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Social Business Model Innovation: A Quadruple/Quintuple Helix-Based Social Innovation Ecosystem

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Social Business Model Innovation: A Quadruple/Quintuple Helix-Based Social Innovation Ecosystem

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Abstract

Social innovation is related to new products, services, and models aiming to improve human well-being and create social relationships and collaborations. The business model innovation (BMI) context can foster social innovation and can be applied in social innovation projects and initiatives. What is important for social BMI is the social mission, which needs to be defined in order to be able to move forward with the strategy, the value proposition, and the best practices of the business. Based on the existing social innovation literature and case studies, this paper proposes an “ecosystem” approach that can provide an integrated framework for social business models. This approach adopts the quadruple/quintuple helix innovation models which are able to promote social innovation, enabling a locus-centric and triple-bottom-line-centric entrepreneurial process of knowledge discovery and exploitation. Such a framework may help to study the role, nature, and dynamics of social co-opetitive fractal ecosystems, given emphasis on civil society, political structures, environment, and sustainability. In addition, the social innovation case studies presented in this paper highlight that targeted open innovation is a key element for social BMI.

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... Therefore, the indications of the study by Christensen et al. [44] promote that the best way to obtain interdisciplinary knowledge is through teaching by challenge-based learning methods and in a collaborative way, then it is possible to infer that this experience can be catalyzed to reach better results when we take advantage of sustainable learning as it is with the participation of an industrial partner in the university education. In this way, it is evidenced that students obtain learning that is closer to the work environment and through the development and evaluation of competencies that are needed to meet the challenges of the SDGs in a faster way; in fact, the trend goes toward that path since when analyzing the benefits of providing higher education based on competencies and emulating professional life in an "even more global way to deal with more complex problems", it can be observed that, for these cases, it is necessary to develop education more robust in meta-competencies such as the complex thinking competency [45][46][47][48]; thus, when these major challenges are presented due to their complexities, the innovation models of multiple helices that incorporate different entities according to the need can and should be applied; these required helices to strengthen a synergy collaboration that corresponds to the academia, the economic sector, local and federal governments, social organizations of all kinds, the media, and the natural environment, among others [49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]. ...
... This model is the most basic and includes academia, the economic sector, and the government [49][50][51]. When it is joined by civil society, one can have the quadruple helix model as shown in the purple square in Figure A1; the way in which the social part can be involved in innovation processes is when it is possible to observe, for example, the incorporation of art, culture, values, ethics, media, democratic management initiatives, or social studies [50][51][52][53][54]. Likewise, a model of innovation with a quintuple helix is presented when the social part and ecology are involved in the basic model of a triple helix [50,51,[54][55][56]. ...
... When it is joined by civil society, one can have the quadruple helix model as shown in the purple square in Figure A1; the way in which the social part can be involved in innovation processes is when it is possible to observe, for example, the incorporation of art, culture, values, ethics, media, democratic management initiatives, or social studies [50][51][52][53][54]. Likewise, a model of innovation with a quintuple helix is presented when the social part and ecology are involved in the basic model of a triple helix [50,51,[54][55][56]. This quintuple helix model is seen in Figure A1 in the green pentagon; in this quintuple helix innovation model, the transdisciplinary, interdisciplinary, natural environmental, and socio-ecological subjects are enhanced. ...
Article
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This study assessed the “creation of technological solutions for electronic devices” competencies evaluation when faculty–industry liaison is available. This experience at Tecnológico de Monterrey (TEC) was developed with challenge-based learning provided by the automotive electronics industry addressing subjects oriented toward some objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The Electronics Engineering faculty and project engineers from automotive electronics and instrumentation companies promote design competencies in college students. This study analyzed the competency performance and outcome results of students who took applied electronics courses for the undergraduate level under the “i-Semester with industrial partner” for one semester and compared results with students that took the course under the traditional program. The competence evaluation was classified into three preliminary domain levels: 1 or low-level, 2 or medium-level, and 3 or high-level. Students were exposed to the conceptual, procedural, and attitudinal contents applied to solve the challenge assigned by the industrial partner. Students with an industrial partner showed a higher engagement, and they were more motivated in learning the subject, compared to students having classes in the traditional way. This study showed that in developing the competency “create technological solutions for electronic devices”, 55 students with an industrial partner obtained higher domain levels than 61 students with the traditional course.
... Strikingly, there are no papers specifically dedicated to the phenomenon of mission-oriented innovation ecosystems included in this list. Instead, articles focus on certain sub-types, such as Carayannis and Campbell's [70] influential work on quadruple and quintuple helix structures for achieving sustainability, as well as the former author's conceptualization of social innovation ecosystems [71]. Looking beyond the journal covers, Table 2 provides an overview of the eleven most cited articles within the full text sample. ...
... Strikingly, there are no papers specifically dedicated to the phenomenon of mission-oriented innovation ecosystems included in this list. Instead, articles focus on certain sub-types, such as Carayannis and Campbell's [70] influential work on quadruple and quintuple helix structures for achieving sustainability, as well as the former author's conceptualization of social innovation ecosystems [71]. Against this backdrop, it is no wonder that E.G. Carayannis is also leading the ranking of the ten most important authors within the sample (see Table 3), co-authoring not only three different papers, but also having the most citations by far. ...
... Figure 7 visualizes the eight potential sub-types (of which one was not empirically found within the analyzed papers, and one is excluded based on conceptual considerations), which will be outlined in more detail in the following. Social Innovation Ecosystems: The first sub-type of mission-oriented innovation ecosystems describes ecosystems which aim to give "answers […] to social needs that will lead to better results for the entire society" [71] (p. 2). ...
Article
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With mounting sustainability challenges, policy makers have embraced the idea of transformative, mission-oriented innovation policies, to direct innovation objectives towards the ‘grand challenges’ in recent years. Against this backdrop, the discourse on innovation ecosystems, bringing together actors from science, industry, government and civil society for collaborative research and innovation, has increasingly gained traction. Yet, their role and architectural set-up in a sustainability context remains rather poorly understood. Complementing a systematic literature review with methods of bibliometric analysis and typology building, this paper introduces a typology of mission-oriented innovation ecosystems. It finds that, depending on the type of mission they are trying to address, ecosystems differ, with both a view to the actors involved, and the specific role taken on by them throughout the innovation process. In particular, it points to an increasingly important role of the state for realizing system-level transformations, underlines the importance of civil society involvement, and highlights research organizations’ need to adapt to new requirements.
... In innovation ecosystems, both technological innovation and social innovation are important, and innovation must be sustainable [15,53], with an ultimate goal of a higher quality of citizens' lives [54]. Sustainable innovation is defined as 'innovation that improves sustainability performance, where such performance includes ecological, economic, and social criteria' (p. 2) [55]. ...
... Participants in a place-based innovation gene, with its enhanced adaptive ability, are increasingly interconnected with their counterparts in other innovation genes. • Actors in collaborations or interactions develop co-innovation networks in which indirect relations between actors become increasingly important [2,46,48,53,61,62,66]. ...
... Sustainable innovation helps to avoid or resolve environmental challenges [53,72]. Co-evolution/co-creation relations between innovation genes, social structures and the environment • Innovation genes, social structure and the environment influence one another in the processes of value co-creation [15,74] and co-evolution [59]. ...
Article
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This study investigated the role of public policy in transforming innovation systems into innovation ecosystems. Despite the numerous studies that examined the role of innovation policies in promoting innovation systems and the increasing attention paid to the transition from innovation systems to innovation ecosystems in the literature, research on the role of public policy in facilitating this transition is sparse. To develop an analytical framework that identifies factors to be considered in policies that facilitate the transition towards innovation ecosystems, we synthesised the literature that investigated (1) the role of policy in innovation systems, (2) new features of innovation ecosystems and (3) the relations between (transformative) policies and innovation ecosystems. To identify these factors, we also drew on the concept of policy layering and the neo-Triple Helix model of innovation ecosystems. Specifically, we identified the following factors: the willingness and capacity of innovation actors to develop cross-boundary interactions on a global scale; an institutionalised civil society based on bottom-up media; and the prevailing sustainability ethos in economic, social and environmental dimensions. These can be used to design and evaluate policies that promote sustainable innovation and development as core features of innovation ecosystems.
... Indeed, social innovation is able to sustain the rise of new governance arrangements at local level, acting as a mechanism through which new social relations are generated within communities, allowing actors of different nature to collectively take decisions over new local social needs (Moulaert et al., 2013). This perspective led scholars to associate social innovative practices with the concept of quadruple helix (QH) collaboration between government, industry, university and civil society (Howaldt et al., 2016;Carayannis et al., 2019;Domanski et al., 2019). What emerges from these contributions is that QH partnerships could be useful governance arrangements to manage social innovation projects addressing pressing societal challenges or wicked problems. ...
... What emerges from these contributions is that QH partnerships could be useful governance arrangements to manage social innovation projects addressing pressing societal challenges or wicked problems. Nonetheless, there is a lack of empirical evidence since very few studies have addressed this issue (Carayannis et al., 2019). At the same time, a growing number of scholars are putting their efforts in disentangling the role that universities may play in social innovation (Benneworth and Cunha, 2015;Bayuo et al., 2020). ...
... Social innovation is related to new products, services, and models aiming to improve human well-being and create social relationships and collaborations (Carayannis et al., 2019). ...
... According to Carayannis et al. (2019) the business model innovation (BMI) context can foster social innovation and can be applied in social innovation projects and initiatives. Hybrid organizations like social purpose organizations frequently innovate their business models (BM) due to environmental constraints aiming to create social value while striving for economic viability (Klein et al., 2021). ...
Article
In the latter, there has been an increasing importance attributed to the measurement of social value and social impact that various organizations create. The demand to measure this value comes from all sides: funders who want to direct their money to the most effective projects, policy makers and government officials must be accountable for their spending decisions, and social organizations need to demonstrate their impact to financiers, partners and beneficiaries. This article intends to classify social companies through theoretical types and analyze their characteristics to understand social innovation. The first stage of the project was the elaboration of the theoretical framework on the themes of social enterprise, typology of social enterprises, social business model and social innovation. The research instrument was an interview guide, and the next step was to select three social companies of different types to carry out the empirical research. These typologies were tested in three social companies in the empirical research and the effectiveness of the typologies was proven.
... This may be even more valid when the socially innovative activity is also technologically intensive (Del Giudice et al. 2019), requiring a further effort in embedding technologies within a complex societal scenario. Svirina, Zabbarova, and Oganisjana (2016) claim that effective social entrepreneurs are requested to exploit open innovation paradigms more frequently than conventional entrepreneurs, while Gupta, Dey, and Singh (2017) and Carayannis et al. (2019) argue for the necessity of mixing up social and open innovation within the field of social economy and entrepreneurship. ...
... In this paper, we propose that the inherently collaborative nature of social-tech innovation (Scillitoe, Poonamallee, and Joy 2018;Carayannis et al. 2019;Ibáñez et al. 2021) and the centrality of proximity and dense multistakeholder 'ecological' relations for social enterprises (Pinch and Sunley 2016;Scillitoe, Poonamallee, and Joy 2018;Haugh et al. 2021) suggest the use of to an ecosystemic lens (Surie 2017;Del Giudice et al. 2019;Terstriep, Rehfeld, and Kleverbeck 2020) to study suitable configurations enabling technology transfer and adoption in social entrepreneurship. ...
Article
Social-tech enterprises are organizations that create social value by employing technological innovation as part of their value proposition. The complexity and the cross-institutional character which link technological innovation to social business models makes these organizations inherently ecosystemic in their necessity of developing dense interactions to enact their social and technologically innovative objectives. This paper investigates which ecosystem configurations can enable the technological development of social entrepreneurship. Indeed, the research analyses European clusters of social innovation to understand if clusters can represent a viable ecosystemic option to promote technology transfer and adoption by social enterprises. Results reveal that current social innovation clusters display peculiar features as the necessity of bilateral networking with specialized actors, the low weight attributed to physical proximity, and the scarcity and informality of technology transfer processes. These elements, which are not typically displayed by a traditional cluster model, suggest considering different ecosystemic strategies to actively promote the technological development of social enterprises or for reconceptualizing clusters towards a demand-side perspective. Despite such a claim, our evidence shows that specific cluster configurations involving openness, low specialization on social economy, high cognitive proximity and structured governance models may informally unleash the generation of jacobian externalities fostering technological development.
... The ecosystems metaphor furthermore allows taking a wider perspective as well, one that looks at the role of economic actors from a societal perspective (Carayannis, Grigoroudis, Stamati, & Valvi, 2021). This is of interest for decisions on a policy level where an innovation ecosystem not only has the role of creating profits for individual organisations but potentially has a broader impact on societal stakeholders. ...
... The quadruple helix refers to the interaction between academia, industry, the state and media in structuring ecosystems. In a more recent publication Carayannis et al. (2021) extend this idea to the quintuple helix which explicitly includes civil society and the natural and social environment. Carayannis and Campbell argue that these factors lead innovation ecosystems towards a "democracy of knowledge". ...
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The concept of innovation ecosystems has become prominent due to its explanatory power. It offers a convincing account of innovation, explaining how and why innovation pathways change and evolve. It has been adopted to explain, predict, and steer innovation. The increasing importance of innovation for most aspects of human life calls for the inclusion of ethical and social rights aspects into the innovation ecosystems discourse. The current innovation ecosystems literature does not provide guidance on how the integration of ethical and social concerns into innovation ecosystems can be realised. One way to achieve this is to draw on the discussion of responsible research and innovation (RRI). This paper applies RRI to the innovation ecosystems discourse and proposes the concept of responsible innovation systems. It draws on the discussion of the ethics of artificial intelligence (AI) to explore how responsible AI innovation ecosystems can be shaped and realised.
... Considering the challenges of sustainable development, it would be helpful for the public decision-making process to be anchored in a framework connecting actors, knowledge, and innovation with the environment. This is fittingly the promise of the analytical framework of the quintuple helix innovation model [17][18][19][20], which seeks to bring the impacts of societal performance to the natural environment through sustainable knowledge [21]. However, although helix models are widely recognized, the shaping of their dimensions has often been criticized [22,23]; for instance, Barcellos-Paula et al. [24] have pointed out that in applying the quintuple helix innovation model to initiatives, one must have a good understanding of the relevance of the causes and effects of the variables that affect decision making while seeking to achieve harmony among the participating entities. ...
Article
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Recent years have witnessed significant achievements and technological advances in citizen science (CS) projects; nevertheless, significant global challenges are present. Proof of this is in the joint efforts of international organizations to achieve the 2030 SDG agenda in a complex environment. Thus, UNESCO has recognized CS as being among the initiatives that could bridge the Science, Technology, and Innovation gap as a substantial resource, given its power to bring the general public closer together. Although tech-based CS projects keep rising, there is limited knowledge about which type of projects might allow participants to develop higher-order complex thinking skills. To that end, this study describes a systematic literature review (SLR) and analysis of 49 CS projects over the last 5 years concerning the technology utilized, the level of citizen involvement, and the intended social impact. The results of the analysis evidenced: (a) broad implementation in Europe on issues of the built environment, disaster risk, and environmental and animal monitoring; (b) prevalence of helix configurations other than the triple, quadruple, and quintuple helix innovation models; (c) a focus on technological developments to improve living conditions in cities; (d) an opportunity to develop applied native technologies; (e) limited development of participants’ complex thinking, when constrained to low levels of involvement; and (f) an opportunity to develop native technologies and promote a higher level of citizen participation, leading to more significant impact whilst developing complex thinking.
... nonprofits, NGOs, and civil society groups) as partners alongside industry and government in the traditional triple helix model can generate the types of intermediary organizations endorsed in this paper. Regardless of whether social purpose organizations are incorporated as "quadruple helix" partners (Carayannis et al., 2019;Miller et al., 2018), or "triple helix twins" (Almeida et al., 2012;Etzkowitz and Zhou, 2006), HEIs can boost social innovation by prioritizing partnerships with civil society alongside partnerships with commercial industry and governments. ...
Preprint
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Purpose: This paper aims to illustrate how dispersed institutes of social innovation operating as intermediary actors within higher education institutions (HEIs) may help overcome many of the institutional bureaucracies and structures that inhibit social innovation in higher education. Approach: This paper reviews core conditions for social innovation, along with the opportunities, challenges, and tensions that emerge as HEIs work to apply these conditions in practice. It then describes how dispersed institutes enact principles of decentralization, localization, and collaboration in pursuit of social innovation. Findings: Five main ways that dispersed institutes enable social innovation were identified in this review, including: bridging academic-practice divides, enabling co-creation and co-production with users, facilitating experiential and co-curricular education, supporting interdisciplinary collaborations, and generating customized and place-based solutions. Practical implications: Findings suggest four strategies that HEIs can employ to support dispersed institutes, including: prioritizing social purpose organizations as institutional partners, incentivizing public engagement and collaboration, leveraging their convening power to strengthen global networks among dispersed institutes, and using budgeting models that reflect the importance of creating both economic and social value. Originality: While innovation labs in HEIs have long been a feature of natural sciences and technology services, they are still comparatively new for the social sciences and humanities. This paper addresses a gap in literature on the value contributed by dispersed institutes of social innovation operating within HEIs such as living labs, makerspaces, incubators and excubators, social innovation parks, cooperation accelerators, and technology transfer offices.
... Since the integration of the Quadruple and Quintuple Helix innovation concept new players were added to the framework challenging firms to rebuild their strategies. The role of social and environmental involvement in the innovation practices takes into account the civil society, its opinions and needs as well as product redesign considering the inclusion of responsible practices in the innovation process [33]. In this line, the empirical results evidence the influence of the user-community in the innovation strategies, which has showed a positive and significant impact in the model tested, as expected, when the user and others are involved in the co-creation process the effect is twofold: first, the demand is naturally satisfied as they were involved in the development of new innovations. ...
Conference Paper
Rapidly changing environments place different players at the vortex of the innovation process. Therefore, in the digital age, strong businesses are sometimes built on perceptions and on the approval of the community. The shift from linear value chains to ecosystems is likely to occur in 4.0 organizations adopting service or customer orientations, according to their participation in networked ecosystems. Moving from organization-centered innovation to ecosystem co-creation will approach individuals and institutions thus enhancing sustainable and smart product development along with trust. Embedded innovation is a self-sustained process in which the firms and stakeholders interact in a common environment creating a common identity. Empirical results reinforce the role of open innovation strategies and the user community as pillars of sustainable innovation ecosystems. Policy actions need to reinforce these ecosystems as they will generate employment encompassing innovative and inclusive growth, fostering the resilience of societies and environmental sustainability.
... Esto, por un lado, haría frente al actual debilitamiento, desvalorización y externalización de la inteligencia que sufren los SSP (Repullo & Freire, 2016), al menos respecto a las políticas de innovación. Por otro lado, el análisis sistematizado realizado por estas unidades de IC permitiría comprender mejor las dinámicas y relaciones entre los distintos subsistemas en un modelo de innovación complejo, como el de la quíntuple o cuadruple-quintuple hélice (Carayannis et al., 2012, Carayannis et al., 2019, permitiendo a los decisores en el ámbito sanitario facilitar la innovación a través de la creación de estructuras de apoyo, financiación, asesoramiento, y la formulación de políticas adecuadas que favorezcan no solo una interacción competitiva de las partes interesadas en el ecosistema de innovación, sino también una orientación colaborativa y co-creativa. ...
... Esto, por un lado, haría frente al actual debilitamiento, desvalorización y externalización de la inteligencia que sufren los SSP (Repullo & Freire, 2016), al menos respecto a las políticas de innovación. Por otro lado, el análisis sistematizado realizado por estas unidades de IC permitiría comprender mejor las dinámicas y relaciones entre los distintos subsistemas en un modelo de innovación complejo, como el de la quíntuple o cuadruple-quintuple hélice (Carayannis et al., 2012, Carayannis et al., 2019, permitiendo a los decisores en el ámbito sanitario facilitar la innovación a través de la creación de estructuras de apoyo, financiación, asesoramiento, y la formulación de políticas adecuadas que favorezcan no solo una interacción competitiva de las partes interesadas en el ecosistema de innovación, sino también una orientación colaborativa y co-creativa. ...
... This approach emphasizes that entrepreneurship occurs in a community of interdependent actors, focusing on the role of the social context in promoting entrepreneurship (Stam, 2015). To better understand how the relationship between different actors can promote the creation of social innovations in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, we use the lens of the Quintuple Helix (Carayannis, Grigoroudis, Stamati, & Valvi, 2019). This research aims to understand the relationship between the roles of participants in an entrepreneurial ecosystem that works towards the promotion of social innovation. ...
Conference Paper
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The growing social inequality that plagues the lives of billions of people around the world requires the search for alternative ways for transformation. Social Innovation (SI) emerges as a means to question the structures and policies that are not able to eliminate problems of this nature. It is understood that SI is related to solving society's current problems and creating connections among involved actors to facilitate new forms of action (Bennewordt & Cunha, 2015). Along these lines, the entrepreneurial ecosystem can be considered a driver of social innovations (Howaldt, Kaletka, & Schröder, 2017). This type of inter-organizational relation can be viewed as a set of actors and factors that are interdependent and coordinated to enable entrepreneurship within a given space. This approach emphasizes that entrepreneurship occurs in a community of interdependent actors, focusing on the role of the social context in promoting entrepreneurship (Stam, 2015). To better understand how the relationship between different actors can promote the creation of social innovations in the entrepreneurial ecosystem, we use the lens of the Quintuple Helix (Carayannis, Grigoroudis, Stamati, & Valvi, 2019). This research aims to understand the relationship between the roles of participants in an entrepreneurial ecosystem that works towards the promotion of social innovation.
... e resources can come in various forms, including human resources or human capital, financial resources or financial capital, and intellectual resources such as patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Carayannis, Grigoroudis, Stamati, and Valvi agreed with the above claims, stating that identifying the resources that the business needs to achieve its objectives under key activities is the most effective way to improve the firm's competitiveness, as well as boost its marginal earnings [16]. ...
Article
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The Business Model Canvas (BMC) is a strategic model for developing business organizations’ roadmap toward achieving their goals. While several organizations utilize the Business Model Canvas (BMC) to establish and operate their businesses well, the utilization of BMC seems to be limited in the local market of Saudi Arabia, especially when businesses utilize electronic business channels. This paper aims to explore the status of the utilization of BMC among Saudi SMEs, as a critical sector. The paper highlights the awareness and practice of BMC’s nine factors before and during the operation of e-commerce stores by Saudi SMEs. Then, it aims to explore the significance of practicing those factors in increasing the satisfaction level of running businesses. In this paper, a quantitative survey was distributed conveniently to 200 SMEs in the two largest Saudi cities, which are Riyadh (the capital) and Jeddah (the country’s main seaport), resulting in 63 valid participations from different industries. After operating e-commerce stores, most SMEs gained more knowledge of five BMC factors: key partners, value propositions, customer relationships, customer segments, and cost structures. Meanwhile, they found some issues in the other four factors: key activities, key resources, channels, and revenue streams. The proposed method exposes the variety of results and indicates a lack of understanding of BMC by the examined e-commerce SME samples, as they depend on traditional methods of identifying the elements of each of the BMC factors.
... OECD, 2013). The need to share knowledge between university and industry has become gradually obvious in recent years (Carayannis, Grigoroudis, Stamati, & Valvi, 2019). ...
... The value of creative civic leadership in developing innovations to deal with complex social issues and create sustainable local places is increasing recognised (Hargreaves and Hartley, 2016;Timms and Heimans, 2018). The creative power of civic leadership stems from the connected capabilities of individuals, community groups and different types of organisations, such as social enterprises, voluntary sector organisations and public sector bodies, universities, local media, local businesses and local governments (Carayannis et al. 2019). Design is often an important part of creative civic leadership: 'civic design leadership' refers to the collective capability of people to carry out design work that is required to shape and develop civic action. ...
... In Section 4.2.2, we build a processual framework of SBMI, along with supporting tools, methods, activities and practices. However, there was a clear absence of publications targeting the role of open innovation, considered critical for mainstream BMI, with notable exceptions of [116][117][118]. This is surprising, considering the high relevance of multiple stakeholders' integration and engagement for SBMI [119]. ...
Article
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This research aims to understand how sustainable business model innovation (SBMI) can learn from business model innovation. For this, first, we conducted a bibliometric analysis to evaluate the relationships between business model innovation and SBMI literature. After this, we performed a systematic literature review to create a comprehensive framework for managing SBMI. The bibliometric analysis showed that the SBMI stream grew quickly and significantly in recent years, evolving into a separated new research stream, which does not leverage recent business model innovation advancements. Through the performed analyses, we were able to discuss critical gaps in the SBMI literature and shed light on possible pathways to solve these gaps through lessons learned from business model innovation. We depicted five critical gaps for managing SBMI; (1) the need to understand the sustainable business model as a wicked problem, in which SBMI leads to “better than before” solutions calling for systematic SBMI, (2) the poor definition of distinctive dimensions of dynamic capabilities for SBMI, (3) the lack of studies exploring the role of open innovation for improving the SBMI process, (4) the lack of tools supporting SBMI implementation and (5) the need to explore game-changing, competitive advantages of SBMI. The findings of this study contribute to guiding future research on SBMI, which can be a basis for further efforts towards sustainable development.
... The concept of quadruple helix has been influential in the context of EU policies because it offers a dynamic framework that can facilitate the communication among policy-makers and promote innovation in an ecosystem (Carayannis et al., 2021). This notion of quadruple helix can also be found in the influential EU Open Innovation 2.0 paradigm (Open Innovation 2.0, 2013), in which co-creation plays an important role because "government, industry, academia and civil participants work together to co-create the future and drive structural changes far beyond the scope of what any one organization or person could do alone" (Open Innovation 2.0, 2013). ...
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The last decade we saw an increasing academic, policy, and professional interest in the use of co-creation to tackle societal challenges. Most research focused on qualitative analysis of case studies. This led to an understanding that co-creation is essential for social innovation. We started this paper by analyzing co-creation strategies ex ante to understand how EU-funded consortia intend to tackle societal challenges. By quantitatively analyzing 300 EU projects and qualitatively analyzing the Horizon2020 “co-creation for growth and inclusion” call, our research revealed four different types of consortia. We characterized these types by the coordinators and dubbed them, respectively, as research led, government led, enterprise led, and other led. These consortia were quite different in terms of diversity and preferred partners. We also distinguished three distinct co-creation strategies that are focused on inclusion of stakeholders, the outcome, or tool development. We discovered that these strategies are not linked to types of consortia or projects, but only to the call text. We therefore conclude that the policy design of Horizon2020 led to a program that aims to stimulate innovation, but has become too rigid to be able to do so. © 2021 The Authors. European Policy Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Policy Studies Organization.
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Entrepreneurial ecosystems remain under-theorised and conceptually fragmented, making it challenging to comprehend their disposition and performance in the business process. Accordingly, in this research, we explored how knowledge sharing flows through entrepreneurial ecosystems to make analyses and trials to assess new ventures' creation, continuity, and development opportunities. We carried out a systematic literature review on the Web of Science database. The analysis was carried out in two stages: (i) content analysis using NVivo software and (ii) statistical processing and clustering with the support of VOSviewer and Bibliometrix software. Moreover, we reviewed entrepreneurial literature and proposed conceptual model mapping relations through all main actors and knowledge flow in ecosystems. Our findings suggest the knowledge path in the near field sharing mechanisms resulting in a new conception of traditional structures and relations used to judge and decide how to assess opportunities for new ventures' opening, maintenance, and growth. This study contributes to entrepreneurial literature, demonstrating knowledge sharing flow through entrepreneurial ecosystems, considering an embracing, dynamic, and multilevel approach. Furthermore, it highlights political and social contributions to include new emergent perspectives: resource scarcity and structural and institutional gaps. This representation is the first knowledge management model applied to different economies and areas, respecting their singularities.
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If we have any hope of achieving sustainability, we, as researchers, need to develop a new perspective on universities and multistakeholder engagement. Stakeholder theory teaches us that engaging stakeholders in specific transactions and interactions can foster the sustainable development. But solving the grand challenge of sustainability requires more. Universities need to see themselves as part of a great network of stakeholders where interactions, knowledge, and data management go beyond the entrepreneurial university paradigm. Hence, in this article, we present Oztel's concept of a fourth-generation university as a launch-point for broadening the discourse on higher education's third mission. We establish a new stream of inquiry through four main propositions for research and technology management. Further, we call for interested scholars to pioneer this field with an inexhaustive list of potential avenues for future research. University managers, researchers, and policymakers should find great insights into the future evolution of sustainable development and its soon-to-be intrinsic place in the fabric of teaching, research, and society.
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The debate on innovation systems has recently been improved through the development of more dynamic and forward-looking approaches. Scholars and researchers have started to reserve attention for System Dynamics, a widely used methodology for modelling complex socio-economic systems. Moreover, recent innovation models such as the Quintuple Helix framework call for an effort for better understanding and forecasting relationships among ecology, knowledge and innovation, deeply analysing synergies among economy, society, and democracy. This paper focuses on the relationships between the Quintuple Helix and System Dynamics modelling from a quantitative perspective. It discusses how the application of Network Analysis metrics advances the understanding of an innovation system mapped with a Quintuple Helix model. Using Global Innovation Index, a Casual Loop Diagram has been designed representing the process of knowledge generation and innovation dissemination within the Quintuple Helix model. Identification of structural features within Causal Loop Diagrams through Network Analysis is likely to provide new insights into the emergent properties of an innovation system seen as a complex system. Meanwhile, analysing central drivers has the potential to identify leverage points. Results obtained show the benefits of coupling Network Analysis with System Dynamics modelling and valuable evidence of relationships among helices.
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This study provides a systematic review of the literature on innovation research (IR) over the past two decades. We used data-driven approaches integrating network and natural language processing techniques on 41 innovation core and ancillary journals to characterize the IR landscape. Contrary to previous efforts, we explored knowledge in the whole IR field from general and specific patterns of growth and interaction using cluster-and term-based data and macro-and micro-level perspectives, respectively. Our results helped us uncover the changing features of the IR landscape in recent years: (i) a strong move into social-and sustainability-driven innovation; (ii) the merging of products and services into business model innovation; (iii) the more influential role of stakeholders such as the government and the general public; (iv) the use of global analytical perspectives while considering local contexts; (v) the importance of greater visions “pulling” innovation; (vi) the greater role of “soft” issues such as behaviors; and (vi) a shift into sectoral, geographical, and methodological diversification. Building on these aspects, we developed an emerging model for future innovation research and a series of IR propositions. Our findings help generate opportunities to build future innovation capabilities in research, practice, and education.
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Collaboration between industry and academia necessitates the management of entrepreneurial dynamics within ecosystem contexts. However, such partnerships perpetuate numerous challenges that, without effective management, can impact upon the ecosystem as a whole. Limited research to date has addressed the challenges affecting these university-industry partnerships and ascertained their impact upon ecosystem management. This study identifies the challenges pervading university-industry partnerships across entrepreneurial ecosystems, with a view that through an exposition of such challenges, more specific strategies could be implemented to address them. Questionnaires were distributed to key ecosystem stakeholders, requesting their perceptions of the key challenges affecting their collaborative relationships. Empirical data was analysed utilising fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis to deduce the configurational nature of the conditions. Results reveal mutually exclusive solutions grounded upon distinct combinations of conditions, constituting distinct pathways to ineffective ecosystem management. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed, as well as acknowledged limitations of this study and suggestions for future research.
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As the digital revolution accelerates and expands in the business world, governments must transform the workforce experience to drive the economy and align it with the changes of the future. In this paper, an innovative and advanced methodological approach for assessing the composite relational dynamics supporting innovative and sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystems is investigated. This research uses the hierarchical decision model (HDM) to construct a generalized ecosystem assessment framework for entrepreneurship and innovation ecosystem strategies to increase the adoption of innovation in sustainable entrepreneurship. The research focuses on the policies and strategies generating all kinds of innovations and propose a model with a comprehensive set of measures to help policy and strategy development.
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Since project management is inevitably a social effort involving all relevant actors, social aspects have to be emphasized when considering collaborative project management. Social innovation focuses on reacting to social demands and developing innovative solutions to overcome various social issues. Therefore, determining the social innovation potential in the project management process is very important. The main purpose of this study is to propose a Fuzzy Analytic Network Process (FANP) and Fuzzy VIKOR (FVIKOR)‐based decision model to determine the social innovation potential of technological projects. The results of FANP revealed that the most important criteria for determining social innovation potential of projects are financial resources, technological developments and social capital. Furthermore, FVIKOR was used for ranking social innovation potential of the selected technological projects. There are several managerial implications of this study. First, we suggest that practitioners should integrate the proposed model into their project evaluation processes. Second, they can also use this model to define the social innovation factors during project selection. Lastly, the proposed model can be employed to prioritize the social innovation factors that enable managers to allocate the appropriate resources to project management process.
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The literature has shown the importance of incorporating civil society into the regional innovation system to favor companies’ long-term growth. This research aims to carry out a systematic review on the definition and classification of society in the innovation model based on the contexts that relate to the university, business, and government. The results show that the concept of civil society has been approached in the literature from four perspectives: demand-side, media and culture, independent non-profit, and intermediary organizations. These results may help clarify the concept of civil society, having significant implications for academics and companies, and regional innovation agencies that promote the participation of civil society in their innovation systems. © Universidad Alberto Hurtado, Facultad de Economía y Negocios.
Article
Purpose Innovation ecosystems face many environmental challenges. The literature review shows that innovation ecosystems accelerate innovation activity, but empirical studies have not provided enough case studies focusing on the minimum-waste business strategy as one aspect of the circular economy. Various forms of interaction between members occur in the innovation ecosystems, which determines the level of cooperation. This paper aims to show the structure and forms of cooperation in an innovation ecosystem using the Czech Hemp Cluster (CHC) and its surroundings and suggest research directions in the field of interaction between members in an innovation ecosystem. Although hemp is associated with the production and distribution of narcotics, it is a versatile plant supporting the minimum-waste business strategy. Design/methodology/approach The research is based on a theoretical part of a literature review of major scientific articles on innovation ecosystems from 2016 to 2021. The case study of the CHC and the hemp ecosystem is based on qualitative research in the form of a content analysis of the mission of the cluster members. In addition to content analysis, the classic multidimensional scaling method and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to reveal ecological guilds. Findings The case study highlighted the specific relationship between the cluster and the ecosystem. The cluster does not determine the ecosystem boundaries, but the ecosystem is a much broader system of cooperation and interaction between organisations. Clusters emerge after an ecosystem has existed for a particular time to coordinate collaboration and information between organisations and stakeholders. The analysis of the CHC revealed the specific role of non-profit organisations (NPOs) in the innovation ecosystem. NPOs are not engaged in primary functions in the value chain, but they provide supporting activities through coordinated networking, disseminating information on innovation, awareness-raising and stakeholder education. Compared to natural ecosystems, innovation ecosystems are typically characterised by higher forms of collaboration between members. Research limitations/implications An exciting opportunity for research on innovation ecosystems is the ecological guilds taken from natural ecosystems and whose identification can help define the boundaries of innovation ecosystems. An opportunity for further research is the comparison of NPO-based and government-based clusters playing a central role in developing innovation ecosystems. Regarding the problematic generalisability of the case study to the entire agricultural production, a challenge is a search for minimum-waste business models in agriculture characterised by the biological nature of production. Originality/value Theoretical and empirical studies have not yet considered innovation ecosystems in the minimum-waste context to a sufficient extent. The paper builds on previous scholarly studies focusing on innovation ecosystems and, for the first time, discusses the role of NPOs in the innovation ecosystem. The CHC case study adds a suitable minimum-waste business model to the still very scarce literature on sustainable innovation ecosystems. The article discusses the purpose and forms of cooperation in an innovation ecosystem, identifies a complementarity of roles in the innovation cluster and describes the interrelationship between the cluster and the ecosystem. Discussion of the ecosystem leader in the cluster-based innovation ecosystem shows the differences between Czech, Polish and German life science ecosystems.
Chapter
Rapidly changing environments place different players at the vortex of the innovation process. Therefore, in the digital age, strong businesses are sometimes built on perceptions and on the approval of the community. The shift from linear value chains to ecosystems is likely to occur in 4.0 organizations adopting service or customer orientations, according to their participation in networked ecosystems. Moving from organization-centered innovation to ecosystem co-creation will approach individuals and institutions thus enhancing sustainable and smart product development along with trust. Embedded innovation is a self-sustained process in which firms and stakeholders interact in a common environment creating a common identity. Empirical results reinforce the role of open innovation strategies and the user community as pillars of sustainable innovation ecosystems. Policy actions need to reinforce these ecosystems as they will generate employment encompassing innovative and inclusive growth, fostering the resilience of societies and environmental sustainability.
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In this paper, the concept of business model innovation will be explored in depth. The main objective of this study is to analyze whether, how, and where the business model innovation (BMI) is linked with the organizational design (OD) and the enterprise excellence (EE). This is achieved through a quantitative survey that was conducted with a questionnaire on a sample of 62 small-medium enterprises (SMEs) as well as through the case studies that present the current trends and perspectives of the BMI and led to the creation of a multisectoral typology. Initially, the “Introduction” will provide the basic concepts; in the section “Literature Review,” the theoretical background will be given; the section “Business Model Innovation, Organizational Design, and Enterprise Excellence” aims to describe how these concepts are connected through the existing literature; in the section “DUCCK Model, SKARSE, Targeted Open Innovation, Quadruple Helix, and Examples of Business Models,” these terms will be discussed as well as examples of these will be given; in the section “Current Perspectives and Trends of the Business Model Innovation,” the case studies will be presented as well as the multisectoral typology; the section “Empirical Research Design” will provide information regarding the development of the questionnaire, the survey data and the sample profile, the methods, and the tool that was used; in the section “Results,” both the descriptive and the correlation analysis results will be presented whereas the section “Discussion and Conclusions” will present and discuss a summary of the main results as well as the future extensions. Through the research, the results showed that the BMI can be a driver for the sustainable development and the competitiveness of enterprises whereas, through the case studies and the multisectoral typology, it resulted that each company depending on the sector uses a different type of BMI.
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Innovation and knowledge have been given different roles and weights in the growth economic theories of the last century. This report investigates the theory and the operationalization of the so called ‘helices models’ where the main protagonists of innovation-generating processes (industry, university, government, and, at a later stage, civil society) interact for accelerating the transfer of research and innovation results to regional growth. The analysis is principally carried out from the perspective of local and regional authorities (LRAs) and in the light of the potential impact that the operationalization at the regional level of such models may have on growth, in particular as reference for the development of Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3).
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Effectuation theory invests agency—intention and purposeful enactment—for new venture creation in the entrepreneurial actor(s). Based on the results of a 15-month in-depth longitudinal case study of Amsterdam-based social enterprise Fairphone, we argue that effectual entrepreneurial agency is co-constituted by distributed agency, the proactive conferral of material resources and legitimacy to an eventual entrepreneur by heterogeneous actors external to the new venture. We show how, in the context of social movement activism, an effectual network pre-committed resources to an inchoate social enterprise to produce a material artefact because it embodied the moral values of network members. We develop a model of social enterprise emergence based on these findings. We theorise the role of material artefacts in effectuation and suggest that, in the case, the artefact served as a boundary object, present in multiple social words and triggering commitment from actors not governed by hierarchical arrangements.
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As city authorities are becoming increasingly aware of the concepts 'intelligent city? and 'smart city' they undertake initiatives for designing new e-services that address challenges of development and sustainability more efficiently. However, the existing literature primarily focuses on application development, while the whole city planning process and involvement of citizens and end-users in the design and implementation of e-services for urban renewal is still a largely unknown field. After a literature review on smart city strategies and planning as well as a description of a pilot case for the creation of a smart city district, which was implemented in the framework of the PEOPLE project , the present paper concludes with a holistic approach for planning smart cities and designing e-services collaboratively in the form of a strategic planning roadmap.
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The traditional Triple Helix innovation model focuses on university-industry-government relations. The Quadruple Helix innovation systems bring in the perspectives of the media-based and culture-based public as well as that of civil society. The Quintuple Helix emphasizes the natural environments of society, also for the knowledge production and innovation. Therefore, the quadruple helix contextualizes the triple helix, and the quintuple helix the quadruple helix. Features of the quadruple helix are: culture (cultures) and innovation culture (innovation cultures); the knowledge of culture and the culture of knowledge; values and lifestyles; multiculturalism, multiculture, and creativity; media; arts and arts universities; and multi-level innovation systems (local, national, global), with universities of the sciences, but also universities of the arts. The democracy of knowledge, as a concept and metaphor, highlights and underscores parallel processes between political pluralism in advanced democracy, and knowledge and innovation heterogeneity and diversity in advanced economy and society. The "mode 3" knowledge production system (MODE3KPS; expanding and extending the "mode 1" and "mode 2" knowledge production systems) is at the heart of the fractal research, education and innovation ecosystem. MODE3KPS universities or higher education systems are interested in integrating and combining mode 1 and mode 2. The concept of open innovation diplomacy (OID) encompasses the concept and practice of bridging distance and other divides (cultural, socioeconomic, technological, etc.) with focused and properly targeted initiatives to connect ideas and solutions with markets and investors ready to appreciate them and nurture them to their full potential. In this sense, OID qualifies as a new and novel strategy, policy-making, and governance approach in the context of the quadruple and quintuple innovation helices.
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The term ‘social innovation’ has come into common parlance in recent years. Some analysts consider social innovation no more than a buzz word or passing fad that is too vague to be usefully applied to academic scholarship. Some social scientists, however, see significant value in the concept of social innovation because it identifies a critical type of innovation. In this paper, we suggest one possible definition of social innovation and show that when its empirical meaning is distilled, the term is of great importance. We distinguish social innovation from business innovation, and identify a subset of social innovations that requires government support.
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This paper proposes a model of how incumbents and new entrants engage in sustainable entrepreneurship. We suggest that in the early stages of an industry's sustainability transformation, new entrants (‘Emerging Davids’) are more likely than incumbents to pursue sustainability-related opportunities. Incumbents react to the activities of new entrants by engaging in corporate sustainable entrepreneurship activities. While these ‘Greening Goliaths’ are often less ambitious in their environmental and social goals, they may have a broader reach due to their established market presence. This paper analyses the interplay between ‘Greening Goliaths’ and ‘Emerging Davids’ and theorizes about how it is their compounded impact that promotes the sustainable transformation of industries.
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The Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations is compared with alternative models for explaining the current research system in its social contexts. Communications and negotiations between institutional partners generate an overlay that increasingly reorganizes the underlying arrangements. The institutional layer can be considered as the retention mechanism of a developing system. For example, the national organization of the system of innovation has historically been important in determining competition. Reorganizations across industrial sectors and nation states, however, are induced by new technologies (biotechnology, ICT). The consequent transformations can be analyzed in terms of (neo-)evolutionary mechanisms. University research may function increasingly as a locus in the “laboratory” of such knowledge-intensive network transitions.
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Social entrepreneurship, as a practice and a field for scholarly investigation, provides a unique opportunity to challenge, question, and rethink concepts and assumptions from different fields of management and business research. This article puts forward a view of social entrepreneurship as a process that catalyzes social change and addresses important social needs in a way that is not dominated by direct financial benefits for the entrepreneurs. Social entrepreneurship is seen as differing from other forms of entrepreneurship in the relatively higher priority given to promoting social value and development versus capturing economic value. To stimulate future research the authors introduce the concept of embeddedness as a nexus between theoretical perspectives for the study of social entrepreneurship.
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This paper aims to clarifyi the concept of business models, its usages, and its roles in the Information Systems domain. A review of the literature shows a broad diversity of understandings, usages, and places in the firm. The paper identifies the terminology or ontology used to describe a business model, and compares this terminology with previous work. Then the general usages, roles and potential of the concept are outlined. Finally, the connection between the business model concept and Information Systems is described in the form of eight propositions to be analyzed in future work.
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Regions are increasingly being viewed as eco-systemic agglomerations of organizational and institutional entities or stakeholders with socio-technical, socio-economic, and socio-political conflicting as well as converging (co-opetitive) goals, priorities, expectations, and behaviors that they pursue via entrepreneurial development, exploration, exploitation, and deployment actions, reactions and interactions. In this context, our paper aims to explore and profile the nature and dynamics of the Quadruple/Quintuple Helix Innovation System Model or Framework (government, university, industry, civil society, environment) as an enabler and enactor of regional co-opetitive entrepreneurial ecosystems which we conceptualize as fractal, multi-level, multi-modal, multi-nodal, and multi-lateral configurations of dynamic tangible and intangible assets within the resource-based view and the new theory of the growth of the firm. Co-opetitive fractal innovation and entrepreneurship ecosystems are defined and discussed, and examples of regional innovation policies and programs are presented. Furthermore, the concept of multi-level innovation systems is analyzed, taking into account the existence of knowledge clusters and innovation networks, while alternative aggregations of multi-level innovation systems are proposed based on their spatial (geographical) and non-spatial (research-based) functional properties.
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This special issue links “National Systems of Innovation” with “Social Entrepreneurship” to showcase how social entrepreneurship enables the diffusion of new technologies to make a social impact and engender “creative destruction” through the value generating activities of economic actors ranging from individuals, micro-enterprises to large organizations. The special issue calls attention to the importance of social entrepreneurship in the national system of innovation and the need for analysis at multiple levels ranging from micro to macro. It also calls for research on new actors and models for the diffusion of new technologies in sectors where markets do not exist and where the lack of immediate returns inhibits investment by for-profit organizations. While highlighting the growing prominence of social entrepreneurship at the micro level, the special issue also notes the paucity of measures to account for the impact of social entrepreneurship organizations and the need for more research in this area.
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Purpose Organizations and their members operate in increasingly complex, dynamic and even disruptive environments, with risk and uncertainty being major challenges. To that effect, data, information, knowledge, and respective competences are increasingly instrumental in enabling and sustaining organizational intelligence that translates into resilience in the shorter and sustainable excellence in the longer term. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explore the role of the artifacts and routines in a sustainable organizational excellence context. Design/methodology/approach An extensive literature review was used to develop the context of the paper, focusing on big data and organizational intelligence for enterprise excellence and resilience. In addition, a thematic literature review method was used to study the role and impacts of routines and artifacts in organizational change, policies, structure and performance. Findings Although many traditional management practices retain their validity, knowledge management must give a clearer view of the existing connection between firm-level competitive advantage in open economies flows and difficult-to-use knowledge assets. The proposed framework studies knowledge exploration and knowledge exploitation as organizational phenomena opposed and mutually incompatible. Originality/value The paper presents a first attempt to study the linkages of organizational routines and artifacts as a cycle wherein knowledge acquisition and learning competencies form and enhance a firm’s organizational intelligence, leading to robust competitiveness and sustainable entrepreneurship.
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Cross-sector interactions between university and other sectors are increasingly important in contemporary knowledge production. However, there are few guidelines for conducting such interactions at the micro-level. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of such triple helix interactions. Throughout a six-year project there were increased demands on the researchers to develop applied results and to interact with other sectors. The researchers were challenged to cross boundaries and share their knowledge with participants outside academia. Results show that difficulties in micro-level triple helix collaboration can be related to three different boundaries. These difficulties emerged due to the different expectations of knowledge and variations in the sector-specific ways of working. Results also hint at solutions in the form of boundary spanners, boundary management and a common arena for dialogue.
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In the context of seemingly intractable social challenges such as climate change, environmental destruction, youth unemployment and social exclusion, social innovation has emerged as a potentially sustainable solution. It is often assumed that social innovation can lead to social change (see, for example, Cooperrider and Pasmore, 1991; Mulgan et al., 2007; BEPA, 2010). However, the relationship between social innovation and social change remains underexplored: Rather than being used as a specifically defined specialist term with its own definable area of studies, social innovation is used more as a kind of descriptive metaphor in the context of phenomena of real world problems, social change, and the modernisation of society. (Howaldt and Schwarz, 2010, p. 49)
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This chapter uses social innovation as an analytical concept (Phills et al., 2008) to explore the socially entrepreneurial ecosystem (Bloom and Dees, 2008). Specifically, this chapter aims to contribute to a better understanding of the processes in this ecosystem by investigating how social entrepreneurs emerge and how they locate themselves with regards to the social innovation ecosystem and universities in particular. These issues will be approached from two perspectives: theoretically and through empirical research.
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The STInno project, which was part of the EU Framework Programme 7 aimed to minimise the distance between south–north regions in Europe with a specific focus on wastewater treatment clusters. Three triple helix collaborations from three different countries participated, using their knowledge to work on a case study of olive mill wastewaters. The objective of this paper was to study how the triple helix functioned in practice. Results showed that a management model of the triple helix is somewhat different from the analytical model. A shift between these two views occurred during the project and the participants had to relate to this, as it had an effect on the outcomes. Concepts of social capital and trust are used to further elaborate on this by emphasising the importance of the people side of the triple helix and how the original, analytical model can be limiting when used in management practice.
Article
Organizations are open systems operating under conditions of substantial turbulence, risk (known unknowns), and uncertainty (unknown unknowns) and seeking to balance stability and coherence with flexibility and change in pursuit of higher levels of efficacy and routine excellence. In addition, organizations exist, survive, and prosper on the basis of a sound value proposition and functional business model that helps unlock, capture, and redistribute in an efficacious manner the value added by the organization in question. Despite the increasing amount of literature on Business Model Innovation (BMI), a sound theoretical foundation is still missing, which is also true for the concept of Business Model (BM) itself. However, many scholars argue that a BM can provide a concise framework that explains how firms create and capture value, and clarify how enterprises monetize their innovations. This paper focuses on the effects that can be achieved through BMI, in particular organizational sustainability, resilience, and excellence. The main aim of the paper is to address how organization sustainability and resilience can be achieved with BMI and study the role of different factors in this process. In addition, the present case shows how BMI can be used to overcome commoditization challenges partly by moving from a BM focused on the trade of goods to a BM focused on the trade of tasks. The results show how manufacturers in developing countries can overcome their dependence on commoditized products and OEM manufacturing, while maintaining a sustainable ecosystem.
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The concept of business models and consequently business model innovation has its foundation in corporate practice, strategic management, and industrial economics. However, business models are not a strategy but constitute the core and driver of a strategy as well as the key for decoding, understanding, and effectively communicating a strategy both within an organization as well as across its business ecosystem. As with Business Model, the Business Model Innovation literature is not well developed. This paper focuses on the effects that can be achieved through business model innovation, in particular organizational sustainability. In this regard, the paper focuses on the organizational design and governance and the role different stakeholders, predominantly customers and partners play in the innovation process towards organizational sustainability. Finally, the ways by which organizational performance is influenced by different business models are also explored, aiming to shed light on this theoretical gap. The results provide insights to manufacturers in developing countries, overcoming their dependence on commoditized products and OEM manufacturing while maintaining a sustainable ecosystem. Finally, implications for theory, policy, and practice are outlined along with the suggestions for future research.
Article
The paper aims to generate systematically business model innovations in the field of electric mobility. It introduces a new framework, in which a business model denotes a value-focused concept with five value dimensions: value proposition, value communication, value creation, value delivery and value capture. The framework enables the classification of business model patterns, identified in the literature, according to five categories. The combination of patterns from different dimensions can lead to the systematic generation of business model innovations. But the number of business models that can result from pattern combinations can be overwhelming. Subsequently, the paper only evaluates the extent to which business model patterns that are not necessarily observed in the automotive sector can be useful for the field of electric mobility, and how they can be adapted to fit into the new context. We find that the transferability strongly depends on the actor's role in the system, if it is a manufacturer, supplier or service provider. More importantly, our analysis shows that some models such as product-to-service (e.g., car sharing service), already implemented in the automotive industry, will continue to be successful in the future because of their potential of increasing customer acceptance and technology diffusion. Many other business models-so far used in other sectors, but not in the automotive industry-may integrate the field of electric mobility. Razor and blades, own the undesirable concept, and leverage new influencers are all promising business models, if they can be fitted adequately to the new context induced by the new technology.
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This paper provides an overview of social entrepreneurship and social enterprise, making reference to pertinent literature. Internationally the distribution of social enterprises is uneven and there are noticeable differences that reflect national differences in welfare, labour market and ideology. Essentially however social enterprises seek business solutions to social problems and in order to do so, we argue, it is necessary for social enterprises to foster innovation. The papers included in this volume present different models and theories of how this might be achieved. All the authors place emphasis on the need to develop a sound theoretical platform and raise methodological problems common to management research. Additionally, the papers raise policy issues, such as how outcomes of social enterprise are valued and prioritised in different societies. The work discussed points to how social enterprise may offer innovative solutions to help solve problems of social integration, socially dysfunctional behaviour and socio-economic development. It indicates the need for further research, especially to test further the models comparatively. Finally this body of work builds on and extends our thinking about entrepreneurship, and the need to tie it into social, cultural, civic and political agenda.
Article
abstractInclusive innovation, which we define as innovation that benefits the disenfranchised, is a process as well as a performance outcome. Consideration of inclusive innovation points to inequalities that may arise in the development and commercialization of innovations, and also acknowledges the inequalities that may occur as a result of value creation and capture. We outline opportunities for the development of theory and empirical research around this construct in the fields of entrepreneurship, strategy, and marketing. We aim for a synthesis in views of inclusive innovation and call for future research that deals directly with value creation and the distributional consequences of innovation.
Article
Corporations are continually looking for new sources of innovation. Today several leading companies are beginning to find inspiration in an unexpected place: the social sector. That includes public schools, welfare-to-work programs, and the inner city. Indeed, a new paradigm for innovation is emerging: a partnership between private enterprise and public interest that produces profitable and sustainable change for both sides. In this article, the author shows how some companies are moving beyond corporate social responsibility to corporate social innovation. Traditionally, companies viewed the social sector as a dumping ground for their spare cash, obsolete equipment, and tired executives. But that mind-set hardly created lasting change. Now companies are viewing community needs as opportunities to develop ideas and demonstrate business technologies; find and serve new markets; and solve long-standing business problems. They focus on inventing sophisticated solutions through a hands-on approach. This is not charity; it is R & D, a strategic business investment. The author concedes that it isn't easy to make the new paradigm work. But she has found that successful private-public partnerships share six characteristics: a clear business agenda, strong partners committed to change, investment by both parties, rootedness in the user community, links to other organizations, and a commitment to sustain and replicate the results. Drawing on examples of successful companies such as IBM and Bell Atlantic, the author illustrates how this paradigm has produced innovations that have both business and community payoffs.
Growing social innovation: A guide for policy makers
  • V Boelman
  • A Kwan
  • J R K Lauritzen
  • J Millard
  • R Schon
Business Model Innovation in Social-Sector Organizations
  • Z Lindgardt
  • B Shaffer
Using the business model canvas for social enterprise design
  • I Burkett
Social innovation case studies
  • C Combe
  • F Mendez Navia
Making a social enterprise for the homeless sustainable and a success story!
  • T Spiliopoulos
Building Social Business: The New Kind of Capitalism that Serves Humanity's Most Pressing Needs
  • M Yunus
  • C Weber
Introduction to open and social innovation and how to get started
  • C Kreutz
Penta helix: Conceptualizing cross-sector collaboration and social innovation processes
  • F Björk
Cities of the Future: Global Competition, Local Leadership
  • U K London
The Global Ecosystem for Social Innovation
  • L Pulford
Exploring the quadruple helix: Outlining user-oriented innovation models
  • R Arnkil
  • A Jarvensivu
  • P Koski
  • Y Piirainen
The quintuple helix innovation model: Global warming as a challenge and driver for innovation
  • E G Carayannis
  • T D Barth
  • D F J Campbell
An ecosystem for social innovation in Sweden: A strategic research and innovation agenda
  • J Hansson
  • F Björk
  • D Lundborg
  • L E Olofsson
State of the art report on social innovation. Boosting Social Innovation
  • P Wolkowinski