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Talaromyces omanensis sp. nov.: phenotypic and molecular characterization of a novel species isolated from Rhazya stricta in Oman

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The endophytic Talaromyces omanensis sp. nov., a new microfungus isolated from the desert plant Rhazya stricta in Oman, is described and illustrated. The new species forms a distinct sister clade to the section Subinflati in the phylogeny of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (benA) and Calmodulin (CaM). Talaromyces omanensis remains distinct and unique from the other species in the section Subinflati in having monoverticillate conidiophores.
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... The concatenated alignment and the single gene phylogenies proved its assignment in section Subinflati. Talaromyces omanensis described by Halo et al. (2019) and thus displayed green colony. The monoverticillate conidiophores, size and shape of stipes, phialides and conidia of T. omanensis resemble those of T. resedanus, except that conidiophores of T. omanensis are rough under scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Halo et al. 2019). ...
... Talaromyces omanensis described by Halo et al. (2019) and thus displayed green colony. The monoverticillate conidiophores, size and shape of stipes, phialides and conidia of T. omanensis resemble those of T. resedanus, except that conidiophores of T. omanensis are rough under scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Halo et al. 2019). The photo plate of T. omanensis showed smooth conidiophores under microscope. ...
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... Later, Yilmaz et al. (2014) included 88 species in Talaromyces and resolved the genus into seven sections, namely, sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces, and Trachyspermi. Since 2014, many new species of Talaromyces have been reported (Visagie et al. 2015;Chen et al. 2016;Crous et al. 2016;Luo et al. 2016;Romero et al. 2016;Wang et al. 2016aWang et al. , 2016bWang et al. , 2017Yilmaz et al. 2016aYilmaz et al. , 2016bGuevara-Suarez et al. 2017;Jurjević 2017, 2019;Barbosa et al. 2018;Jiang et al. 2018;Su and Niu 2018;Varriale et al. 2018;Halo et al. 2019;Rajeshkumar et al. 2019). So far, as the largest section in the genus, section Talaromyces includes 69 species. ...
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The genus Talaromyces was described by Benjamin in 1955 as a sexual state of Penicillium that produces soft walled ascomata covered with interwoven hyphae. Phylogenetic information revealed that Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium and Talaromyces form a monophyletic clade distinct from the other Penicillium subgenera. Subsequently, in combination with the recent adoption of the one fungus one name concept, Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was transferred to Talaromyces. At the time, the new combinations were made based only on phylogenetic information. As such, the aim of this study was to provide a monograph on Talaromyces applying a polyphasic species concept, including morphological, molecular and physiological characters. Based on an ITS, BenA and RPB2 multigene phylogeny, we propose a new sectional classification for the genus, placing the 88 accepted species into seven sections, named sections Bacillispori, Helici, Islandici, Purpurei, Subinflati, Talaromyces and Trachyspermi. We provide morphological descriptions for each of these species, as well as notes on their identification using morphology and DNA sequences. For molecular identification, BenA is proposed as a secondary molecular marker to the accepted ITS barcode for fungi.
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Penicillium is a diverse genus occurring worldwide and its species play important roles as decomposers of organic materials and cause destructive rots in the food industry where they produce a wide range of mycotoxins. Other species are considered enzyme factories or are common indoor air allergens. Although DNA sequences are essential for robust identification of Penicillium species, there is currently no comprehensive, verified reference database for the genus. To coincide with the move to one fungus one name in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, the generic concept of Penicillium was re-defined to accommodate species from other genera, such as Chromocleista, Eladia, Eupenicillium, Torulomyces and Thysanophora, which together comprise a large monophyletic clade. As a result of this, and the many new species described in recent years, it was necessary to update the list of accepted species in Penicillium. The genus currently contains 354 accepted species, including new combinations for Aspergillus crystallinus, A. malodoratus and A. paradoxus, which belong to Penicillium section Paradoxa. To add to the taxonomic value of the list, we also provide information on each accepted species MycoBank number, living ex-type strains and provide GenBank accession numbers to ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 sequences, thereby supplying a verified set of sequences for each species of the genus. In addition to the nomenclatural list, we recommend a standard working method for species descriptions and identifications to be adopted by laboratories working on this genus.
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Acne vulgaris is the most common skin disease, causing significant psychosocial problems such as anxiety and depression similar to a chronic illness for those afflicted. Currently, obtainable agents for acne treatment have limited use. Thus, development of novel agents to treat this disease is a high medical need. The anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes has been implicated in the inflammatory phase of acne vulgaris by activating pro-inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Talaromyces wortmannii is an endophytic fungus, which is known to produce high bioactive natural compounds. We hypothesize that compound C but also the crude extract from T. wortmannii may possess both antibacterial activity especially against P. acnes and also anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 expression and P. acnes-induced IL-8 release. Treatment of keratinocytes (HaCaT) with P. acnes significantly increased NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, as well as IL-8 release. Compound C inhibited P. acnes-mediated activation of NF-κB and AP-1 by inhibiting IκB degradation and the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK MAP kinases, and IL-8 release in a dose-dependent manner. Based on these results, compound C has effective antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and anti-inflammatory activity, and we suggest that this substance or the crude extract are alternative treatments for antibiotic/anti-inflammatory therapy for acne vulgaris.
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Current literature accepts 17 species in Penicillium section Sclerotiora. Several produce colonies in bright yellow to orange colours and have monoverticillate conidiophores, apart from P. herquei, P. malachiteum and P. nodositatum, which are biverticillate. The focus of this paper is to refine the concepts of the species currently accepted in the section and introduce five new species, named after the Dutch Royal family as P. vanoranjei, P. maximae, P. amaliae, P. alexiae and P. arianeae. Penicillium vanoranjei produces orange (Dutch = oranje) colonies in culture, and is named after Willem-Alexander Claus George Ferdinand, 'Zijne Koninklijke Hoogheid de Prins van Oranje' (translated from Dutch as: 'His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange') and his family, to coincide with his coronation. We review the current taxonomic positions of P. lilacinoechinulatum and P. nodositatum, both currently considered to be synonyms of P. bilaiae. Sequence data generated in this study show that both species are phylogenetically distinct. Penicillium lilacinoechinulatum is closely related to P. amaliae sp. nov., whereas P. nodositatum does not belong to Penicillium sensu stricto. All species were compared morphologically and phylogenetically, based on β-tubulin and calmodulin DNA data. A table summarising the morphological characters of all species is included, together with photomicrographs and recommended DNA markers for identification.
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Organic extracts from five medicinal plants collected in Oman were assayed for in vitro cytotoxic property. Dried samples from latex, leaves, roots and stem bark of these species were macerated in ethanol to give crude extracts which were Kupchan's partitioned into hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions. Six different concentrations of each fraction were subjected to brine shrimp test to determine their lethality values. Percent mortalities from each fraction were then converted to LC50 values by Finney probit analysis. Chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts from Calotropis procera latex and aerial part of Rhazya stricta were the most active. LC50 values for C. procera latex were 3.0 and 8.2 μg/ml, respectively, while that of R. stricta were 18.1 and 13.9 μg/ml, respectively. C. procera and R. stricta growing in Oman are good sources of cytotoxic compounds.
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We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements our RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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Taxa of the Talaromyces purpurogenus complex were studied using a polyphasic approach. ITS barcodes were used to show relationships between species of the T. purpurogenus complex and other Talaromyces species. RPB1, RPB2, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences were used to delimit phylogenetic species in the complex. These data, combined with phenotypic characters, showed that the complex contains four species: T. purpurogenus, T. ruber comb. nov. and two new species T. amestolkiae sp. nov. and T. stollii sp. nov. The latter three species belong to the same clade and T. purpurogenus is located in a phylogenetic distant clade. The four species all share similar conidiophore morphologies, but can be distinguished by macromorphological characters. Talaromyces ruber has a very distinct colony texture on malt extract agar (MEA), produces bright yellow and red mycelium on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES) and does not produce acid on creatine sucrose agar (CREA). In contrast, T. amestolkiae and T. stollii produce acid on CREA. These two species can be differentiated by the slower growth rate of T. amestolkiae on CYA incubated at 36 °C. Furthermore, T. stollii produces soft synnemata-like structures in the centre of colonies on most media. Extrolite analysis confirms the distinction of four species in the T. purpurogenus complex. The red diffusing pigment in T. purpurogenus is a mixture of the azaphilone extrolites also found in Monascus species, including N-glutarylrubropunctamine and rubropunctatin. Talaromyces purpurogenus produced four different kinds of mycotoxins: rubratoxins, luteoskyrin, spiculisporic acid and rugulovasins and these mycotoxins were not detected in the other three species.
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With the increasing availability of molecular data, maximum likelihood approaches have gained a new central role in phylogenetic reconstructions. Extremely fast tree-search algorithms have been developed to handle data sets of ample size in reasonable time. In the past few years, RAxML has achieved great relevance in this field and obtained wide distribution among evolutionary biologists and taxonomists because of its high computational performance and accuracy. However, there are certain drawbacks with regard to its usability, since the program is exclusively command-line based. To overcome this problem, we developed raxmlGUI, a graphical user interface that makes the use of RAxML easier and highly intuitive, enabling the user to perform phylogenetic analyses of varying complexity. The GUI includes all main options of RAxML, and a number of functions are automated or simplified. In addition, some features extend the standard use of RAxML, like assembling concatenated alignments with automatic partitioning. RaxmlGUI is an open source Python program, available in a cross-platform package that incorporates RAxML executables for the main operating systems. It can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/raxmlgui/. Keywords: Rapid bootstrap; Graphical user interface; Maximum likelihood; Phylogenetic analyses; Python; RAxML
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Specimens of a new pleosporalean taxon were obtained on the bark of Juniperus excels from the northern mountains of Oman; from the Jebel Akhdar (‘Green Hills’). Sequence analyses based on the regions of large subunit rRNA (LSU), small subunit rRNA (SSU), translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) were performed to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon in Phaeosphaeriaceae. The data concluded that the taxon represents a novel genus of the family Phaeosphaeriaceae and the generic name Hydeomyces and the species name H. desertipleosporoides are introduced for the new taxon. An outline of the characters which differentiate the new genus from phylogenetically closely related genera Dematiopleospora and Dlhawksworthia is given and its morphology of asexual and sexual morphs is described.
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The genus Cladosporium is cosmopolitan in distribution and can be isolated from various sources including plants as endophytes. A strain of Cladosporium was isolated from living leaves of Zygophyllum coccineum in a desert habitat in Oman. Phylogenetic analysis based on the combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS), partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF) and partial actin (ACT) sequence data shows that this is a novel species, which groups with Cladosporium sphaerospermum complex. The new species is introduced as Cladosporium omanense and is described, illustrated and compared with other known species in the genus. Cladosporium omanense differs from its phylogenetically related species C. endophyticum by its fast growing colonies, longer macronematous and micronematous conidiophores, thickened-walled conidia with conspicuously protuberant shrivelling surface ornamentations.
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Bipolaris species are responsible for important cereal diseases, worldwide and are often isolated as endophytes as well as saprobes. We are investigating the fungi in Oman. In this paper, we report a novel taxon of Bipolaris, collected from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, during the survey. The taxon is shown to be novel based on morphological and sequence data and introduced here as Bipolaris omanensis sp. nov. Bipolaris omanensis forms a sister clade to B. cookei based on the combined sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and partial glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPD) region, being distinct from the latter species in having shorter conidiophores, narrower conidia and having a higher number of septa.
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A morphological study of the ascocarps of 29 strains of Aspergillus and Penicillium indicates that these forms comprise five genera of the Eurotiaceae. The perfect stages of Aspergillus are included in the genera Eurotium, Sartorya, and Emericella. Those of Penicillium are included in Carpenteles and Talaromyces, the latter a new genus erected for the forms with ascocarpic walls of interwoven hyphae. Species which had not previously been assigned to an ascomycetous genus are here so assigned.
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This study was conducted to investigate the Alternaria species associated with leaf spot of date palm and wheat in Oman. Out of 98 date palm leaf samples and 146 wheat leaf samples, Alternaria was isolated from 27 and 23% of the samples developing leaf spot symptoms, respectively. Identification of Alternaria isolates using sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal RNA (ITS rRNA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH), translation elongation factor (TEF) and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) genes, showed that the isolates belong to seven Alternaria species or species complexes. A. burnsii - A. tomato and A. arborescens species complexes (58 and 4%, respectively) and A. alternata (38%) were the species recovered from the symptomatic date palm leaves. A. alternata (67%), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (15%), A. jacinthicola (3%), A. ventricosa (3%), A. slovaca (6%) and Alternaria caespitosa (6%) were isolated from wheat. Pathogenicity test showed that tested isolates of A. alternata (DPM19, WDK12), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (DPM31), A. jacinthicola (WBR4) and A. slovaca (WDK9, WDK7) were pathogenic on date palm, while A. alternata (DPM19, WDK12), A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex (DPM31, WDK11) and A. slovaca (WDK9, WDK7) were pathogenic on wheat. This is the first report of date palm and wheat as new hosts for A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex and the first reports of A. burnsii - A. tomato species complex, A. caespitosa A. slovaca, and A. ventricosa in Oman. The study shows that several species of Alternaria are associated with leaf spot in date palm and wheat in Oman, with some isolates having the ability to cause infection in both hosts.
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Acrocordiella omanensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated from specimens on dead stem of Juniper sp. collected in Al Jabal al-Akhdar (Green Mountain), Sultanate of Oman. It strongly resembles Acrocordiella occulta, the type of the genus, in its similar asci and ascospore anatomy. It differs from A. occulta in having bell-shaped to cap-like clypeus around the ostiole and larger asci and ascospores. The combined large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences support the conclusions based on the morphological data.
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The genus Talaromyces constitutes an important group of molds with species that are mainly found in soil, indoor environments and food products. Traditionally, it has been considered, together with Eupenicillium, the teleomorphic state of Penicillium. However, the taxonomy of these fungi has changed considerably, and Talaromyces currently includes sexually and asexually reproducing species. In a previous study of the occurrence of penicillium-like fungi from clinical samples in the USA, we used the combined phylogeny of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rDNA and β-tubulin (BenA) gene to identify 31 isolates of Talaromyces, 85 of Penicillium and two of Rasamsonia. However, seven isolates of Talaromyces were assigned to the corresponding sections but not to any particular species. In this study, we have resolved the taxonomy of these isolates through a multilocus sequence analysis of the ITS, fragments of the BenA, calmodulin (CaM), and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) genes, and a detailed phenotypic study. As a result, four new species are described and illustrated, ie Talaromyces alveolaris, T. georgiensis, T. minnesotensis and T. rapidus.
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Mycologists and plant pathologists have long been documenting fungi in checklists or adding them to databases that list hosts and associated fungi. Most references to the fungi of Oman are scattered in journals, reports and university theses. A review of the fungal status of Oman is long overdue as soil-borne and plant pathogens have been studied to some extent. Although Waller & Bridge (1978) listed the fungal diseases on economically important crops in Oman, the present study is the first attempt to put together all hitherto recorded fungi from this part of the world. This paper presents a systematic checklist of 318 fungal species, in 173 genera, currently known to occur in Oman. A working checklist of accepted taxa in Oman is vital in progress of the systematics, agriculture, quarantine and many other applied scientific fields in the country.
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Two new compounds, deacetylisowortmins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from Talaromyces wortmannii LGT-4. Their structures were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectra, as well as comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. Monoamine oxidase and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of 1 and 2 were also evaluated.
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The crude ethanolic extract of Rhazya stricta Dene; (Family, Apocynaceae) was tested, on the basis of medicinal and folklore reports for antimicrobial activity against a wide range of gram - positive and gram - negative organisms. Leaves extract was found to be more active as compared to other parts exhibiting 69.23% and 66.66% activity against gram - positive and gram - negative organisms respectively. Seeds extract exhibited maximum inhibitory activity ("A" category zone) i.e. 23.07% and 16.66% against gram - positive and gram - negative organisms respectively as compared to other parts of Rhazya stricta. Reference standard i.e. co-trimoxazole exhibited only 7.69% "A" category zones against gram - positive organisms only.
Chapter
From the basic description in Chapter 4, the SEM image formation process can be summarized as a geometric mapping of information collected when the beam is sequentially addressed to an x–y pattern of specific locations on the specimen. When we are interested in studying the fine-scale details of a specimen, we must understand the factors that influence SEM image resolution. We can define the limit of resolution as the minimum spacing at which two features of the specimen can be recognized as distinct and separate. Such a definition may seem straightforward, but actually applying it to a real situation becomes complicated because we must consider issues beyond the obvious problem of adjusting the beam diameter to the scale of the features of interest. The visibility of a feature must be established before we can consider any issues concerning the spatial scale. For a feature to be visible above the surrounding general background we must first satisfy the conditions contained within the threshold equation (4.26). For a specified beam current, pixel dwell time, and detector efficiency, the threshold equation defines the threshold contrast, the minimum level of contrast (C = ΔS/S max) that the feature must produce relative to the background to be visible in an image presented to the viewer with appropriate image processing.
Article
Bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. Different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. However, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. We identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (BSM) and buckwheat meju (BWM), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and β-tubulin gene sequencing. In both meju, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium polonicum, P. steckii, Cladosporium tenuissimum, C. cladosporioides, C. uredinicola, and yeast species Pichia burtonii were commonly found. Moreover, A. flavus, A. niger, P. crustosum, P. citrinum, Eurotium niveoglaucum, Absidia corymbifera, Setomelanomma holmii, Cladosporium spp. and unclassified species were identified from BSM. A. clavatus, Mucor circinelloides, M. racemosus, P. brevicompactum, Davidiella tassiana, and Cladosporium spp. were isolated from BWM. Fast growing Zygomycetous fungi is considered important for the early stage of meju fermentation, and A. oryae and A. niger might play a pivotal role in meju fermentation owing to their excellent enzyme productive activities. It is supposed that Penicillium sp. and Pichia burtonii could contribute to the flavor of the final food products. Identification of this fungal diversity will be useful for understanding the microbiota that participate in meju fermentation, and these fungal isolates can be utilized in the fermented foods and biotechnology industries.
Article
Bealmijang is a short-term aged paste made from meju, which is a brick of fermented soybeans and other ingredients. Different types of bealmijang are available depending on the geographic region or ingredients used. However, no study has clarified the microbial diversity of these types. We identified 17 and 14 fungal species from black soybean meju (BSM) and buckwheat meju (BWM), respectively, on the basis of morphology, culture characteristics, and internal transcribed spacer and beta-tubulin gene sequencing. In both meju, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicillium polonicum, P. steckii, Cladosporium tenuissimum, C. cladosporioides, C. uredinicola, and yeast species Pichia burtonii were commonly found. Moreover, A. flavus, A. niger, P. crustosum, P. citrinum, Eurotium niveoglaucum, Absidia corymbifera, Setomelanomma holmii, Cladosporium spp. and unclassified species were identified from BSM. A. clavatus, Mucor circinelloides, M. racemosus, P. brevicompactum, Davidiella tassiana, and Cladosporium spp. were isolated from BWM. Fast growing Zygomycetous fungi is considered important for the early stage of meju fermentation, and A. oryae and A. niger might play a pivotal role in meju fermentation owing to their excellent enzyme productive activities. It is supposed that Penicillium sp. and Pichia burtonii could contribute to the flavor of the final food products. Identification of this fungal diversity will be useful for understanding the microbiota that participate in meju fermentation, and these fungal isolates can be utilized in the fermented foods and biotechnology industries.
Article
Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Talaromyces wortmannii, isolated from Aloe vera, yielded two new cyclic peptides, talaromins A and B. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis. Both cyclopeptides contain ring systems comprised of six alpha-amino acid residues connected to a beta-amino acid. The absolute configurations of the alpha-amino acids were determined by Marfey's method. (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
The use of medicinal herbs in northern and central Oman (Arabia) is still common today. Plants known for their curative powers are used for a wide spectrum of diseases, from common cold and fever to paralysis and diabetes. Herbal medicines are dispensed, after “diagnosis” from a herbal healer. The detailed uses of 35 native and 21 cultivated plants and their chemical composition are given.