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Understanding user acceptance of battery swapping service of sustainable transport: An empirical study of a battery swap station for electric scooters, Taiwan

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  • Asia Eastern University of Science & Technology

Abstract

A battery swapping service is used to address the challenges associated with replacing scooters with electric two wheelers (E2Ws) in the Taiwanese two-wheeler market. In this study, two experiments were conducted to compare two different battery swap stations (BSSs) and to further explore usability, user experiences (UXs), and motivation in order to determine how the service affects the quality evaluation made by the users on the basis of their interactions. The experiments were administered to 140 participants of experiencing BSS services located in the city of New Taipei. The results verified that both BSS can help users to successfully accomplish their goal of swapping batteries. Furthermore, the design and usage of the G-BSS makes a positive impression on users and yields an acceptance rate that exceeds 80% and stimulates ∼32.9% of potential users to accommodate E2Ws. This study concluded that good esthetic quality should include design beauty and the design that could create a good UX for the users. Aesthetic quality and hedonic quality were positively correlated with intrinsic motivation and user satisfaction. These may further influence user’s continuance usage intention. Furthermore, an important factor that influences pragmatic quality is whether the user’s perception of the product is established during the course of using the product. Based on these results, a number of modifications to BSS are suggested for improving UXs in the context of battery swapping system. It is recommended that designers and developers should consider the above issues when implementing newly versions of battery swapping services.
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International Journal
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Sustainable Transportation
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Understanding user acceptance
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battery
swapping service
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sustainable transport:
An
empirical study
of
a
battery
swap station
for
electric scooters, Taiwan
Fei-Hui Huang
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Understanding user acceptance
of
battery swapping service
of
sustainable
transport: An empirical study
of
a battery swap station
for
electric
scooters, Taiwan
Fei-Hui
Huang
Oriental
Institute of
Technology,
Panchiao,
Taiwan
ABSTRACT
A battery swapping service
is
used
to
address
the
challenges associated with replacing scooters
with electric two wheelers
(E2Ws)
in
the
Taiwanese two-wheeler market.
In
this study, two experi-
ments were conducted
to
compare two different battery swap stations
(BSSs)
and
to
further
explore usability, user experiences
(UXs),
and motivation
in
order
to
determine how
the
service
affects
the
quality evaluation made
by
the
users on
the
basis
of
their interactions. The experi-
ments were administered
to
140 participants of experiencing
BSS
services located
in
the
city
of
New
Taipei. The results verified that both
BSS
can help users
to
successfully accomplish their goal
of swapping batteries. Furthermore,
the
design and usage of
the
G-BSS
makes a positive impres-
sion on users and yields an acceptance rate
that
exceeds 80% and stimulates ~32.9% of potential
users
to
accommodate
E2Ws
.
This
study concluded
that
good esthetic quality should include
design beauty and
the
design
that
could create a good
UX
for
the
users. Aesthetic quality and
hedonic quality were positively correlated with intrinsic motivation and user satisfaction. These
may further influence user's continuance usage intention. Furthermore, an important factor that
influences pragmatic quality
is
whether
the
user's perception of
the
product
is
established during
the
course
of
using
the
product. Based on these results, a number of modifications
to
BSS
are sug-
gested for improving
UXs
in
the
context
of
battery swapping system.
It
is
recommended that
designers and developers should consider
the
above issues when implementing newly versions
of
battery swapping services.
ARTICLE
HISTORY
Received
24
April
2018
Accepted
8
November
2018
KEYWORDS
Electric
vehicles;
user
acceptance;
interaction;
motivation
1.
Introduction
Road
vehicles utilize fossil fuels
in
internal
combustion
engines
emit
tailpipe pollutants
such
as coarse particulate
matter
(PM
nitrogen
oxides (NOx),
and
volatile
organic
compounds
(VOCs),
which
are
harmful
to
human
health
.
Electric vehicles (EVs) have received increasing
attention
because
of
their
high-energy
efficiency, low
carbon
emis-
sions, fuel
independency,
and
environmental
friendliness.
Many
countries
are
ramping
up
their
effort
to
push
for
the
adoption
of
advanced
electric drive vehicles
in
the
market.
The
development
of
EV s relies
on
the
charging
patterns
and
available charging infrastructure,
such
as
charging
piles,
charging stations,
and
battery
swap
station
(BSS) (Su
et
al.,
2012). However,
current
battery
technology does
not
allow
for
charging
in
less
than
half
an
hour.
Hence,
charging
sta-
tions
analogous
to
gas stations,
where
refueling
can
be
com-
pleted
in
a few
minutes,
do
not
currently
seem
possible
(Worley
& Klabjan, 2011).
BSS
is
one
of
the
solutions
to
address these limitations (Li, 2013; Liu, 2012;
Lombardi
et
al., 2010;
Worley
& Klabjan, 2011
).
For
the
consumer
market,
BSS
is
an
innovative
product/service
that
requires
user
acceptance
to
help
cross
the
chasm
from
the
early
mar-
ket
to
the
mainstream
market
.
This
highlights
that
user
acceptance
of
BSSs
service is
one
of
the
factors
to
affect
user
adoption
and
acceptance
of
battery
swapping
system.
In
Taiwan,
an
island
nation
with
a
population
of
~23
million people,
there
are
~13
.7 million
scooter
users.
This
means
that
one
in
every 1.67 people is a
scooter
commuter,
and
that
Taiwan
has
the
highest
density
of
scooter
users
in
the
world
. Scooters
that
utilize fossil fuels
in
internal
com-
bustion
engines
emit
tailpipe
pollutants
that
may
have a
negative
impact
on
human
health. Therefore,
in
order
to
improve
air
quality
and
public health,
the
Taiwanese govern-
ment
is
dedicated
to
promoting
an
eco-friendly
environmen-
tal
protection
policy.
One
of
the
aims
of
the
policy is
to
increase
the
penetration
level
of
electric
two
wheelers
(E2Ws). However,
the
E2Ws
market
growth
is
hampered
by
many
factors,
such
as limitations
on
E2W
s batteries,
low
oil
prices,
and
consumer
expectations.
The
principal challenge
associated
with
replacing gas-powered scooters
with
E2Ws is
consumer
fear
of
being
stranded
in
an
E2W.
This
fear is
rooted
in
potentially insufficient
battery
performance
and
an
insufficient
charging
infrastructure
.
The
provision
of
rapid
and
flexible
battery
charging is
one
of
the
solutions
needed
to
overcome
this challenge. Since 1995,
the
Taiwanese gov-
ernment
has
introduced
several
programs
to
establish a
CONTACT
Fei-Hui
Huang
S
kiki_huangs
@
yahoo
.
com
~
Oriental
Institute
of
Technology
,
Panchiao,
22064,
Taiwan.
©
2019
Taylor
&
Francis
Group,
LLC
2 @
F.-H
.
HUANG
foundation for the development
of
E2W
s,
including a variety
of
charging services such
as
basic charging stations and
rapid charging stations. The government also offers incen-
tives to increase the penetration level
of
E2Ws in the mar-
ket. However, Taiwanese E2W sales figures clearly show that
the programs did not succeed
as
expected. Only 29,969 elec-
tric scooters (e-scooters) and 108,602 electric bikes (e-bikes)
were sold between 2009 and
2014.
In addition, a program
that ran from 2013 to 2015 established a foundation for a
battery swapping system for E2W
s.
In the program, the
BSS
services (C-BSSs) were provided by Citypower Taiwan Inc.
Later, GoStation
BSSs
(G-BSSs) for Gogoro smart e-scooters
were open to the public in several major cities in northern
Taiwan. Because
of
the current Taiwanese E2W market
is
relatively small, battery swapping system industries tend to
provide E2W owners with a convenient and rapid charging
service in a self-service process rather than automated serv-
ices. The battery swapping system
is
one part
of
an overall
strategy to increase the market share
of
E2W products. It
should be noted that Taiwanese E2W sales figures have
shown some growth: 36,012 units sold in 2014 and 58,378
units sold two years later. However, the market share
of
E2Ws
as
a percentage
of
the Taiwanese two-wheeler market
in 2016 was only
2%.
The
BSS
interface between the product and the E2W
wners
is
crucial for facilitating the user-BSS interaction.
This highlights the importance
of
user acceptance for
BSSs.
Across the domains
of
psychology, information systems, and
sociology, numerous theoretical models have been developed
to explain users'acceptance
of
technology. One
of
the most
widely cited frameworks in the area
of
transport technology
is
the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), which builds
on Ajzen's (1985) Theory
of
Reasoned Action (TRA) in an
effort to understand acceptance in relation to the uptake
of
new technologies (Davis, 1989). TAM posits that Perceived
Ease
of
Use and Perceived Usefulness are the two most
important factors in explaining system/technology use.
However, TAM
is
ineffective in modeling the underlying
reasons why people intend to interact with system because
they are primarily focused on extrinsic motivation in
explaining and predicting system usage intention in the
workplace (Wang & Scheepers, 2012
).
Some researchers
have evaluated the role
of
intrinsic motivation in predicting
system acceptance (Davis et al.,
1992;
Lee
et
al
., 2005;
Venkatesh, 2000). This study considers the influences
of
intrinsic motivation and hedonic context in predicting sys-
tem acceptance. Hence, usability, user experience (UX), and
intrinsic motivation are defined
as
relevant evaluation crite-
ria to predict users'acceptance
of
BSS
service because they
directly relate to the perceived usefulness and ease
of
use
criteria
of
the TAM, and may moderate attitudes and behav-
ioral intentions to use a product. More specifically, usability
is
widely recognized
as
critical to the success
of
interactive
systems or products (ISO 9241-11,
1997;
Shackel,
1991
).
In
addition, the concept
of
UX
is
a user's subjective view, i.e.,
perceptual and emotional aspects, on a specific property
of
an object in a certain context at that specific moment. In
ther
words, usability
is
on how the
use
performs
or would
be able to perform with a system to carry out a task success-
fully, whereas user experience
is
on how the user thinks,
feels, and perceptions that results from that interaction.
Furthermore, motivation
is
a force that prompts action
(Pinder, 1998) and relates to conscious
or
unconscious deci-
sion involving how, when, and why to allocate effort to a
task or activity (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1987
).
In the context
of
this study, the i e intrinsic motivation constructs derive from
self-determination theory (SDT).
The purpose
of
this study
is
to experimentally explore
use
performances
using a
C-BSS
or a
G-BSS
and opinions
on UXs before and after use
of
a
G-BSS.
We want to under-
stand how using the product affects user evaluation
of
the
quality
of
their interaction with the
G-BSS.
Researcher uses
insight in affect to capture pleasurable consumer experience
of
using
BSS
service. The reason
is
to understand the factors
that influence the acceptance
of
BSSs
in light
of
the usability
and
UX.
More precisely, the acceptance
of
a
BSS
product/
service will be examined based on the user performance and
the emotional response
of
the user, from the point
of
view
of
human-product interaction. Because potential consumers
are using the novel product directly, a greater understanding
of
the factors that affect the adoption
of
a battery swapping
system
is
required in order to better understand and facili-
tate user acceptance. Another goal
of
this study
is
to further
understand whether providing a
BSS
product/service may
increase user willingness to accommodate E2W
s.
The article
is
organized
as
follows. The literature review
describes the E2W products and the
BSS
service in the
transportation context and the three device characteristics
(i.e., usability,
UX,
and intrinsic motivation)
of
predicting
user's acceptance
of
BSS
service. Section 3 explains the
methodology performed in conducting the study. The
experimental study and experimental subjective ratings
developed based
on
usability,
UX,
and
SDT to predict the
acceptance
of
a
BSS
product/service are described in detail.
The results
of
analyzing the data are presented in Section 4,
followed by the discussion and conclusions.
2.
Literature
review
2.1.
Battery
swapping
system
for
electric
two
wheelers (E2Ws)
Electric two wheelers (E2Ws) are defined
as
two-wheeled
vehicles with electric propulsion. In Taiwan, E2Ws include
e-scooters, small-scale e-scooters, e-bikes, and electric-
assisted bicycles. The E2Ws market growth
of
Taiwan
is
hampered by many factors. One
of
the major factors
is
the
limitations on E2Ws batteries, such
as
poor battery perform-
ance, long battery-charging time, limited driving range per
charge, inconvenient charging, high cost, and short lifetime.
Among them, the limited driving range
is
the major prob-
lem that keeps consumers away from E2W s. In order to
overcome this problem, Taiwanese government has intro-
duced several programs to establish foundations for a variety
of
charging services. A program that ran in 1997 established
a foundation for basic charging service for E2Ws. This ser-
vice has a very low user take-up rate. Hence, there
is
no
E2W's charging station
or
spot in the most
of
city. The
major ways to charge batteries for E2W owners are by plug-
ging the E2Ws into a plug at the owner's home or work-
place, or by rapid charging stations at a specialized service
center (only a
few
stations). However, the batteries are large
and heavy. The average weight
of
each
48
V /24 Ah lead-acid
battery (commonly used for E2Ws) and a
48
V/10 Ah lith-
ium-ion battery are
~20-30
kg and
6-9
kg, respectively. It
is
a challenge for the E2W owners who live on higher floors to
charge batteries at household outlets. In addition, the bat-
tery's charging time varies depending on the types
of
charg-
ing technology and equipment. The battery
is
deemed to be
a costly component
of
an E2W considering its initial pur-
chase cost relative to the lifetime
of
the battery (2-3 years).
In
spite
of
the rapid-charging service being fast and free, it
is
likely to be adopted by E2W owners only in emergency
circumstances. This
is
because fast charging processes may
reduce battery life.
The first battery swapping system for E2W was estab-
lished in southern Taiwan in 2010. The battery swapping
service provided by this program has not yet been success-
fully adopted by consumers. Based on this program, it has
been found that a successful battery swapping service should
satisfy following conditions: (1) only a
few
different types
of
standardized batteries and interfaces (Zheng et
al.,
2014)
should be available;
(2)
BSSs
should be strategically posi-
tioned; (3) reduce battery swapping service costs by utilizing
grid electricity during off-peak hours when it
is
cheapest,
or
when more environmental energy generation
is
available;
and (4) maintain the quality
of
the battery swapping service
for managing battery warranty offers/claims and assuring
customers that the battery they are receiving
is
just
as
good
as
the one they are leaving behind. A battery swapping
model and battery certification specifications for E2W s are
proposed to provide a faster charging service than even the
fastest recharging service. The battery swapping model has
used a battery leasing service, which separates the
ownersh
of
the battery and the E2W for battery management and
reduces the expense incurred by E2W owners. A draft
of
the
battery certification specifications was announced by the
Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)
on
December
9,
2013. Its purpose
is
to formulate a size
standard for
48
V/10 Ah-15 Ah lithium-ion batteries, inter-
changeable interface standards to link batteries and vehicles,
and a Taiwan E-scooter Standard (TES) to ensure consist-
ency in battery and vehicle qualities. A 2013-2015 program
provided
~33
operational
C-BSSs
for E2Ws that are open to
the public in limited locations in northern Taiwan. These
BSSs
adopted the battery swapping model and met the bat-
tery certification specifications. Later, G-
BSSs
were open to
the public in northern Taiwan. The Gogoro e-scooters have
been certified by the
TES.
The standardization
of
G-BSS
bat-
teries and interfaces was formulated by Gogoro Inc. Each
Gogoro e-scooter connects 2 x
48
V/30 Ah lithium-ion bat-
teries in series. Hence, the
G-BSS
allows e-scooter owners to
swap their two discharged batteries with two fully charged
batteries
of
the same type in a self-service process.
INTERNATIONAL
JOURNAL
OF
SUSTAINABLE
TRANSPORTATION
@ 3
2.2.
Usability
A basic precondition for
all
BSS
users
is
a usable product
interface and a simple operating procedure. Usability
is
a
description
of
the extent to which human needs can be ful-
filled in terms
of
performance in the swapping batteries task
at
BSS,
and an important basis for the concept
of
usability
is
the user's own evaluations. The most common reasons for
measuring usability are to obtain a more complete under-
standing
of
users'needs
and to improve the usability
of
a
product or the process to avoid having the same problems
again in other products (Dumas & Redish, 1999). In other
words, providing a poorly designed
BSS
may lead to users
find difficult to understand and complicated to operate. In
this case, the
BSS
service may have a very low user take-
up rate.
Usability
is
concerned with "the extent to which a system,
product
or
service can be used by specified users to achieve
specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction
in a specified context
of
use" (ISO FDIS 9241-210, 2009) .
This standard
is
concerned with the usability
of
a piece
of
equipment for a defined set
of
goals in an acceptable
amount
of
time and in specific work place. Also, the users
should be satisfied with the results. This definition
of
usabil-
ity
is
beyond "ease
of
use." Appropriate usability metrics
may allow related researchers to do information-gathering
through requirements setting and finally in evaluation.
There exist a number
of
standardized usability question-
naire, such
as
Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction
(QUIS) (Chin et al.,
1988
),
System Usability Scale
(SUS)
(Brooke, 1996
),
and Usefulness, Satisfaction, and Ease
of
Use (USE) questionnaire (Lund,
2001
).
In this study, the
contents
of
the questionnaire designed in measuring
BSS
usability are based on the terms
of
the effectiveness, effi-
ciency and satisfaction with which users perform tasks when
using it and refer to the contents
of
the abovementioned
questionnaires.
2
User
experience
To create successful products
or
services in the market
is
necessary to ensure that the product can create a good
UX
for their target users.
ISO
9241-210 (2010) defined
UX
as
"a
person's perceptions and responses that result from the use
or anticipated use
of
a product, system or service." The
UX
is
associated with a wide variety
of
meanings (Forlizzi and
Battarbee, 2004) ranging from traditional functionality,
product usefulness, and product usability to physical form
or design
of
a product (Bloch, 1995), the esthetic quality
of
a product (Bernier,
1996;
Norman, 2004), beauty (Alben,
1996; Lavie & Tractinsky, 2004; Maslow, 1954; Postrel,
2002
),
pragmatic quality (user-perceived usability), hedonic
quality (pleasure-producing product qualities) (Hassenzahl,
2004
),
emotional or experiential aspects
of
technology use
(Desmet & Hekkert, 2007
),
and the extent to which user
needs are met (Hassenzahl et al., 2015
).
In
addition, the
UX
is
the experience
of
a person at a particular moment
(Whiteside & Wixon, 1987), and has both utilitarian and
emotional aspects that change over time (Rhea,
1992
). The
... It contains the private sector sides. Later after the government announces its directions the EMs and Battery manufacturers will design the products and their specifications in parallel to comply with the government directions and the products will be tested to reach the standard in safety functions to ensure that the product is not harmful to the users on downstream process, in this process after the user buy the EMs they wish for ensuring that the infrastructures of swapping battery will be sufficient to reduce their range of anxiety [9]. Accordingly, this study will focus on its details to be scope the framework [1], [3], [6], [10]. ...
... Hereupon in terms of EMs, the users are relying on the different segmentation. Even though the normal charging stations are distributing sufficiently whereas EMs still require a charging time longer than the conventional motorcycles hence the swappable battery station is suggested to introduce in this context [8], [12]- [16].Thereby to sort out the feasibility study of the swapping battery infrastructure for EMs, from the previous literature reviews in similar contexts especially Indonesia and Taiwan as well as neighbour countries in ASEAN, necessarily apply their guideline to delve into the main resources to scrutinize the problems in Table 1 together with the solving solutions by the Table 2 respectively [7], [9], [15]- [19]. [20], swapping payment as well as tracking users location in emergency cases of battery depleting but the existing applications use are still not designed to be user friendly and the users will be subjected to extra charges. ...
... To sought out the problems, the authors studied the concerned literature from the neighbour countries and the developed countries, simultaneously with the electric motorcycle activities between industries and the related Thai governments as well as other parties able to conclude that the solutions and key affiliations are illustrated by the Table 2. suggests that the EV sellers should contact third parties such as insurance company to services the users in emergency cases especially in case of depleted battery or its malfunctions [9]. ...
... [19], [20], [21] El tema de las baterías eléctricas también está presente en muchos artículos, se observan publicaciones de cómo estas han evolucionado mucho en los últimos años y en cómo se debe disponer de ellas o su reutilización. [22], [23], [24] Otro de los temas encontrados en las publicaciones del área de ingeniería es el balanceo de sistemas de uso compartido, algunos de ellos hablan de Scooters y bicicletas aparte, pero algunos los mezclan según el uso de los mismos en las ciudades y su importancia en el transporte de última milla. [2], [25], [26] Un tema importante en la ingeniería de tránsito es el cambio modal, como pasar de un medio de transporte al otro y se encuentran publicaciones que tratan de determinar este tipo de cambios ya sea pasar del automóvil a la patineta o a la bicicleta eléctrica. ...
... Motor síncrono 26,27,28,29,30,31 Motor trifásico 26 Movilidad 92,191,194,198,199,200,204,206 Movilidad eléctrica 198,199 O R Radiación 17,20,23,24 Reciclaje 65, 73 Reinforced 1,6,7,47 Resolución de problemas 122,123,124,132,133,134,135 Reutilización 65,73,74,77,79,83,84,85,86,204 ...
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A coleção de trabalhos intitulada “Entre Ciencia e Ingenieria 3” é uma obra que tem como foco principal a discussão científica por intermédio de diversos trabalhos que compõe seus capítulos. O volume abordará de forma categorizada e interdisciplinar, pesquisas cujos resultados possam auxiliar na tomada de decisão, tanto no campo acadêmico, quanto no profissional. Nos capítulos apresentados, são encontrados estudos de grande valia nas áreas da simulação computacional, materias, gestão energética, aspectos industriais, estudos ambientais, na área da educação e otimização. A composição dos temas buscou a proposta de fundamentar o conhecimento de acadêmicos (as), mestres (as) e todos (as) aqueles (as) que de alguma forma se interessam pela área da Engenharia, através de temáticas atuais com resoluções inovadoras, descritas nos capítulos da coleção. Sendo assim, a divulgação científica é apresentada com grande importância para o desenvolvimento de toda uma nação, portanto, fica evidenciada a responsabilidade de transmissão dos saberes através de plataformas consolidadas e confiáveis, como a Atena Editora, capaz de oferecer uma maior segurança para os novos pesquisadores e os que já atuam nas diferentes áreas de pesquisa, exporem e divulgarem seus resultados.
... [19], [20], [21] El tema de las baterías eléctricas también está presente en muchos artículos, se observan publicaciones de cómo estas han evolucionado mucho en los últimos años y en cómo se debe disponer de ellas o su reutilización. [22], [23], [24] Otro de los temas encontrados en las publicaciones del área de ingeniería es el balanceo de sistemas de uso compartido, algunos de ellos hablan de Scooters y bicicletas aparte, pero algunos los mezclan según el uso de los mismos en las ciudades y su importancia en el transporte de última milla. [2], [25], [26] Un tema importante en la ingeniería de tránsito es el cambio modal, como pasar de un medio de transporte al otro y se encuentran publicaciones que tratan de determinar este tipo de cambios ya sea pasar del automóvil a la patineta o a la bicicleta eléctrica. ...
... Motor síncrono 26,27,28,29,30,31 Motor trifásico 26 Movilidad 92,191,194,198,199,200,204,206 Movilidad eléctrica 198,199 O R Radiación 17,20,23,24 Reciclaje 65, 73 Reinforced 1,6,7,47 Resolución de problemas 122,123,124,132,133,134,135 Reutilización 65,73,74,77,79,83,84,85,86,204 ...
... [19], [20], [21] El tema de las baterías eléctricas también está presente en muchos artículos, se observan publicaciones de cómo estas han evolucionado mucho en los últimos años y en cómo se debe disponer de ellas o su reutilización. [22], [23], [24] Otro de los temas encontrados en las publicaciones del área de ingeniería es el balanceo de sistemas de uso compartido, algunos de ellos hablan de Scooters y bicicletas aparte, pero algunos los mezclan según el uso de los mismos en las ciudades y su importancia en el transporte de última milla. [2], [25], [26] Un tema importante en la ingeniería de tránsito es el cambio modal, como pasar de un medio de transporte al otro y se encuentran publicaciones que tratan de determinar este tipo de cambios ya sea pasar del automóvil a la patineta o a la bicicleta eléctrica. ...
... Motor síncrono 26,27,28,29,30,31 Motor trifásico 26 Movilidad 92,191,194,198,199,200,204,206 Movilidad eléctrica 198,199 O R Radiación 17,20,23,24 Reciclaje 65, 73 Reinforced 1,6,7,47 Resolución de problemas 122,123,124,132,133,134,135 Reutilización 65,73,74,77,79,83,84,85,86,204 ...
... A battery swapping service based on a vehicle and battery separation model is one useful strategy for promoting e-scooters. This service makes the recharging of e-scooters as convenient as using a gas station for fuel-powered scooters and increases commuter acceptance of e-scooters [6]. However, previous research has indicated that e-scooters may be an effective solution to urban congestion and the last-mile problem, and they do not necessarily reduce environmental impacts from the transportation system. ...
... In addition, the extended unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT2) [16] was adapted to investigate performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, hedonic motivation, habits, and price value on the behavioral intention to use shared scooters. The core of UX evaluation is to understand the experiences evoked by use of a product [6]. Aesthetic, pragmatic, and hedonic qualities were used to elicit travelers' subjective responses to shared scooter usage. ...
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This paper proposes an innovative shared scooter service whereby scooter owners can authorize the rental of their scooters to others through a mobile service platform. It constitutes a public short-distance mobility service for travelers and increases the efficient utilization of each private scooter. The study examines the adoption of scooter-sharing services by travelers and adapts the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology, attitude, and user experience (UX) to investigate the factors that may influence traveler acceptance of scooter-sharing services. The data were collected from Taiwanese travelers who used the shared scooters provided in this study and completed pre- and post-use subjective ratings of the scooter-sharing service (n = 99), analyzed using a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that the model constructs of habit, social influence, and environmental protections may positively affect users’ behavioral intentions toward shared scooters, while performance expectancy and effort expectancy may negatively affect intention to use. Attitudes and UX had no direct effect on intention to use. In light of the findings, recommendations for improving the design of scooter-sharing services, implications for service providers, and a reference basis for the development of future shared micro-mobility services are provided.
... A Multi-Level Perspective (MLP) analysis on mobility transition in Asia remains scarce [49][50][51] and even fewer focus on the dominance of two-wheel vehicles [52]. The existing literature on twowheels mostly focuses on consumer preferences and adoption behaviors [19,[53][54][55][56][57] and do not view scooters through the lens of sociotechnical system. With such background, an empirical analysis of Taiwan's e-scooter development can contribute unique insights to understand mobility transition. ...
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Phasing out fossil fuel vehicles is an indispensable pillar to decarbonize the transportation sector. In 2017, Taiwan proposed to ban all new sales of gasoline-powered scooters by 2035 and passenger cars by 2040. In less than two years, the phase-out policy was suspended. We explore this policy failure through the lens of multi-level perspective (MLP) framework and examine the interactions between the radical niche innovations, the incumbent regime, and the socio-technical landscape. We first show that the scooter industry played a decisive role in the policymaking processes. As an emerging niche innovation, however, the e-scooter manufacturers faced difficulties with scaling up their new system and confronting customer complaints. We also illustrate that Taiwan's fossil fuel vehicle phase-out suffers from hasty policy formulation and lack of effective coordination. The incumbent regime took advantage of the fragmented governance structure, and even brought back gasoline scooter subsidies successfully. In the socio-technical landscape, the phase-out policy is embedded in the ruling party's progressive reform package. Taiwan's gasoline scooter supply chains, in the campaign of “Equal Rights for Gasoline and Electricity”, appropriated the rhetoric of social justice and framed the phase-out policy as unfair. Facing huge defeat in the local election in 2018, the ruling party considered the phase-out policy as immature and reversed course. This paper provides a rare case study of mobility transition when two-wheel vehicles are dominant, and offer implications to countries in similar contexts.
... For environmentally sustainable development, the use of electric scooters would be to make the public much more aware of the problem of pollution emissions. In response to this, related industries, such as Gogoro Inc. and Ionex, have been invited to propose a quick battery swapping (BS) method to better replace the time-consuming battery charging of ESs [2]. To our disappointment, the "range anxiety" in this regard is mainly attributed to the inherent problem of a relatively small number of BS stations (BSSs). ...
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Better battery swapping station (BSS) allocation helps reduce range anxiety. But the uncertain nature of battery swapping demand (BSD) deserves attention, and few models discussed the multiobjective scooter BSS allocation. To reduce the aforesaid problem, this paper advocates the research on innovation by developing a grid-based multiobjective stochastic allocation model for scooter BSS (MSASBSS). Based on the concept of sample average approximation (SAA), Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and traffic flow, the MSASBSS mode produced large numbers of different BSD scenarios to solve the uncertain BSD problem. Meanwhile, this mode also optimized the BSS allocation and satisfied both the various BSD scenarios and the minimal construction cost of BSSs with the average driving distance of battery swapping taken into account. In this semi-realistic study case, the MSASBSS was validated. Finally, the grid-based MSASBSS model could provide the multiobjective and visually optimized BSS allocation to decision-makers for their more flexible selection of the exact BSS locations shown in a grid. Uncertainty analyses demonstrated that the use of SAA-based algorithm could resolve the uncertain problem of BSD in relation to the scooter BSS allocation.
... They usually charge at residential buildings from regular power outlets, some via extension cords, which have caused many safety issues [29]. Recently, self-service battery swapping(BSW) systems have emerged as a considerable solution in addressing the issue of E2Ws refueling, with high user acceptance and satisfaction [30,31]. ...
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The surging electricity consumption and energy cost have become a primary concern in the planning of the upcoming 5G systems. The integration of distributed renewable energy sources (RESs), such as solar and wind, is considered to be a viable solution for cutting energy bills and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions of 5G base stations(BSs). Meanwhile, battery swapping(BSW) service for Electric two-wheelers (E2Ws) is a burgeoning method to address the issue of E2Ws refueling in urban areas. The authors spotted potentials in the integration and cooperation of 5G BSs, distributed RES generations, and BSW systems for E2Ws. This paper proposes a simulation-based optimization framework for cooperative planning of the integrated system of 5G BS, RES generations, and BSW systems. A multi-paradigm simulation model is presented to mimic all the heterogeneous components contained in the integrated system, as well as their complex interconnections, and to take the involved uncertainties and distributive characteristics into account. Then an optimization model is developed based on the presented simulation model under different scenarios, to minimize the comprehensive annualized expense, with consideration of all the operation and planning constraints of the integrated system. Finally, the proposed simulation-based optimization framework is applied to practical cases under different scenarios. Numerical results and comparison analysis reveal how the integration of RES generations and BSW systems benefit 5G BS in expense cutting and RES accommodating.
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Electric vehicle (EV) charging is still time-consuming compared with traditional vehicle refueling, making many consumers hesitant to make the switch. As a solution, battery swapping allows EVs to get energized within minutes. As economies like China embrace the emerging battery swap market, relevant automakers face strategic choices between self-operation and authorization. This study establishes game-theoretic models of a duopoly EV market comprising two automakers and a battery swap market involving an additional third-party operator. Each automaker may run its own battery swap service entirely or license at least part of it to the third-party operator. The results suggest that authorization is typically optimal for a competitive automaker, as its collaboration with the third-party operator enhances both EV market demand and battery swap serviceability, leading to increased social welfare in 99% of simulated cases. Practical implications are discussed for promoting EV industry chain development with the new link of battery swapping.
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Battery Swapping Station (BSS) proposes an alternative way of refueling Electric Vehicles (EVs) that can lead towards a sustainable transportation ecosystem. BSS has significant potential to function as a grid scale energy storage. This paper provides a broad review of relation of BSS with EVs and power grid. Distinct operations of BSS such as presently available swapping techniques, life of BSS batteries, and location selection of BSS are reviewed. Further, research related to grid integrated BSS in terms of battery charging strategies, energy management of BSS, and renewable energy integration with BSS is discussed. In addition, various optimization strategies of BSSs are outlined and scheduling of EVs and BSS i.e., Battery to Grid (B2G), Grid to Battery (G2B), Battery to Battery (B2B) are also discussed. The paper also presents case studies of currently operating BSSs to recognize it's commercialization along with early failure stories. Finally, Challenges associated with BSS, present trends and advancements are discussed. BSS can be a promising technology for the EV proliferation.
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We collected over a thousand technology-mediated positive experiences with media and obtained measures describing aspects of the experience itself (affect, psychological need fulfillment) and of the product (i.e., content and technology) integral to the experience (pragmatic quality, hedonic quality). We found a strong relation between intensity of need fulfillment and positive affect. Furthermore, different activities had different need profiles. Watching was foremost a relatedness experience, listening a stimulation and meaning experience, and playing a competence experience. Need fulfillment and positive affect was related to perceptions of hedonic quality, however moderated through attribution, that is, the belief that the product played a role in creating the experience. Pragmatic quality was not linked to experiential measures. The present study (a) demonstrates the merits of distinguishing between an experience-oriented and a product-oriented evaluation, (b) suggests a set of possible measurement instruments for experience-oriented and a product-oriented evaluation, and (c) details the process of how positive experience is transformed into positive product perceptions and judgments of appeal.
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Conference Paper
This study aims to understand the factors that influence the acceptance of battery swap station (BSS) for electric scooters and the intention of using the BSS in the light of the user experience. This study is an initial stage; therefore, an experiment was conducted with a sample of 28 participants who had no experienced the service from selected BSS of this study - Gostation and filled out user experience evaluation questionnaire for eliciting their emotions and usage intention. The results showed that the average operation time was approximately 32.05 s. All participants agreed with the Gostation may provide them with a convenient charging service. Results also revealed that positive correlations were noted between usage intention and positive emotions, such as the emotions of pleasant surprise, fascination, and desire.