The Development of Rapid Method for Detection of Ethanol in Mouthwash Using E-Nose


The Development of Rapid Method for Detection of Ethanol in Mouthwash Using E-Nose

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The purpose of this study is to check for ethanol (EtOH) content in mouthwash products sold in Malaysia market using portable electronic-nose (E-Nose). For this study, 20 mouthwashes were tested with nine of the samples contain EtOH as part of its ingredients. The problem with those products is that it does not disclose the concentration of the EtOH as part of its labelling. This is important since long-term use of ethanol-containing mouthwash may result in adverse health effect to the consumer. The process parameters used in this study was optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM), with strong relations between actual and predicted sensor response yield correlation of determination, R2 of 0.9756. Optimum process parameters generated by Design Expert 7.1.5 showed that the optimum volume for EtOH sample was 5.84 mL for 1.45 min time of detection. While for screening process, it was found that from the detection of alcohol-free mouthwash using portable E-Nose, no alcohol content detected with ‘alcohol free’ was displayed on the LCD screen of the device. However, 9 out of 10 mouthwash samples that have no ‘alcohol free’ label on the products contain more than 10% (v/v) EtOH. Hence, this study had successfully optimized the process parameters and screened the mouthwashes sold in Malaysia market for the presence of EtOH.

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Poor oral health has been reported as a risk factor in the etiology of head and neck cancer. Data on oral health were ascertained as part of two multicenter case-control studies comprising 924 cases and 928 controls in central Europe and 2,286 cases and 1,824 controls in Latin America. Incident cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx) and esophagus, as well as age (in quinquennia)- and sex frequency-matched controls, were enrolled from 1998 to 2003. Poor condition of the mouth (central Europe: odds ratio (OR) = 2.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.74, 4.81; Latin America: OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47, 2.42), lack of toothbrush use (Latin America: OR = 2.36, 95% CI: 1.28, 4.36), and daily mouthwash use (Latin America: OR = 3.40, 95% CI: 1.96, 5.89) emerged as risk factors for head and neck cancer, independent of tobacco use and alcohol consumption. Missing between six and 15 teeth was an independent risk factor for esophageal cancer (central Europe: OR = 2.84, 95% CI: 1.26, 6.41; Latin America: OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 4.59). These results indicate that periodontal disease (as indicated by poor condition of the mouth and missing teeth) and daily mouthwash use may be independent causes of cancers of the head, neck, and esophagus.
Conference Paper
This study has been successfully conducted to develop a method for rapid detection of ethanol (EtOH) content in beverages using portable electronic nose (E-Nose) prototype. E-Nose is a device that mimics human olfactory system and is widely used in food analysis. From previous studies, it was found that a portable device for the detection of halal compound is needed in the market. The portable electronic nose developed by International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) is found to be very reliable for the detection of EtOH in various beverages such as alcoholic beverages, isotonic drinks, soft drinks and fruit juices of different brands sold in Malaysia. The device has high accuracy and reliability, where it could detect EtOH content as low as 0.1% (v/v). From the screening process, it was found that products that have halal label from the food producer itself has a small amount of EtOH present in the beverages.
The consumption of ethanol is known to increase the likelihood of oral cancer. In addition, there has been a growing concern about possible association between long term use of ethanol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde, known to be a carcinogen, is the first metabolite of ethanol and it can be produced in the oral cavity after consumption or exposure to ethanol. This paper reports on the development of a gas-diffusion flow injection method for the online determination of salivary acetaldehyde by its colour reaction with 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and ferric chloride. Acetaldehyde samples and standards (80μL) were injected into the donor stream containing NaCl from which acetaldehyde diffused through the hydrophobic Teflon membrane of the gas-diffusion cell into the acceptor stream containing the two reagents mentioned above. The resultant intense green coloured dye was monitored spectrophotometrically at 600nm. Under the optimum working conditions the method is characterized by a sampling rate of 9h(-1), a linear calibration range of 0.5-15mgL(-1) (absorbance=5.40×10(-2) [acetaldehyde, mgL(-1)], R(2)=0.998), a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.90% (n=10, acetaldehyde concentration of 2.5mgL(-1)), and a limit of detection (LOD) of 12.3μgL(-1). The LOD and sampling rate of the proposed method are superior to those of the conventional gas chromatographic (GC) method (LOD=93.0μgL(-1) and sampling rate=4h(-1)). The reliability of the proposed method was illustrated by the fact that spiked with acetaldehyde saliva samples yielded excellent recoveries (96.6-101.9%), comparable to those obtained by GC (96.4-102.3%) and there was no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the two methods when non-spiked saliva samples were analysed.
Worldwide, oral cancer represents approximately 5 per cent of all malignant lesions, with over 800 new intra-oral squamous cell carcinomas registered in Australia each year. Despite recent advances in therapy, the five-year survival rate remains around 50 per cent and the sequelae of treatment can be seriously debilitating. It has been long established that smoking and alcohol consumption are risk factors linked to the development of oral cancer. This review assesses the epidemiological evidence, supportive in vitro studies and mechanism by which alcohol is involved in the development of oral cancer. Further, we review the literature that associates alcohol-containing mouthwashes and oral cancer. On the basis of this review, we believe that there is now sufficient evidence to accept the proposition that alcohol-containing mouthwashes contribute to the increased risk of development of oral cancer and further feel that it is inadvisable for oral healthcare professionals to recommend the long-term use of alcohol-containing mouthwashes.
Previous reports have indicated that certain mouthrinses, even when used as directed can induce oral pain. In order to help determine the causal agent(s), various commercially available mouthrinses, as well as control solutions, were tested in a psychophysical study in which subjects rated categories of pain during and after mouthrinsing. More specifically, the studies tested the effects of ethanol concentration on induced pain. The results show that there is a direct relationship between ethanol content and the amount of induced pain. Furthermore, the amount of pain was found to increase with time of rinsing, and to slowly decrease after cessation of rinsing. Lastly, comparison of ethanol/water controls with a marketed product (Clear Choice) matched for ethanol content showed that, while ethanol was the key factor in mouthwash-induced oral pain, other presently unidentified agents can also add to the effect.
IIUM-fabricated portable electronic nose for
  • Nurul Asyikeen
  • A M Irwandi
  • J Akmeliawati