,70] and anti-osteoporotic [71][72][73] effects. Moreover, as a food supplement in humans, 20E was found to increase strength performance with no effect on steroid profile [32]. Both PA and TU have not been investigated as natural compounds with anti-obesogenic effects. ...
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Besides their common use as an adaptogen, Rhaponticum carthamoides (Willd.) Iljin. rhizome and its root extract (RCE) are also reported to beneficially affect lipid metabolism. The main characteristic secondary metabolites of RCE are phytoecdysteroids. In order to determine an RCE’s phytoecdysteroid profile, a novel, sensitive, and robust high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method was developed and validated. Moreover, a comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the effects of RCE and its secondary metabolites on adipogenesis and adipolysis. The evaluation of the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic effects was performed using human Simpson–Golabi–Behmel syndrome cells, where lipid staining and measurement of released glycerol and free fatty acids were employed. The HPTLC method confirmed the presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), ponasterone A (PA), and turkesterone (TU) in RCE. The observed results revealed that RCE, 20E, and TU significantly reduced lipid accumulation in human adipocytes, demonstrating their anti-adipogenic activity. Moreover, RCE and 20E were found to effectively stimulate basal lipolysis. However, no significant effects were observed with PA and TU applications. Based on our findings, RCE and 20E affect both lipogenesis and lipolysis, while TU only restrains adipogenesis. These results are fundamental for further investigations.
... La unión del ligando receptor regula procesos de muda y metamorfosis de insectos. Mediante la translocación del complejo hormona (Ec)-receptor al núcleo celular y posteriormente uniéndose al material genético, modifica la expresión de genes (25) . Sin embargo, la Ec no parecía modificar la síntesis o disponibilidad del receptor en la célula y, mediante estudios cuantitativos in vitro, el complejo hormona-receptor permanecía en el núcleo pese a la disponibilidad de Ec en el medio (22,26) . ...
... De mismo modo, la respuesta celular es dosis dependiente ya que con una posología inferior a 5ug/Kg de peso corporal no mostraban actividad significativa (27) . En modelos animales, principalmente ratas y ratones, la suplementación de la dieta con Ec durante periodos de 20 a 30 días y, en combinación con pruebas de natación, mostró que aquellos individuos suplementados eran capaces de nadar tramos más largos (14,15,25) . Estas conclusiones llevaron a la Ec a ser propuesta como molécula de estudio en humanos y dilucidar si realmente ejerce un poder anabólico y de mejora del rendimiento físico. ...
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Introducción: Los ecdiesteroides presentan cualidades únicas dentro del reino vegetal y animal. Su similitud a esteroides endógenos de mamíferos les otorga actividad biológica sobre el tejido muscular esquelético. Sin embargo, su mecanismo de acción está por definirse en su totalidad. Método: Se realizó una revisión narrativa utilizando la evidencia científica más relevante. Se consultaron de las bases de datos Medline, Google Scholar, Scielo y Wiley, incluyéndose y excluyéndose trabajos acordes a los criterios del autor. Resultados: La actividad de los ecdiesteroides, principalmente de la Ecdisterona (Ec), podría deberse a la interacción con Mas, receptor acoplado a proteína-G transmembrana (GPCR), y la posterior activación del receptor de estrógenos β (ER β) no nuclear. Dicho mecanismo de acción induce la activación de la ruta alternativa del Sistema Renina-Angiotensina-Aldosterona (RAA) aboliendo los mecanismos de degradación muscular y, mediante la activación indirecta de Erβ, se suprime la expresión del gen de la miostatina. Esta actividad biológica pudiera conferir a los ecdiesteroides propiedades farmacológicas óptimas para impedir la degradación proteico-muscular, tales como la regeneración y reparación del tejido. Conclusiones: Ec ha demostrado poseer propiedades farmacológicas interesantes para el abordaje alternativo de patologías musculodegenerativas por sus efectos anticatabólicos. Aunque prosigue la investigación para su implementación en la clínica, esta siendo utilizada en la industria deportiva y en ensayos para el tratamiento de diferentes patologías.
The possible performance‐enhancing effects and medical benefits of ecdysterone (ECDY) have been discussed several times throughout the last decades. In 2020, the World Anti‐Doping Agency include ECDY in their monitoring programme and continued this prevalence study until now. Only little is known about the human metabolism of ECDY besides the first study performed on human subjects in the field of sports drug testing that was already conducted in 2001. Aim of this study was the in‐depth investigation on human ECDY metabolism to improve its detectability and to support the decision‐making processes as to how ECDY can be implemented most effectively into sports drug testing regulations. In a first trial, one male volunteer was administered with threefold deuterated ECDY to enable the detection and potential identification of all urinary metabolites still comprising the deuterium label by employing hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry and high‐resolution/high‐accuracy mass spectrometry. Samples were collected for up to 14 days, and metabolites excreted unconjugated, glucuronidated, and sulphated were investigated. The detected deuterated metabolites were confirmed in a second administration trial encompassing two male and one female volunteers. After the administration of 50 mg of unlabelled ECDY, urine samples were collected for up to 7 days. Besides the already described urinary metabolites of ECDY, more than 20 new metabolites were detected encompassing all expected metabolic conversions including side chain cleavage at C21. A large interindividual variation in the amounts of excreted metabolites was visible, and considerable differences in abundances of early‐ and late‐excretion phase metabolites were observed.
Spätestens mit der Comic-Figur Popeye gilt Spinat als kraftbringend und leistungssteigernd. An seiner anabolen Wirkung scheint tatsächlich etwas dran zu sein. Im Fokus der Wissenschaft stehen die im Spinat enthaltenen Ecdysteroide. Der Beitrag fasst die aktuellen Erkenntnisse zusammen.
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La alimentación y la industria alimentaria no han sido ajenos a los grandes avances en el conocimiento científico y la capacidad de plasmarlo en muy diversas aplicaciones. Tales avances incluyen aspectos de la ciencia de alimentos en su relación con la nutrición, la producción y transformación de alimentos, así como su impacto en la cultura y los hábitos alimentarios. Sin embargo, diversos avances en materia de la química de alimentos, se han abordado con poco entusiasmo; peor aún, se ha encontrado en la química una referencia al origen de muy diversos problemas relacionados con la salud y la seguridad alimentaria, siendo los químicos y a la industria de alimentos que los promueve, los responsables de muchos males que nos aquejan. Esta postura, esencia de la Quimiofobia, es abordada de muchas formas y desde muy diversos espacios de comunicación, en los que prevalece la opinión de activistas, fundamentalistas e incluso promotores de modas y productos alimentarios diversos. Es necesario que los químicos, vía la comunicación racional de la química de alimentos, contribuyan a crear un espacio en el que reivindiquemos la riqueza que hoy aporta el conocimiento de la química y de la química que comemos.
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The phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) is widely used for resistance training (RT). Little is known about its potential ergogenic value and detraining effects post-RT. This study aimed to examine the effects of 20E extracted from Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) on muscle strength and mass, as well as anabolic and catabolic hormones following RT and detraining. Twenty males, aged 20.1 ± 1.1 years, were matched and randomly assigned to consume double-blind supplements containing either a placebo (PLA) or 30 mg/day of 20E for 12 weeks of RT and detraining. Before and after RT and detraining, muscle strength and mass and anabolic and catabolic hormones were measured. This study found that 20E reduced cortisol levels significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the PLA, yet no effect was observed on muscle mass, strength, or anabolic hormones after RT. Subsequent to 6 weeks of detraining, the 20E demonstrated a lower percentage change in 1RM bench press/FFM than the PLA (p < 0.05). Compared to the PLA, detraining throughout the 12 weeks resulted in a lower percentage change in thigh (p < 0.05) and chest (p < 0.01) circumferences, as well as reduced cortisol levels (p < 0.01), with 20E. Our findings demonstrate that 20E supplementation is a promising way to maintain muscle mass and strength during detraining. Accordingly, 20E may prevent muscle mass and strength loss due to detraining by lowering catabolic hormone levels.
Steroids are a unique family of tetracyclic terpenoids that fulfill multiple functions vital to metazoan life. From unicellular fungi to higher plants and mammals, all eukaryotes depend on steroids to orchestrate multiple aspects of their growth, development, and reproduction. The wide array of biological activity of naturally occurring steroids has been exploited in developing therapeutic agents such as antihormones, anesthetics, immunomodulators, contraceptives, and antitumor agents. Nowadays, steroid pharmaceuticals are placed among the most marketed medical products and represent the second largest category next to antibiotics. Therefore, several industrial syntheses were developed for the efficient manufacture of structurally and stereochemically complex pharmaceuticals.
Rationale Recently, there has been a report suggesting that ecdysteroids can enhance sports performance, making them relevant substances in doping control. Hence, it is imperative to examine the analytical characteristics of ecdysteroids in biological samples to identify their misuse in competitive sports. Methods To assess the doping of ecdysteroids such as ecdysone, ecdysterone, ponasterone A, turkesterone, and ajugasterone C, a fast and sensitive extraction and detection method was developed, optimized, and validated using equine urine and plasma. Different extraction techniques, namely, solid‐phase extraction, liquid–liquid extraction, and dilute‐and‐inject, were explored to detect ecdysteroids from equine urine and plasma. Results The most suitable method of detection was solid‐phase extraction using ABS Elut‐NEXUS, while liquid–liquid extraction and dilute‐and‐inject methods encountered difficulties due to the high polarity of ecdysteroids and the presence of significant matrix interferences. Mass spectrometric parameters are optimized on both the Q Exactive high‐resolution mass spectrometer and the TSQ Altis triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. However, the study indicated that the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer exhibited improved limit of detection when analyzing samples. To achieve optimal separation of the analytes under investigation from the matrix interferences, various liquid chromatography columns were compared. The Selectra PFPP LC column with a mobile phase consisting of 0.2% formic acid in water (mobile phase A) and acetonitrile (mobile phase B) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min demonstrated superior performance. Conclusions The findings of this study will significantly contribute to the accurate identification of ecdysteroids, facilitating the investigation of their illicit use in horse racing.
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Background Salvia L. (Lamiaceae) found in almost all countries in temperate and tropical regions. Both S. aegyptiaca L. and S. lanigera Poir. have a rather wide distribution in Egypt (Mediterranean region, Gebel Elba and nearly the whole Sinai). Salvia species showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against several groups of food microorganisms and pathogens, so they are considered as a natural foods preservatives. Aim Investigate the phytochemical profiles of S. aegyptiaca & S. lanigera collected from their natural habitats in Egypt and test the antimicrobial activities of both species against some bacteria and fungi pathogenic strains. Methodology In the present study, S. aegyptiaca and S. lanigera were collected from their natural habitat. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents were measured for aerial parts of both Salvia spp.. The separation and identification of the pure active materials of both Salvia sp. by using LC-MS system (UHPLC-TSQ Quantum Mass Spectrometer). The antimicrobial activities of the ethanol, water and benzene extracts of the two species were tested against different pathogenic strains and compared with the standard antimicrobial drug (Gentamycin). Antimicrobial activity was determined by using agar disk diffusion method. Results The phenolics content in S. lanigera 132.61±6.23 mg/g and S. aegyptiaca 125.19±4.97 mg/g, while the flavonoids content was 35.68±1.84 and 40.63±2.11 mg/g, respectively. Through LC-MS analysis, two compounds were detected in both species; heptadecanoyl coenzyme A, that the highest percentage (13.5%) in S. aegyptiaca and (11.5 %) in S. lanigera. Oenin, in a peak area of 3.1% in S. aegyptiaca and 1.2 % in S. lanigera. Ethanol extract of the two species had the most inhibitory effect against all tested microorganisms that exceeded the effect of the standard, except for Mucor reinelloids which was more sensitive to the water extract. Moreover, S. lanigera ethanol extract showed larger inhibition zone than S. aegyptiaca in all tested microorganisms except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion This study shows the important phytochemicals that improve the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Salvia aegyptiaca and S. lanigera.
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There is an increased interest in obtaining amaranth grain extracts enriched with biologically active substances by deep processing of raw materials with a further prospect of their use as part of specialized multi-purpose food products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of membrane filtration for the extraction of biologically active substances from amaranth grains. Amaranth grain extract was obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis using a proteolytic enzyme followed by membrane treatment. the developed approach made it possible to obtain an extract from amaranth grains - a source of biologically active peptides, 20-hydroxyecdysone and polyphenols (including saponins). In total, triterpene saponins were concentrated in the extract by 8 times, and the phytoecdysteroid 20-hydroxyecdysone was more than 30 times concentrated. The high content of low molecular weight peptide fractions (more than 80%) in the composition of the extract makes it promising to evaluate its antihypertensive and antidiabetic properties in vivo. The presence of 20-hydroxyecdysone in the extract, an adaptogen with a proven effect, opens up the possibility of its use as a functional food ingredient in specialized food products, including for athletes.
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Leucine supplementation has grown in popularity due to the discovery of its anabolic effects on cell signaling and protein synthesis in muscle. The current recommendation is a minimum intake of 55 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹. Leucine acutely stimulates skeletal muscle anabolism and can overcome the anabolic resistance of aging. The value of chronic leucine ingestion for muscle growth is still unclear. Most of the research into leucine consumption has focused on efficacy. To our knowledge, very few studies have sought to determine the maximum safe level of intake. Limited evidence suggests that intakes of ≤1250 mg · kg⁻¹ · d⁻¹ do not appear to have any health consequences other than short-term elevated plasma ammonia concentrations. Similarly, no adverse events have been reported for the leucine metabolite β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB), although no studies have tested HMB toxicity in humans. Therefore, future research is needed to evaluate leucine and HMB toxicity in the elderly and in specific health conditions.
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João GA, Evangelista AL, Gomes JH, Charro MA, Bocalini D, Cardozo D, Simão R, Figueira Júnior A, Silva DCS. Effect of 16 Weeks of Periodized Resistance Training on Strength Gains of Powerlifting Athletes. JEPonline 2014;17(3):102-109. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 16 wks of periodized resistance training on strength gains of 9 elite powerlifting athletes (men, 34.5 ± 5.0 yrs, 175.2 ± 7.8 cm, 94 4 ± 16.7 kg). The levels of strength ratings were determined by the 1RM test and divided into 5 stages (AS): AS1-initial assessment, before the start of periodized training; AS2-end of 1st 4-wk mesocycle and beginning of 2nd mesocycle; AS3-end of 2nd 4-wk mesocycle and beginning of 3rd mesocycle; AS4-end of 3rd mesocycle and beginning of 4th mesocycle; AS5-end of 4th 4-wk mesocycle. Squat, bench press, and deadlift exercises were used to measure muscle strength. There was a significant increase in strength in all exercises and each assessment compared to the pre-training values (P≤0.05). After 16 wks of training, there was a 30Δ% increase in bench press, 33Δ% for squat, and 76.9Δ% for deadlift exercise compared to pre-training values. Thus, the results of this study indicate that linear periodization training applied in powerlifting athletes is an efficient method to increase muscular strength.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of training muscle groups 1 day per week using a split-body routine versus 3 days per week using a total-body routine on muscular adaptations in well-trained men. Subjects were 20 male volunteers (height = 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass = 78.0 ± 10.7 kg; age = 23.5 ± 2.9 years) recruited from a university population. Participants were pair-matched according to baseline strength and then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 experimental groups: a split-body routine (SPLIT) where multiple exercises were performed for a specific muscle group in a session with 2-3 muscle groups trained per session (n = 10), or; a total-body routine (TOTAL), where 1 exercise was performed per muscle group in a session with all muscle groups trained in each session (n = 10). Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for 1 repetition maximum strength in the bench press and squat, and muscle thickness of forearm flexors, forearm extensors, and vastus lateralis. Results showed significantly greater increases in forearm flexor muscle thickness for TOTAL compared to SPLIT. No significant differences were noted in maximal strength measures. The findings suggest a potentially superior hypertrophic benefit to higher weekly resistance training frequencies.
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Increasing numbers of dietary supplements with ecdysteroids are marketed as “natural anabolic agents”. Results of recent studies suggested that their anabolic effect is mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Within this study the anabolic potency of ecdysterone was compared to well characterized anabolic substances. Effects on the fiber sizes of the soleus muscle in rats as well the diameter of C2C12 derived myotubes were used as biological readouts. Ecdysterone exhibited a strong hypertrophic effect on the fiber size of rat soleus muscle that was found even stronger compared to the test compounds metandienone (dianabol), estradienedione (trenbolox), and SARM S 1, all administered in the same dose (5 mg/kg body weight, for 21 days). In C2C12 myotubes ecdysterone (1 μM) induced a significant increase of the diameter comparable to dihydrotestosterone (1 μM) and IGF 1 (1.3 nM). Molecular docking experiments supported the ERβ mediated action of ecdysterone. To clarify its status in sports, ecdysterone should be considered to be included in the class “S1.2 Other Anabolic Agents” of the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency.
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Ecdysteroids are hormones controlling cell proliferation, growth and the developmental cycles of insects and other invertebrates1. They are occasionally present in various unrelated plants for no apparent reason; no phytohormonal function has yet been identified. In certain cases, ecdysteroids are accumulated to high levels in leaves, roots or seeds. Some ecdysteroid-containing plants have been known as medicinal plants for centuries. One of them,Leuzea carthamoides Iljin (Asteraceae), growing in Central Asia, contains 0.4% ecdysteroid in dry roots and 2% in seeds. A pharmacological preparation from this plant, Ecdisten, is already available as a commercial preparation for its anabolic, tonic and other effects, for medical use (review2). It remained problematic, however, whether ecdysteroids were truly responsible for these effects, becauseLeuzea contains a number of other biologically active compounds in addition to ecdysteroids. We extracted and purified ecdysteroids from the seeds ofLeuzea. With 6 g of 96% 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), we made a large-scale feeding assay with Japanese quail to find out whether ecdysteroid alone could duplicate the anabolic effects of the seeds. We found that the 96% ecdysteroid increased the mass of the developing quails in a dose-dependent manner, with the rate of increase proportional to the ecdysteroid content in the seeds; there was a 115% increase in living mass with 100 mg kg–1 of pure 20E compared with 109.5% increase with 100–180 mg kg–1 20E equivalents in the seeds. We conclude that the plethora of growth-promoting, vitamin-like effects induced in vertebrates byLeuzea is mediated by ecdysteroids.
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During the last few years, control within the European Union (EU) for illegal growth promoters in cattle and pigs revealed only a limited number of positives. Analysis of illegal preparations, however, showed that steroids, often (esters of) natural hormones, and β-agonists are still used. Corticosteroids, controlled to a much lesser extent, seem to have become the most important group, while even thyreostats remain. Alarming information was obtained from specific investigations in which a large variety of products were found, some of which had never been reported to be misused in the field of growth promotion. For β-agonists and quinoxaline compounds, analogues of known compounds are synthesised. Other compounds are readily available as they are registered as growth promoters in some countries outside Europe or are allowed for specific veterinary purposes. Some classes of veterinary drugs are misused for their secondary pharmacological effects, e.g. benzodiazepines as feed intake enhancers and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as pale meat-making agents. Several non-traditional substances are suspected to be used in the field of breeding animals. This is the case for growth hormones (GHs) and all substances acting over this anabolic compound, as for instance, orally GH secretagogue. Moreover, ecdysteroids, which according to old Russian studies, have anabolic activity, are actually very easy to purchase on the Internet. Recent findings in different classes of growth promoters are discussed in detail.
Isoflavones have been reported to stimulate muscle growth. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine anabolic activity and associated molecular mechanisms of a soy extract (SoyEx), isoflavone aglycones, and a mixture simulating the composition of SoyEx in C2C12 myotubes. C2C12 cells were differentiated into myotubes. The effects of SoyEx, genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and the mixture of genistein-daidzein-glycitein (Mix) on myotube diameter and number were determined. In addition, the expression of genes and proteins associated with anabolic activity was analyzed. Treatment with SoyEx, genistein, and Mix led to a significant increase of myotube diameter and an increase of the number of myotubes per area compared to the control cell. The increase of diameter by SoyEx was antagonized by an antiestrogen, not by an antiandrogen. Furthermore, gene expressions of insulin growth factor (IGF)-1 and its receptor (IGF-1R), as well as protein expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), were significantly increased by SoyEx, genistein, and Mix. The effects induced by genistein and Mix were comparable to SoyEx. In conclusion, SoyEx displays an anabolic activity in C2C12 myotubes by binding to ER and modulating IGF-1 and MHC expression. Our studies with isoflavone aglycones and Mix indicate that the isoflavone aglycone with the highest anabolic bioactivity in SoyEx is genistein.
1. Treatment of the early last instar larvae with juvenoids caused enormous increase in respiratory metabolism which is referred to as hypermetabolism. During this process the larvae consumed as much as 10 ml of oxygen per gram live weight per hour. It is anticipated that hypermetabolism constitutes part of a physiological "anti-juvenile" mechanism in Dermestes. The effect is associated with considerably enhanced food consumption and excretion. The phenomenon was virtually absent when juvenoids were applied to non-feeding larvae or pupae.2. Single treatment of prepupal stages with large doses of juvenoids induced the formation of several extra-pupal instars. Each of them exhibited a slightly modified type of the U-shaped metabolic course.3. Ecdysterone caused an indirect inhibition of the total body metabolism in the feeding larvae. In the non-feeding, immobile dauerlarvae it slowly increased the metabolic rate over the low maintenance level. In connection with stimulation of the molt cycles by ecdysteron...
Scope: The phytoectysteroid ecdysterone (Ecdy) was reported to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance physical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms particularly the role of ER beta (ERβ). Results: In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy. Hypertrophy induced by E2 and Ecdy could be antagonized with an antiestrogen but not by an antiandrogen. In HEK293 cells transfected with ER alpha (ERα) or ERβ, Ecdy treatment transactivated a reporter gene. To elucidate the role of ERβ in Ecdy-mediated muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ERα (ALPHA) and ERβ (BETA) selective ligands. Ecdy and BETA treatment but not ALPHA induced hypertrophy. The effect of Ecdy, E2, and BETA could be antagonized by an ERβ-selective antagonist (ANTIBETA). In summary, our results indicate that ERβ is involved in the mediation of the anabolic activity of the Ecdy. Conclusion: These findings provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle injuries, sarcopenia, and cachectic disease, but also imply that such a substance could be abused for doping purposes.