Article

A multiple case study of inclusive learning communities enabling active participation in geoscience field courses for students with physical disabilities

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Abstract

This article presents a multiple case study exploring the emergence of inclusive learning communities within geoscience field courses designed to enable the active participation of students with disabilities. The purpose is to reflect on the outcomes of three distinct projects and consider what lessons can be drawn from them to help promote and inform the development of inclusive teaching and learning. Drawing from established research on learning communities, a set of core practices are applied as an analytical framework to review student and staff experiences across a range of inclusive field experiences. This cross-case comparison provides critical insights into the instructional strategies for the inclusion of students with disabilities in geoscience field courses. Specifically, this work demonstrates the importance of establishing inclusive learning communities through meaningful site selection, fostering social inclusion, and using technology to mediate access and facilitate collaboration in field-based teaching and learning.

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... In particular, field trips provide hands-on experience with professional equipment and measurement techniques (Fryar et al., 2010;Fuller, 2006;Ghail & Standing, 2020;Malbrecht et al., 2016) and promote professional and study skills like note taking, sketching, and hypothesis testing (Hefferan et al., 2002;Malone, 1999;Wheeler et al., 2011). Field trips can also enhance personal skills like self-efficacy, autonomy, and sense of ownership over work, and interpersonal skills like collaboration, ability to provide feedback, and building a peer network (Atchison et al., 2019;Fleischner et al., 2017;Fuller, 2006;Hefferan et al., 2002;Houser et al., 2011;Larsen et al., 2017;Lei, 2010;Wheeler et al., 2011). Importantly, field trips have been shown to increase student learning gains, particularly in higher-order forms of learning from Bloom's Taxonomy, such as applying and analyzing knowledge (Bowler et al., 1999;Elkins & Elkins, 2007;Houser et al., 2011;Kern & Carpenter, 1986;Kolivras et al., 2012;Seifan et al., 2020). ...
... By camping, working, and interacting with peers in the field, students develop attachments to the places where they work (Jolley et al., 2019). These experiences are also important to developing an identity as a scientist, which is tied to retention (Atchison et al., 2019;Streule & Craig, 2016). Esthetic beauty, a sense of wonder, and affinity for nature promote positive emotional response and enhance sense of place (LaDue & Pacheco, 2013;Semken et al., 2017;Stokes & Boyle, 2009). ...
... Field sites may be inherently inaccessible, taking place in areas that are steep, unstable, require a lot of walking, are underwater, etc. Mobility-disabled outdoor recreationists have limited access to wilderness, preventing them from having equitable outdoor experiences (Lovelock, 2010), and the same could be said of natural science students. Selecting accessible field trip locations and embracing universal design during field trip planning (Table 1) can allow mobility-impaired students to participate in field experiences (Atchison et al., 2019;Carabajal et al., 2017). Further, providing tactile diagrams for visually-impaired students and captions or interpreters for hearing-impaired students enhances the inclusivity of field trips (Hendricks et al., 2017). ...
Article
Field experiences are a fundamental and well-loved tool for teaching in the natural sciences. However, a number of concerns threaten continued incorporation of field experiences into courses, including increased class sizes, strained finances, legal liability, accessibility concerns, and the effects of COVID-19. Because of these barriers, it is critically important to investigate and articulate the value of field trips to better advocate for their continued implementation. By reviewing existing literature on traditional field trips and courses, virtual field experiences, and accessible field trips, we have identified several attributes that contribute to the value of field trips as a pedagogical tool. The strength of field activities lies in (1) the integration of active learning, (2) the co-creation of knowledge through collaborative, problem-based activities, (3) place-based learning that provides real-world context, and (4) rapid feedback between peers and instructors. These strategies are well-represented in scholarship on teaching and learning, and further, strategies implemented in field learning may help to reduce the achievement gap for underrepresented groups. Applying the four attributes of field trip pedagogy to classroom and virtual classroom activities, as well as to virtual field trips, can improve teaching and learning when field trips are not possible. Instructors should aim to re-create as many of these attributes as possible to design courses that are as impactful as those involving traditional field trips.
... Traditionally, courses and research experiences in field-focused science disciplines, including those in geography, are designed according to a normalized student population and often place an inherent prerequisite on physical and social ability (Atchison, Marshall et al., 2019). As such, the successful completion of an undergraduate field program relies primarily on the students' perseverance and physical, social, and emotional ability to navigate the field course culture and activities (Hall et al., 2002). ...
... As such, the successful completion of an undergraduate field program relies primarily on the students' perseverance and physical, social, and emotional ability to navigate the field course culture and activities (Hall et al., 2002). The true barrier preventing student participation in field-based teaching and learning is the culture of inherent exclusion, which marginalizes students with physical, sensory, or developmental disabilities, such as autism (Hall et al., 2002;Atchison, Marshall, et al., 2019). Even when provided with an opportunity to participate, students with apparent and non-apparent disabilities often remain unable to complete basic program requirements due to rigid instructional practices and unwavering program requirements. ...
... Instead, these recent studies provide evidence that not only can the field sciences be made accessible, but that scientific innovation across all science disciplines can be strengthened by a diverse talent pool of practitioners across a spectrum of ability (Carabajal et al., 2017;. Field-focused program directors and course instructors should therefore be knowledgeable and prepared to address potentially exclusionary practices (Carabajal & Atchison, 2020) through universal instructional design, development of inclusive learning communities (Fink & Hummel, 2015), and the implementation of multiple pedagogical strategies across all science contexts, including field experiences (Atchison, Marshall, et al., 2019;Atchison, Parker, et al., 2019). ...
Article
Through the voices of both faculty and student authors, we discuss the intentional integration of neurodiversity in an undergraduate, community geography research program. This exploratory case study takes conversations about diversity, equity, and inclusion from theory to practice presenting the development of an inclusive learning community through the lens of education and geoscience education frameworks. Through multiple perspectives advocating for systemic change for inclusive community geography, this paper presents actionable recommendations others in geography can draw from in their own efforts to broaden participation within geography field programs.
... The idea of belonging as inextricably linked to a social context has much in common with recent work in field education. This work emphasizes the importance of social learning and communities of practice to understand how students learn in the field, an environment that is physically and culturally distinct from a traditional classroom (e.g., Mogk and Goodwin, 2012;Streule and Craig, 2016;Atchison et al., 2019;Kortz et al., 2020;Petcovic et al., 2020). ...
... One exception is a recent study of first-year geoscience students that found that an early introduction into immersive fieldwork could provide a powerful feeling of belonging with the discipline (Malm et al., 2020). Atchison et al. (2019) highlighted the significance of fostering a sense of belonging for students with disabilities in the field. Based on time spent together, the kind of course work students conduct in field experiences, and shared living and dining in residential field experiences in particular, perceptions of belonging may be especially fostered in a field setting. ...
Article
While previous literature finds many benefits to participation in undergraduate field courses, the mechanisms for how these benefits develop is still unknown. This study explores these mechanisms and any unique benefits of field courses by examining results from pre and post surveys about scientific literacy, future science plans, and motivation and belonging for undergraduate students who took courses in one field station setting (n = 249) and one traditional on-campus setting (n = 118). We found positive associations between the field station setting and scientific literacy as well as future science plans. In addition, this study finds support for the serial and multiple mediation of class learning goal orientation and class belonging in explaining the relationships between the field station setting and scientific literacy as well as future science plans. The results of this study have implications for enhancing field course design and increasing access and inclusion.
... Educators often focus on the benefits of fieldwork for developing technical or subject-specific skills development but, as an inherently social activity, fieldwork also contributes substantially to learners' interpersonal skills (Boyle et al., 2007). Virtual fieldwork experiences can also be designed to promote social learning (for example, Atchison et al., 2019), based on the social constructivist model of collaborative meaning making (Moreillon, 2015). The production team used 'shout-outs', live question-and-answer sessions and dialogue on social media channels via the project's hashtag to develop the learner community for #FieldworkLive (Fig. 3). ...
... We do not know what proportion of participating schools were in areas of high deprivation or marginalised communities, so would aim to investigate this in future programmes. Virtual field experiences enriched science learning for students excluded from field trips by familial or financial circumstances (Shinneman et al., 2020) or by disabilities (Clark & Jones, 2011;Atchison, Marshall & Collins, 2019). They can provide experiences of environments that are inaccessible, due to remoteness, fragile or hazardous features (Stokes et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
This is an empirical study of teacher experiences with school learners (7–18 years) engaging in cross-curricular environmental science during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study focuses on #FieldworkLive, a programme of live-streamed outdoor science lessons produced by the Field Studies Council and Encounter Edu during the UK lockdown (April – May 2020). The experiences of approximately 377,000 teachers and students from 32 countries were captured using an online survey and direct staff consultation. This delivery method allowed us to reach untapped audiences and to provide learners with a virtual fieldwork experience during the constraints of lockdown. Teachers were highly positive about the technology-enhanced learning which provided them with novel perspectives and approaches for the classroom. We propose a model for the affordances provided by this delivery approach based on the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge framework. The Field Studies Council has developed a flexible package of multimedia resources for secondary schools as a route to enriching outdoor experience and learning despite the constraints imposed by the pandemic.
... • Digital technology can make a major difference to field accessibility and inclusion, but also needs resourcing and testing in advance. See Houghton et al., 2018;Atchison et al., 2019;Whitmeyer et al., 2020. • Implementing these recommendations on a field course will take time and care. ...
... • Do not assume that students with disabilities or physical limitations would rather stay home than go in the field. Familiarise yourself with the range of physical abilities of your students to make accommodations for those with limitations (Carabajal et al., 2017;Atchison et al., 2019) and be aware that a person's abilities may change from day to day. • Conversely, respect individuals' rights to say no, either to specific activities or whole courses. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Ensuring taught fieldwork is a positive, generative, collective, and valuable experience for all participants requires considerations beyond course content. To guarantee safety and belonging, participants’ identities (backgrounds and protected characteristics) must be considered as a part of fieldwork planning and implementation. Furthermore, getting fieldwork right is an important step in disrupting the ongoing cycle of exclusion of participants from marginalised demographics. This document aims to provide those involved in field teaching in Geography, Earth, and Environmental Sciences (GEES) disciplines with a brief overview about how identity affects experiences of taught fieldwork, as well as some general tips and a practical checklist for creating a safe learning environment for all staff, demonstrators, and students in the field.
... However, many geoscience disciplines are diverging from an emphasis on field geology, due in part to a greater focus on laboratory techniques to address geologic questions and an increased reliance on remotely sensed data sets for geologic interpretations. In addition, the common view that fieldwork is an activity for able-bodied, physically fit individuals has discouraged some potential geoscience majors that are unable to participate in physically intensive fieldwork (Atchison et al., 2019;Whitmeyer et al., 2020). ...
... Geoscience instructors have traditionally used the outdoor field aspect of geoscience research as an incentive to attract students to the discipline (Butler, 2008;Mogk and Goodwin, 2012). However, for some time it has been recognized that field activities can be a barrier for a subset of students that have mobility or medical limitations (De Paor and Whitmeyer, 2009;Atchison et al., 2019;Whitmeyer et al., 2020). In addition, it has become apparent that for students considering a geoscience career, fieldwork can be a deterrent for societal and economic reasons as well as due to concerns about personal safety (Clancy et al., 2014;John and Khan, 2018;Giles et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Fieldwork has long been considered an essential component of geoscience research and education, with student field experiences consistently valued for their effectiveness in developing expertise in geoscience skills and cognitive abilities. However, some geoscience disciplines recently have exhibited a decreasing focus on data collection in the field. Additionally, some students have been disinclined to pursue a geoscience career if physical fieldwork is perceived as necessary for the completion of their academic degree. More recently, travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have restricted access to field locations for many students and geoscience researchers. As a result, geoscience educators are developing virtual field trips and exercises that address many of the learning objectives of traditional in-person field experiences. These virtual field trips and exercises use a variety of online and computer platforms, including web-based and desktop versions of Google Earth (GE). In this contribution, we highlight how educators can create virtual geoscience field trips and exercises using web GE, desktop GE, and a web-based tool for generating oriented geologic symbology for GE. Examples of methods and approaches for creating virtual field experiences in GE are provided for a virtual field trip that uses a web GE presentation to replicate a typical class field trip, and for a geologic mapping exercise that uses a KML file uploaded into web or desktop GE. Important differences between web and desktop GE are discussed, with consideration for which platform might be most effective for specific educational objectives. Challenges and opportunities related to virtual field trips are discussed in comparison with traditional in-person, on-location field trips. It is suggested that in a post–COVID-19 world, a combination of in-person and virtual hybrid field experiences might prove the most effective approach for producing a more inclusive and equitable learning environment, and thus strengthening the geoscience workforce.
... However, the relevance of field education has been subjected to increasing scrutiny (Drummond, 2001;Dohms, 2011), partly due to an increased focus on lab-based research. Another concern has been the "exclusivity" of traditional fieldwork, where independence (Healey et al., 2001;Maskall and Stokes, 2009) and physical conditioning (Kirchner, 1994;Maguire, 1998;Feig, 2010) were lauded (Hall et al., 2002;Atchison et al., 2019a;Stokes et al., 2019). The attributes cater to outdoor enthusiasts that may be considering a geoscience career, but it has become clear that many others are disenfranchised by these restrictions. ...
... The use of technology in this sense enables participants to collaborate through real-time video and photo sharing and two-way radios to share observations and interpretations with peers and colleagues. The opportunity for the entire learning community to draw from multiple perspectives of an individual field site (closeup, from a distance, through aerial imagery), including the ability to discuss disparate observations across distances for the purpose of developing collective interpretations, strengthened the overall understanding of the entire group (see Atchison et al., 2019a). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The relevance of field education in the geosciences has been subject to increasing scrutiny , in part due to the exclusionary nature of traditional field practices that require independent work and physical agility. As an alternative , this article presents strategies for increasing accessibility and inclusion in collaborative field-based education through the use of mobile technologies. We present a series of examples to show how the use of mobile technologies in the field can enable collaborative observation, data collection, data sharing, and interpretation. The strategies developed in these examples provide equitable access to instruction, peer engagement , and participation in every field exercise. We suggest that technological approaches to accessibility and inclusion in the field can facilitate opportunities for all students to gain field experiences that are an important component of geoscience education.
... However, the relevance of field education has been subjected to increasing scrutiny (Drummond, 2001;Dohms, 2011), partly due to an increased focus on lab-based research. Another concern has been the "exclusivity" of traditional fieldwork, where independence (Healey et al., 2001;Maskall and Stokes, 2009) and physical conditioning (Kirchner, 1994;Maguire, 1998;Feig, 2010) were lauded (Hall et al., 2002;Atchison et al., 2019a;Stokes et al., 2019). The attributes cater to outdoor enthusiasts that may be considering a geoscience career, but it has become clear that many others are disenfranchised by these restrictions. ...
... The use of technology in this sense enables participants to collaborate through real-time video and photo sharing and two-way radios to share observations and interpretations with peers and colleagues. The opportunity for the entire learning community to draw from multiple perspectives of an individual field site (closeup, from a distance, through aerial imagery), including the ability to discuss disparate observations across distances for the purpose of developing collective interpretations, strengthened the overall understanding of the entire group (see Atchison et al., 2019a). ...
... The social nature of field courses can develop strong ties among student peers (Boyle et al., 2007;Butler, 2008) that lead to important career networks (Mogk & Goodwin, 2012), and help students learn to function as members of a group (Boyle et al., 2007;Fuller, Edmondson, France, Higgit, & Ratinen, 2006). More recently, attention has turned to how field course design can promote equity and inclusion, especially for students with disabilities (Atchison, Marshall & Collins, 2019;Gilley, Atchison, Feig, & Stokes, 2015;Lang & Persico, 2019) and those underrepresented in the geosciences (e.g., Medina Luna, Bartel, Hubenthal & Haacker, 2019;Ricci & Riggs, 2019). ...
... Echoing a recent call by Mattheis, Murphy, and Marin-Spiotta (2019) for increasing our attention on the role of intersectionality in GER, we point to a need to better understand factors such as gender, ethnicity, ethics, professional values, power dynamics, diversity, and inclusion within the fieldwork community of practice. Recently published work also points to how an inclusive and empowering community of practice played a key role in supporting the success of students with disabilities (Atchison et al., 2019) and Native American students (Ricci & Riggs, 2019), and could support bilingual Latinx students (Medina Luna et al., 2019) in field settings. Disciplines outside of the geosciences such as ecology, archeology, and anthropology routinely engage in fieldwork (though not geologic mapping). ...
Article
As much as we think of a geologic map as objective, it is filtered through the experiences of individual geologists and the larger geology community. Thus it is important to understand how geologists become proficient at geologic mapping. As part of a naturalistic study of mapping strategies, 67 geologists ranging from undergraduates to professionals described experiences that promoted personal competence. These interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded and interpreted. Using Lave and Wenger’s (1991 Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.[Crossref] , [Google Scholar]) theory of situated learning, we generated three categories that captured how learning to map is “situated” relative to the instructional, physical, and cultural environments. First, content described how learners acquire skill and knowledge through engaging in practices of experts. Participants reported successfully learning to map through structured progressions that taught content and skill while providing mentored practice. Second, participation captured how learners interact with experiences. Participants described long-term, purposeful immersion in the field during which they learned from experiences that encouraged self-reflection and productive struggle. Finally, community of practice described meaningful relations that allowed learners to become full members of the professional community. Participants reported how working in peer groups, learning from mentors, and teaching others helped them to learn to map. We present a model of how these themes interact in the context of learning to map, and suggest how mapping instruction might leverage influential experiences. Results suggest that the community of practice was a crucial contributor and that learning was defined as much by the professional community as by the physical environment.
... While fieldwork represents one of the most integral elements of applied anthropology e.g., [10], scholars have rarely investigated how anthropologists and archaeologists teach students field methods, although this has been a subject of study among other field-based disciplines [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. The lack of research directed towards archaeological field teaching is problematic. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many individuals practicing field-based research are subjected to sexual harassment and assault. This fact holds true for people engaged in archaeological field research and may be true for students who are just learning field methods while enrolled in an archaeological field school. We review some of our current research on the means of reducing and preventing sexual harassment and assault at archaeological field schools, as well as ways to create safer, more inclusive learning spaces. Additionally, we suggest that for the discipline to advance field school teaching and learning, we, as field directors, must situate ourselves as active and advocacy anthropologists: an approach that puts our students as a central focus when developing field-based pedagogy. As the authors of this work, we review our identities and positionality in conducting this research and in making meaning from the data we have collected.
... In Table 5.9 only one intervention study was found of acceptable quality (Nieminen & Pesonen, 2020). Supporting studies and especially that of Atchison et al. 2019 is useful in addressing issues of inclusion within fieldwork contexts, highlighting the need to engage specialist support services and academic staff at the beginnings of curriculum design to ensure an integrated and inclusive approach for all students. ...
Article
Full-text available
This detailed report is the result of an extensive systematic review of the literature across the globe on the state of disability inclusion for students within higher education. It draws on over 11,000 articles, analysis of instiutional data sets and stakeholder interviews. Further information can be found on inclusivehe.org
... Further, field courses can pose a wide range of accessibility, mobility, and safety challenges that can impede or even bar students with disabilities from participating (Atchison et al., 2019;Kingsbury et al., 2020). In consideration of these challenges, the National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine (National Research Council, 2012) called for future research on the learning outcomes best achieved through field instruction and further research into the affective domain of field learning. ...
Article
Full-text available
An understanding of both cognitive and affective domains of learning is critical to promoting undergraduate student success in biology. Field courses—which support student learning, observation, and experimentation in the outdoors—have been shown to be effective in supporting cognitive student outcomes. However, less is known about students' affective responses during field instruction. To better understand the affective domain in this course type, we asked students enrolled in a campus‐based introductory field biology course to engage in weekly reflective journaling over the course of a semester. We employed inductive and deductive coding of over 700 field journal reflections using the Model of the Affective Domain for the Geosciences as a conceptual basis. Informed by our results, we present a theoretically‐driven, five‐part Framework of Student Affect in Field Biology and in‐depth and novel insights into what students feel, believe, and value as they participate in an undergraduate field course. Our framework and coding results can be used by field course instructors to understand how to better design experiences that leave students feeling confident in their abilities, interested to learn more about nature, and empowered to persist in the discipline. To better understand the affective domain of students participating in field biology, we coded over 700 journal reflections and developed a Framework of Student Affect in Field Biology. We share novel insights into student affect and make practical recommendations for instructors of undergraduate field biology courses.
... The groundswell of interest is clear from contributions ranging from: strategies for individual and collective actions (Behl et al., 2021) to cultivate a more welcoming climate in the coastal, ocean, and marine sciences; to acknowledging the value of discussion groups (Ormand et al., 2021); to fostering the coproduction of research with local communities, such as the concept of "equitable exchanges" (Harris et al., 2021); and to documenting the altruistic motivations of young people poised to join our community (Carter et al., 2021). Of course, there is more, much more to be done in terms of racial/ethnic identity (Dutt, 2020), disabilities and access to the field (Atchison et al., 2019), and gender identity (Ranganathan et al., 2021), to name a few. Despite progress on gender parity, for example, women in Earth and space science still face many barriers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Committees touch nearly every facet in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics research enterprise. However, the role of gatekeeping through committee work has received little attention in Earth and space sciences. We propose a novel concept called, “regenerative gatekeeping” to challenge institutional inertia, cultivate belonging, accessibility, justice, diversity, equity, and inclusion in committee work. Three examples, a hiring committee process, a seminar series innovation, and an awards committee, highlight the need to self‐assess policies and practices, ask critical questions and engage in generative conflict. Rethinking committee work can activate distributed mechanisms needed to promote change.
... In the structural aspect, the designs of educational networks [91] or special units [92] are responding to the educational inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities, while learning communities are addressing this issue for people with physical disabilities [93]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Persons with disabilities have historically been subjected to discrimination and exclusion, placing them in dangerous situations of social vulnerability. The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, passed on the 13th of December 2006, was an important legislative landmark for valuing the rights of this population group. This study involved a bibliometric analysis of 1024 research articles published in Scopus on the social, workplace, educational, and financial inclusion of persons with disabilities since the Convention. The results show an increase in scientific production, and there is also a great deal of multi-disciplinarity, which has led to important breakthroughs for the all-encompassing inclusion of this section of the population. The most productive journals, authors, institutions, and countries, as well as the international cooperation networks, are presented here. The review concludes by setting out the main themes and trends in the research.
... The Esla Mapping Project provides a curricular opportunity for students who are unable to attend residential physical field trips for various reasons, including students with mobility issues or those responsible for a person reliant on care. There is an increasing demand for inclusive learning and equality of learning opportunities for these students, who have traditionally been neglected (Hall et al., 2004;Stokes et al., 2012;Atchison et al., 2019). The exercise provides these students with an exercise where important geological field skills are learnt, and the implementation of the activity can greatly benefit them. ...
Article
Full-text available
The restrictions implemented to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 and 2021 have forced university-level educators from around the world to seek alternatives to the residential physical field trips that constitute a fundamental pillar of Geoscience programmes. The field-mapping course for second-year Geology BSc students from Cardiff University was replaced with a virtual mapping course set in the same area as previous years, the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain). The course was designed with the aim of providing the students with the same methodology employed in physical mapping, including such skills as gathering discrete data at stops located along five daily itineraries. Data included bedding attitude, outcrop descriptions with a certain degree of ambiguity, photographs and/or sketches, panoramic photos, and fossil images. Data were provided to the students through georeferenced KMZ files in Google Earth. Students were asked to keep a field notebook, define lithological units of mappable scale, identify large structures such as thrust faults and folds with the aid of age estimations from fossils, construct a geological map on a hard-copy topographic map, draw a stratigraphic column and cross sections, and plot the data in a stereonet to perform structural analysis. The exercise allowed for successful training of diverse geological field skills. In light of the assessment of reports and student surveys, a series of improvements for the future is considered. Though incapable of replacing a physical field course, the virtual exercise could be used in preparation for the residential field trip.
... In addition to the COVID-19 cancelation of fieldwork, the issue of accessibility and inclusivity in fieldwork has been pertinent since well before the pandemic [14][15][16][17]. As with many fields, accessibility and inclusivity in the geosciences represents an ongoing challenge [18][19][20][21][22]. Indeed, geoscience fieldwork has been described as having a "culture of exclusion" [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and resultant cancelation of geoscience fieldwork, as well as outstanding accessibility issues inherent in conducting fieldwork, we developed a virtual geological fieldtrip (VFT) to the Huronian age deposits in the Whitefish Falls area, Ontario, Canada. This region is a geologically significant site in which many Ontario universities conduct undergraduate teaching due to the high-quality exposures. In this contribution, we describe and comment on the development of this openly available resource, the motivations in doing so, the challenges faced, its pedagogical impact and relevance, as well as provide suggestions to others in the development of such resources. Our multimedia VFT combines 360° imagery, georeferenced data on integrated maps, and multi-scale imagery (aerial/drone, outcrop, and thin section images). The VFT was built using the Esri Storymaps platform, and thus offers us the opportunity to review the effectiveness of building such resources using this medium, as well as our approach to doing so. We conclude that the Esri Storymaps platform provides a sound medium for the dissemination of multimedia VFTs, but that some aspects of in-person fieldwork remain hard to replicate. Most notably, this affects “hands on experience” and specific activities such as geological mapping. In addition, while VFTs alleviate some accessibility barriers to geoscience fieldwork, substantial barriers remain that should remain the focus of both pedagogical and geoscience work.
... In addition to the COVID-19 cancelation of fieldwork, the issue of accessibility and inclusivity in fieldwork has been pertinent since well before the pandemic [14][15][16][17]. As with many fields, accessibility and inclusivity in the geosciences represents an ongoing challenge [18][19][20][21][22]. Indeed, geoscience fieldwork has been described as having a "culture of exclusion" [23]. ...
Preprint
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, and resultant cancellation of geoscience fieldwork, as well as outstanding accessibility issues inherent in conducting fieldwork, we developed a virtual geological fieldtrip (VFT) to the Huronian age deposits in the Whitefish Falls area, Ontario, Canada. This region is a geologically significant site in which many Ontario universities conduct undergraduate teaching due to the high-quality exposures. In this contribution we describe and comment on the development of this openly available resource, the motivations in doing so, the challenges faced, its pedagogical impact and relevance, as well as provide suggestions to others in the development of such resources. Our multimedia VFT combines 360° imagery, georeferenced data on integrated maps, and multi-scale imagery (aerial/drone, outcrop, and thin section images). The VFT was built using the Esri Storymaps platform, and thus offers us the opportunity to review the effectiveness of building such resources using this medium, as well as our approach to doing so. We conclude that the Esri Storymaps platform provides a sound medium for the dissemination of multimedia VFTs, but that some aspects of in-person fieldwork remain hard to replicate. Most notably, ‘hands on experience’ and specific activities such as geological mapping. In addition, while VFTs alleviate some accessibility barriers to geoscience fieldwork, substantial barriers remain that should remain the focus of both pedagogical and geoscience work.
... Disabled individuals may not disclose their disability and are often a larger portion of the community than is realized. To make field experiences more inclusive for students with physical disabilities, considering wheelchair accessibility and accessibility for other types of mobility impairments is crucial during planning (32,33) and campus-based and local excursions should be promoted as locations for the assignment. ...
... The EMP provides a curricular opportunity for students who are unable to attend residential physical fieldtrips for various reasons, including students with mobility issues or those responsible for a person reliant on care. There is an increasing demand 340 for inclusive learning and equality of learning opportunities for these students, which have traditionally been neglected (Hall et al., 2004;Stokes et al., 2012;Atchison et al., 2019). The EMP provides these students with an exercise where important geological field skills are learnt, and the implementation of the activity can greatly benefit them. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The restrictions implemented to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic during 2020 and 2021 have forced university-level educators from around the world to seek alternatives to residential physical field trips which constitute a fundamental pillar of geoscience programmes. The field-mapping course for 2nd year Geology BSc students from the Cardiff University was replaced with a virtual mapping course set in the same area as previous years, the Esla Nappe (Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain). The course was designed with the aim of providing the students with the same methodology employed in physical mapping, gathering discrete data in stops located along five daily itineraries. Data included bedding attitude, outcrop descriptions with a certain degree of ambiguity, photographs and/or sketches, panoramic photos and fossil images. Data was provided to the students through georeferenced KMZ files in Google Earth. Students were asked to keep a field notebook, define lithological units of mappable scale, identify large structures such as thrust faults and folds with the aid of age estimations from fossils, construct a geological map on a hard-copy topographic map, draw a stratigraphic column and cross sections, and plot the data in a stereonet to perform structural analysis. The exercise allowed a successful training of diverse geological field skills. In the light of the assessment of reports and student surveys, a series of improvements for the future is considered. Though incapable of replacing a physical field course, the virtual exercise could be used in preparation for the residential fieldtrip.
... However, a sizeable body of work has found fieldwork to be a site of significant exclusion for historically underserved groups. For example, conventional geoscience fieldwork places a premium on being physically able and fit (e.g., Carabajal et al., 2017;Mogk and Goodwin, 2012;Núñez et al., 2020;Posselt, 2020), which limits students with disabilities from full participation (Atchison and Libarkin, 2016;Atchison et al., 2019;Feig et al., 2019;Gilley et al., 2015). Because they may have less exposure to outdoor activities at an earlier age, people of color and those from low-income backgrounds can find participation in fieldwork more challenging (O'Connell and Holmes, 2011;Stokes et al., 2015). ...
... Recent geoscience education research is working to advance instructional inclusion and address cultural stereotypes and biases that exacerbate exclusionary practices across the discipline, most notably associated with the rigors of field-focused activities (e.g. Atchison et al., 2019;Carabajal et al., 2017;Feig et al., 2019;Gilley et al., 2015;Stokes et al., 2019). The benefits of integrating inclusive pedagogical practices are advancing through research that focuses on the entire student learning community Atchison & Carnahan, 2018). ...
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Increasingly more students with disabilities, including autistic or otherwise neurodiverse students, are studying for degrees in STEM field subjects. In recent years, there has been an increased effort from the geoscience education community to make teaching more accessible and inclusive to these students. However, much of the literature on this topic lacks the voice of the individuals these practices aim to serve. This, combined with the medical, deficit-based understanding of autism typically presented in the literature, has resulted in the perpetuation of harmful stereotypes, along with recommendations that may not actually serve as best practice. Here we present a more accurate and holistic explanation of what autism actually is, using our lived experiences as autistic geoscientists. We then outline a comprehensive framework for best supporting autistic and neurodiverse geoscience students, with a focus on field-based learning. This framework includes three pillars: (a) develop effective communication pathways with autistic students, (b) presume competence and include autistic students in the planning of their own accommodations, and (c) employ strategies for expectation management. We also touch on the importance of recognizing the sensory processing aspects of autism spectrum conditions and suggest strategies for minimizing these difficulties in a field environment. By centering autistic voices in the discussion of how to support autistic geoscience students, we hope to change the narrative of inclusion for this diverse, but significant population.
... of the social bonds that promote future success in the discipline [Streule and Craig, 2016;Atchison et al., 2019]. ...
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Deep-mantle flow helps maintain the river’s steady course.
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The geosciences are amongst the least diverse of the STEM disciplines. The lack of diversity could be related to the role that the intersection of identities (such as gender identity, sexual identity, race, and ethnicity) have related to an individual’s perception of self. To explore this idea, the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity was adapted to collect information (through an online questionnaire) from current geoscientists regarding their geoscience identity, gender identity, sexual identity, and race to understand how these factors may affect one’s identity as a geoscientist. A total of 157 responses were collected. Results suggest that 39% of the participants do feel that their gender identity positively influences their identity as a geoscientist and 20% of participants feel that their sexual identity positively influences their identity as a geoscientist. Free-response questionnaire items reveal themes related to inequity, inequality, privilege, community climate, sense of belonging, and geoscience identity. The results from this project align with previous research that suggests students that hold multiple marginalized identities may experience isolation and other unique barriers to persisting in geoscience and other STEM disciplines. Future research and projects focused on underrepresented gender and sexual identities will help geoscience educators formulate more inclusive learning/work environments in support of diversifying the geoscience community and STEM workforce.
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This paper presents findings from a collaborative research project with students and lecturers that explored the integration of technology to enhance accessibility and inclusion in fieldwork education. The project set out to involve students as co-researchers to broaden the insights of the research team, and purposely included the diverse perspectives and experiences of students and lecturers with physical-mobility disabilities. Through analysing three critical incidents from two residential field trips, we developed a set of practical recommendations for using technology to facilitate the inclusion of students with disabilities in field courses. Reflecting on this study and the process of engaging with students as co-researchers, we offer recommendations for implementing equitable and inclusive fieldwork and working collaboratively with students to develop inclusive field experiences.
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The government of Kazakhstan launched significant number of policy reforms to enhance well-being of its underrepresented citizens in order to develop the human capital by providing education to all. Therefore, the government has adopted a policy on inclusive education and recognized the rights to education of all learners including those with disabilities on the basis of equal opportunity, without any discrimination. This is aimed at facilitating equal access to lifelong education opportunities for all including in Technical Vocational Education Training Institutes (TVETI). Thus, inclusive education in TVET settings as well as lifelong learning, especially for adults with special needs has become a priority in Kazakhstan. Therefore, this collaborative action research study was intended to explore practices promoting inclusion of adult students with disabilities in Kazakhstani Technical Vocational Education and Training Institutions (TVETIs). Qualitative data was collected through diaries, interviews, documentary analysis, group and reflective meetings of the professional learning group of selected teachers and students during the four stages of collaborative action research. Data was analysed through group interpretative meetings by research team and thematic content analysis by the researcher. Among the findings is that the educative process in TVETIs does not sufficiently provide a reasonable inclusive support for adult students with disabilities, as a result a comprehensive review of inclusive practices in these institutions was critical. The paper discusses some of the practices that could promote inclusion in TVET institution in Kazakhstan.
Article
New and emerging technologies are changing the world as we know it, and how we choose to perform geologic fieldwork is changing as well. Recent developments in hardware and software provide unprecedented opportunities not only for conventional field studies but also for persons traditionally exempt from field-related research because of mobility issues or inability to travel. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) first allowed digital geologic mapping in the field, and these systems remain in widespread use because of ease of use and ease of data duplication for collaboration in work teams or field classes. We present a general 2D workflow based on GIS approaches that affords opportunities for physically disadvantaged individuals that includes cognitive steps driven by the data assembly process in GIS. Most notable is the digitization of linework and exploration of an area with Google Earth Pro (GEP) as steps, outside the field, that allow assessment of an area to formulate hypotheses that can be done by a physically disadvantaged person as well, or better, than those physically capable of field exploration. We then explore emerging technologies including pseudo-3D viewing using image drapes on an elevation model (aka 2.5D method) and true 3D approaches based on Structure-from-Motion photogrammetry that provide a powerful toolbox back at the office or at base camp that does not require physical abilities or direct field access. These 3D tools are potentially transformative for mobility impaired individuals that could allow them to work individually, or as part of a team, to assess field related problems. For all 3 levels of digital mapping (2D, 2.5D and 3D) we emphasize specific workflows designed to help the researcher perform digital geologic mapping with a specific focus on individuals with limited mobility. Some or all of what we suggest here, however, is of benefit to any field geologist and can be used to augment, or completely perform field studies.
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Field biology is an area of research that involves working directly with living organisms in situ through a practice known as “fieldwork.” Conducting fieldwork often requires complex logistical planning within multiregional or multinational teams, interacting with local communities at field sites, and collaborative research led by one or a few of the core team members. However, existing power imbalances stemming from geopolitical history, discrimination, and professional position, among other factors, perpetuate inequities when conducting these research endeavors. After reflecting on our own research programs, we propose four general principles to guide equitable, inclusive, ethical, and safe practices in field biology: Be Collaborative, Be Respectful, Be Legal, and Be Safe. Although many biologists already structure their field programs around these principles or similar values, executing equitable research practices can prove challenging and requires careful consideration, especially by those in positions with relatively greater privilege. Based on experiences and input from a diverse group of global collaborators, we provide suggestions for action-oriented approaches to make field biology more equitable, with particular attention to how those with greater privilege can contribute. While we acknowledge that not all suggestions will be applicable to every institution or program, we hope that they will generate discussions and provide a baseline for training in proactive, equitable fieldwork practices.
Article
Undergraduate field experiences (UFEs), where students learn and sometimes live together in nature, are critical for the field-based science disciplines. The Undergraduate Field Experiences Research Network (UFERN) brings together UFE educators and researchers to improve and broaden participation in field education. Integrating research on UFEs and general STEM education and the expertise of the UFERN community, we present a model and evidence that describes the impact of intended student outcomes, student context factors, and program design factors on UFE student outcomes. The UFERN model is relevant for a diversity of UFE formats and the diverse students potentially engaged in them, and it supports the field science community to consider a range of ways students can engage with the field. The UFERN model can be applied to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of student-centered UFEs and to guide research on the mechanisms underlying outcomes across UFE formats and disciplines.
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Undergraduate field experiences (UFEs) are a prominent element of science education across many disciplines; however, empirical data regarding the outcomes are often limited. UFEs are unique in that they typically take place in a field setting, are often interdisciplinary, and include diverse students. UFEs range from courses, to field trips, to residential research experiences, and thereby have the potential to yield a plethora of outcomes for undergraduate participants. The UFE community has expressed interest in better understanding how to assess the outcomes of UFEs. In response, we developed a guide for practitioners to use when assessing their UFE that promotes an evidence‐based, systematic, iterative approach. This essay guides practitioners through the steps of: identifying intended UFE outcomes, considering contextual factors, determining an assessment approach, and using the information gained to inform next steps. We provide a table of common learning outcomes with aligned assessment tools, and vignettes to illustrate using the assessment guide. We aim to support comprehensive, informed assessment of UFEs, thus leading to more inclusive and reflective UFE design, and ultimately improved student outcomes. We urge practitioners to move toward evidence‐based advocacy for continued support of UFEs. This paper serves as a guide to best practices in assessment and evaluation of undergraduate field experiences. We offer a response to field educators who want to learn how to effectively evaluate outcomes from field learning experiences.
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Undergraduate field experiences (UFEs), where students learn and sometimes live together in nature, are critical for the field-based science disciplines. The Undergraduate Field Experiences Research Network (UFERN) brings together UFE educators and researchers to improve and broaden participation in field education. Integrating research on UFEs and general STEM education, and the expertise of the UFERN community, we present a model and evidence that describes the impact of intended student outcomes, student context factors and program design factors on UFE student outcomes. The UFERN Model is relevant for a diversity of UFE formats and the diverse students potentially engaged in them, and thus it supports the field science community to consider a range of ways students can engage with "the field." The UFERN Model can be applied to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of inclusive UFEs and to guide research on the mechanisms underlying outcomes across UFE formats and disciplines.
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Improvisational or “improv” theater is a live form where the elements of a scene are made up during the performance. Research in various academic disciplines has found the use of improv in classrooms beneficial. However, there is no such literature of use in the geosciences. Presented here are the results from two semesters of nearly daily usage of improv games in upper division geoscience courses (Mineralogy and Petrology). Results from a student perception survey indicate agreement in the usage of these games toward: 1) fostering a community of practice, and 2) developing students’ transferable skills. The former benefits learning in the course and may increase retention of a more diverse student body. The latter prepares students to be adaptable in a dynamic workplace, preparing future scientists to contribute to societal challenges. The role improv might play in a classroom that employs active learning strategies is also discussed.
Preprint
Undergraduate field experiences (UFEs) are a prominent element of science education across many disciplines; however, empirical data regarding the outcomes are often limited. UFEs are unique in that they take place in a field setting, are often interdisciplinary, and include diverse students. UFEs range from courses, to field trips, to residential research experiences, and thereby have the potential to yield a plethora of outcomes for undergraduate participants. The UFE community has expressed a strong interest in better understanding how to assess the outcomes of UFEs. In response, we developed a strategy by which practitioners can assess their UFE using an evidence-based, systematic and iterative approach. This essay guides practitioners through the steps of: identifying intended UFE outcomes, considering contextual factors, determining an explicit assessment approach, and using the information to inform next steps. We provide a table of common learning outcomes and potential assessment tools, vignettes to illustrate using the strategy, and suggestions for practical application of the strategy. We aim to support comprehensive and aligned assessment of UFEs, leading to more inclusive and reflective design, and ultimately improved student outcomes. We urge practitioners to move towards evidence-based advocacy for continued support of UFEs.
Article
Although field and research experiences have been shown to help retain students in the geosciences, there is less known about how and why this is the case. We created a field-based research experience for five students with a range of backgrounds and prior experiences. We used mixed methods case study research to identify affect-related persistence factors influencing geoscience interns during a field-based research experience, to interpret how the experience elicited those factors, and to explain why the factors influenced students’ intention to persist. The study is framed within the Social Cognitive Career Theory and Geoscience Identity theoretical frameworks. Results indicate that the students in this field-research experience were influenced by five main factors: increasing self-efficacy, discovering people as resources, developing a geoscience identity, making connections with Earth, and maintaining interest. The first three factors have important social aspects to them that were impacted by the design of the field experience. The field experience contributed, positively or negatively, to the students developing the self-efficacy to succeed as a geoscientist and the geoscience identity needed to pursue a geoscience career. Therefore, these affective reactions of the students to the field experience, rather than cognitive reactions, played a key role with regard to impacting their intention to major in the geosciences.
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People with disabilities make up the largest minority population in the U.S. yet remain sorely underrepresented in scientific disciplines that require components of field-based training such as the geosciences. This paper provides a critical analysis of broadening participation within geoscience education literature through the use of accessible and inclusive instructional practices that support students with physical and sensory disabilities. Common physical and nonphysical barriers that discourage the full participation of students with disabilities in classroom, laboratory, and field activities are illustrated in this review. In areas of limited reportable data relevant in the geoscience-focused literature, a broader science, technology, engineering, and mathematics perspective is provided. Gaps in the literature were identified to include limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of inclusive curricular design and the limited opportunities for students with disabilities to participate in advanced, multiday geoscience field trips. The purpose of highlighting this collection of literature is to encourage the use of more equitable and inclusive instructional strategies, including alternative strategies and virtual learning environments that increase access and enhance participation for students with physical and sensory disabilities.
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In 1990, the current authors with Faith Gabelnick authored their first book about learning community initiatives, which has gone on to become one of the most widely cited volumes in the New Directions for Teaching and Learning series. In this chapter, they reflect on the developments and evolution of learning communities since that time, including their reflections on each chapter from the present volume.
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Field instruction is a critical piece of undergraduate geoscience majors' education, and fieldwork remains a major part of the work of professional geologists. Despite the central importance of field education, there exists relatively little educational research exploring how students learn to solve problems in geological fieldwork. This study adds tools and insight to the study of field problem solving. We used GPS tracking of students engaged in independent field examinations, and developed two parallel coding approaches for analyzing student navigational choices. Taken together, our coding enables correlation of navigational characteristics with performance and lends insight into problem solving by building on a conceptual framework modified from the cognitive science field of Naturalistic Decision Making. Our results indicate that most advanced geology undergraduates are capable of recognizing important features in the field, however lower-performing students fail to systematically test multiple interpretations of their data as reflected in poorly planned traverses across the examination field area. Specific track sequences, especially those involving reoccupation of locations, show particular difficulties in aspects of problem solving that are reflected in low quality interpretations on finished maps. Our study offers new tools and an independent approach to gauging student skills in geologic field problem solving.
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This paper serves as a broad introduction to Disabilities Studies in Education (DSE). The emergence of DSE over the last decade has resulted in a vibrant area of academic scholarship as well as a critical forum for social/educational advocacy and activism. First, the authors trace the roots of DSE in the growth of disability studies (DS) within the UK and the USA. Second, they describe the formation of international networks dedicated to DSE. Third, they chart the evolution of DSE's conceptual framework, complete with tenets and examples, carefully crafted over time by a community of scholars. Fourth, they comment upon twelve papers selected for this special double issue of the International Journal of Inclusive Education, highlighting the contribution of each toward both advancing and elucidating the tenets within the conceptual framework of DSE. Finally, the authors close with reflections on the significance of DSE, contemplating what it offers theorists, researchers, and practitioners, as well as highlighting future possibilities.
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In this article, I propose using the “field trip-based learning community” as a way to foster informal interaction among students and faculty. By incorporating students into the design and implementation of a field trip, faculty can engineer an environment where student and teacher encourage and learn from one another in an environment not tied to any particular class or for any course credit. The strategy operates on the premise that frequent and regular contact of faculty with students outside the classroom environment results in opportunities for both groups to not only become actively involved in learning but also to see themselves as resources for each other's personal and educational growth and development. Maximizing the out-of-class academic experience is paramount.
Article
The nature of field trips in geoscience lends them to the application of social learning theories for three key reasons. First, they provide opportunity for meaningful practical experience and promote effective learning afforded by no other educational vehicle in the subject. Second, they are integral for students creating a strong but changing sense of identity from student, to geoscience student, to practicing professional geoscientist. Third, they help students to develop and build their own communities of practice within the field trips akin to the professional communities of practice they may be expected to contribute to, and pursue inbound trajectories into, in the future. Furthermore field trips encourage students to actively engage and initiate trajectories within the wider disciplinary geological community of practice. The building and effectiveness of communities of practice are important because the nature of geoscience as an integrative subject lends itself to relying on such communities. Therefore, the designers of field-trip programs should be aware of this social learning theory and ensure that working within communities of practice is integral to the activities they design. In so doing, we will produce graduates in the subject that will serve the requirements of industry and academia alike, in addition to other graduate careers. Students that most successfully participate in field trips are characterized by independence in their learning and increasing self-efficacy.
Article
This study quantifies improvements in introductory students' concepts in geoscience after completion of a nine week, entirely field-based geology course. Sixty-three student participants in three consecutive introductory field programs demonstrated statistically significant improvements in geoscience concept knowledge as a result of their experiences on the field programs. Conceptual content gain was assessed using a 19-item, scaled Geoscience Concept Inventory (GCI). The scaled GCI mean pre and post-test scores of field course participants show significantly greater improvement in geoscience concept understanding compared with scaled GCI scores from 29 other introductory geoscience courses from across the United States (n = 63 students). Geology courses taught as an extended field trip result in improvements in geoscience concepts for their introductory students that are significantly greater than comparable campus-based courses.
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This chapter explores the practices of learning communities designed for specific, underserved student populations, highlighting on-campus examples and culminating with a synthesized list of core practices from these “inclusive” learning communities.
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This chapter describes the historical and contemporary theoretical underpinnings of learning communities and argues that there is a need for more complex models in conceptualizing and assessing their effectiveness.
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The residential geography fieldtrip is a key context in which geography students learn how to act and think like geography students/geographers. This learning to act like and think like a geography student/geographer is what I refer to as embodied fieldwork, in this article, I examine one particular aspect of embodied fieldwork: the walking and climbing necessary on two physical geography fieldtrips. The assumption that all geography students (and staff) are able-bodied is one of the many messages conveyed by the selection of rugged outdoor environments for fieldwork. This able-bodied discourse is examined via the axes of physical ability, gender, and age.
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Disabled students form a significant but under represented minority in higher education in the UK. Participation appears to be particularly low in disciplines that contain a fieldwork component. Fieldwork has been recognized as a barrier to the participation of disabled students. This paper emphasizes a critical perspective on fieldwork, highlighting the way in which fieldcourses as currently conceived, enacted and experienced, can exclude disabled students. It discusses a survey of the experiences of providing learning support to disabled students undertaking fieldwork in geography, earth and environmental science departments in the UK. It also considers the various ways in which the images, spaces, practices and cultures of fieldwork may exclude or marginalize disabled students and the different ways in which fieldwork may be made more inclusive.
Article
Research has shown that first-generation, low-income college students experience both isolation and marginalization, especially during their first-year of college, which impacts their long-term persistence in higher education. In this article, I argue that learning community pedagogy designed with attention to multicultural curricula is one vehicle to address the challenges faced by these college students. Organized around the themes of identity, community, and agency, an interdisciplinary Multicultural Learning Voices Community (MLVC) was created at a large, public midwestern research university to provide TRiO students with challenging academic coursework that would connect with their lived experience and help them build bridges of social and academic integration during their critical first-year of college. This article presents qualitative data from a multiple case study of seven cohorts of the MLVC, which captures students’ perceptions of their experience.
Article
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION is an important volume that fills a longstanding void in the higher education and student affairs literature. The editors and authors make clear that diverse populations of students experience college differently and encounter group-specific barriers to success. Informed by relevant theories, each chapter focuses on a different population for whom research confirms that engagement and connectivity to the college experience are problematic, including: low-income students, racial/ethnic minorities, students with disabilities, LGBT students, and several others. The forward-thinking practical ideas offered throughout the book are based on the 41 contributors’ more than 540 cumulative years of full-time work experience in various capacities at two-year and four-year institutions of higher education. Faculty and administrators will undoubtedly find this book complete with fresh strategies to reverse problematic engagement trends among various college student populations.PRAISE FOR THIS BOOK:Maya Angelou once wrote, “You did the best you could with what you knew. And when you knew better, you did better.” This important book will enable educators and administrators to know better, and hopefully compel them to do better in transforming college campuses into places where all students are supported — JIM LARIMORE, Dean of Students, Swarthmore CollegeHarper and Quaye have assembled a useful book that seriously considers both the theories driving and practices relevant to student engagement.Their fresh insights paint a more nuanced understanding of engagement, which can potentially improve institutional capacity to engage diverse student populations in more deliberate and culturally responsive ways — MITCHELL J. CHANG, Professor, Higher Education and Organizational Change, UCLAThis book engages readers from the Foreword to the Afterword. Any professional on a college or university campus could find something in this book that helps them better understand how to contribute to the success of diverse populations — GWENDOLYN JORDAN DUNGY, Executive Director, National Association of Student Personnel AdministratorsThis book is available for purchase on Amazon.com and through the publisher's website:http://www.routledge.com/books/Student-Engagement-in-Higher-Education-isbn9780415988513TABLE OF CONTENTS:FOREWORDEstela Mara BensimonChapter 1BEYOND SAMENESS, WITH ENGAGEMENT AND OUTCOMES FOR ALL: AN INTRODUCTIONShaun R. Harper and Stephen John QuayeChapter 2INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS AT FOUR-YEAR INSTITUTIONS: DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS, ISSUES, AND STRATEGIESGregory Anderson, Karen Carmichael, Todd J. Harper, and Tzufang HuangChapter 3BEYOND ACCOMMODATION: REMOVING BARRIERS TO ACADEMIC AND SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIESAndrew H. Nichols and Stephen John QuayeChapter 4FOSTERING SAFE, ENGAGING CAMPUSES FOR LESBIAN, GAY, BISEXUAL, TRANSGENDER, AND QUESTIONING STUDENTSLeah Schueler, Jeffrey Hoffman, and Elizabeth PetersonChapter 5CREATING WELCOMING CAMPUS ENVIRONMENTS FOR STUDENTS FROM MINORITY RELIGIOUS GROUPSCaitlin J. Mahaffey and Scott A. SmithChapter 6GENDER-SPECIFIC APPROACHES TO ENHANCING IDENTITY DEVELOPMENT AMONG UNDERGRADUATE WOMEN AND MENFrank Harris III and Jaime LesterChapter 7ENVIRONMENTAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES TO SUPPORTING WOMEN'S SUCCESS IN STEM FIELDSCandace Rypisi, Lindsey Malcom, and Helen KimChapter 8INSTITUTIONAL SERIOUSNESS CONCERNING BLACK MALE STUDENT ENGAGEMENT: NECESSARY CONDITIONS AND COLLABORATIVE PARTNERSHIPSShaun R. HarperChapter 9ENGAGING RACIAL/ETHNIC MINORITY STUDENTS IN PREDOMINANTLY WHITE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENTSStephen John Quaye, Tracy Poon Tambascia, and Rameen Ahmadi TaleshChapter 10ENGAGING RACIAL/ETHNIC MINORITY STUDENTS IN OUT-OF-CLASS ACTIVITIES ON PREDOMINANTLY WHITE CAMPUSESViannda M. Hawkins and Heather LarabeeChapter 11ENGAGING WHITE STUDENTS IN A MULTICULTURAL CAMPUS: DEVELOPMENTAL NEEDS AND INSTITUTIONAL CHALLENGESMargaret W. Sallee, Moreen E. Logan, Susan Sims, and W. Paul HarringtonChapter 12MEETING THE NEEDS OF COMMUTER, PART-TIME, TRANSFER, AND RETURNING STUDENTSScott C. Silverman, Sarvenaz Aliabadi, and Michelle R. StilesChapter 13CREATING A PIPELINE TO ENGAGE LOW-INCOME, FIRST-GENERATION COLLEGE STUDENTSJarrett Gupton, Cristina Castelo-Rodríguez, David Angel Martínez, and Imelda QuintanarChapter 14IMPROVING TRANSFER TRAJECTORIES FOR FIRST-YEAR, FIRST-GENERATION, MINORITY COMMUNITY COLLEGE STUDENTSRamona Barrio-Sotillo, Kaneesha Miller, Kuro Nagasaka, and Tony ArguellesChapter 15REDEFINING CHAMPIONSHIP IN COLLEGE SPORTS: ENHACING OUTCOMES AND INCREASEING STUDENT-ATHLETE ENGAGEMENTBrandon E. MartinChapter 16THE CHANGING ACADEMY: DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES TO ENGAGING EMERGING POPULATIONS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONKenechukwu (K.C.) Mmeje, Christopher B. Newman, Dennis A. Kramer II, and Mark A. PearsonAFTERWORDGeorge D. Kuh
Consensus statement regarding access and inclusion of individuals living with disabilities in the geosciences
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American Geosciences Institute. (2015). Consensus statement regarding access and inclusion of individuals living with disabilities in the geosciences. Retrieved from https://www. americangeosciences.org/community/disability-consensusstatement
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Teaching science online: Practical guidance for effective instruction and lab work
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Powerful learning communities: A guide to developing student, faculty, and professional learning communities to improve student success and organizational effectiveness
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Lenning, O. T., Hill, D. M., Saunders, K. P., Solan, A., Stokes, A., & Tinto, V. (2013). Powerful learning communities: A guide to developing student, faculty, and professional learning communities to improve student success and organizational effectiveness (2nd ed.). Sterling, VA: Stylus.
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Marshall, A. M. S. (2018). Evaluation of academic and social engagement in a technology-based collaborative approach to inclusive geoscience field learning (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa.
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Maskall, J., & Stokes, A. (2007). Designing effective fieldwork for the environmental and natural sciences. Plymouth, Devon, UK: Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/system/files/gees_guides_ jmas_designing_effective_fieldwork.pdf