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The verbs of perception: A typological study

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... The basic perception verb paradigms of Semaq Beri and Semelai are presented following Viberg's (1984) typological study of the lexicalization patterns of perception verbs. The five sense modalities are categorized according to two eventtypes, where either the perceiver or the percept is encoded as subject. ...
... Nicole Kruspe and Asifa Majid In the experience event-type, Semelai collapses three sensory modalitiestouch, taste, and smell -to a single term ɲam 'to touch, taste, smell' . The sensory modes may be differentiated by the inclusion of the abstract term like kʰləm 'odour' for olfactory perception as in Example (9), the perceptory organ as illustrated in the folk definition for the verb ɲam in Example (10), or a verb expressing the perceptual quality as in Example (11) There are no sensory copular verbs that fit Viberg's (1984) source-type. Moreover, there are culture-specific restrictions on the types of information or knowledge that can be attained through perception that exclude evaluative or impressionistic inferences. ...
... It appears to be this feature that allows controlled verbs of touch to occur in the "sensory" hortative in Semaq Beri, see Section 2.1.1. It is difficult to construe any of the contact verbs as a core perception verb for this modality, and in the current analysis we concur with Viberg (1984) in excluding them. ...
Article
There is a long history presuming smell is not expressible in language, but numerous studies in recent years challenge this presupposition. Large smell lexica have been reported around the world thereby showing high lexical codability in this domain. Psycholinguistic studies likewise find smell can be described with relatively high agreement, demonstrating high efficient codability . Often the two go hand-in-hand: languages with high lexical codability also display high efficient codability. This study compares two Austroasiatic (Aslian) languages – Semaq Beri and Semelai – previously shown to diverge in their efficient codability for smell: Semaq Beri showed relatively high efficient codability, whereas Semelai did not. Despite this, we demonstrate that both languages have high lexical codability, i.e., large lexica of basic smell terms. This seems to be a feature of the Aslian language family, suggesting a long-standing preoccupation with odours. More generally, the dissociation between lexical and efficient codability suggests a more nuanced approach towards linguistic expressibility is necessary.
... Es necesario destacar que la distinción de los verbos de percepción voluntaria e involuntaria es una de las bases para la clasificación de los verbos de percepción de Viberg (1984), que presentaremos en el apartado 2.4.3: los verbos de actividad y los verbos de experiencia, lo que supone admitir la existencia de una posible oposición léxica entre los verbos de percepción, aunque esto ha sido descartado por diversos autores, aceptando que la percepción se mueve en un continuum. ...
... En primer lugar, los ejemplos de (1), propuestos Ibarretxe, hacen referencia al proceso mediante el cual percibimos los distintos fenómenos del exterior. En términos de Ibarretxe (1999b: 43), los verbos que presentamos a continuación corresponden con verbos de percepción de experiencia o experiencer verbs, según Viberg (1984). ...
... (2) Por último, debemos mencionar el tercer tipo de verbos, los de percepción copulativa (Ibarretxe, 1999b) o copulative verbs (Viberg, 1984) en los que el estímulo es sujeto de la propia percepción, es decir, estamos ante un sujeto que es fuente del estado (Verbeke, 2010(Verbeke, -2011 (Ibarretxe-Antuñano: 1999b, 52). ...
... Peter looked at the birds. (2) and (4) below, are all taken from Viberg (1984). 38 In his thesis, Rogers (1973) divides this type of verbs into two classes: stative and inchoative. ...
... This group is called 'flip verbs' (Rogers 1971(Rogers : 206, 1972, 'stimulus subject' (Lehrer 1990: 223), 'copulative' (Viberg 1984: 123), and 'percept' (Gisborne 1996:1). Viberg (1984) establishes the differences between experience and activity verbs on the one hand and copulative verbs on the other, on the basis of what he calls 'base selection', i.e. the choice of grammatical subject among the deep semantic case roles 45 associated with a certain verb. In the former case, verbs are 'experiencer-based'; that is to say the verb takes an animate being with certain mental experience as a subject. ...
... Basque and Spanish. Viberg's (1983Viberg's ( , 1984 lexicalisation hierarchy in (6) sumatu no longer means 'to smell', the fact that it is derived from suma 'smell' seems to meaning (Herskovits 1986), and 'primary nuclear sense' (Austin 1961). 48 contradict Viberg's hierarchy at least in the case of Basque. ...
... Using a different approach that depends on a discourse of conversational data, Grigore (2014), in his article, analyzed the polysemy of the verb of perception ‫شاف‬ (shāf') "to see" in colloquial Baghdadi Arabic by testing two universal hypotheses regarding verbs of perception. The first is Viberg's (1983) universal hierarchy of the senses within the sense modality (i.e., intra-field extensions, like "to see" > "to hear") and the second by Sweetser (1990), which dealt with the cognitive semantic extension of verbs of perception to domains of intellection and knowledge (i.e., trans-field extensions, like "to see" > "to know"). ...
... The results of his study showed that both hypotheses are evident in the verb ‫شاف‬ (shāf') "to see" in Baghdadi Arabic. The findings of the study support Viberg's (1983) hypothesis of the hierarchy of the senses which states that the sense of sight is on the top of this hierarchy. Moreover, the study supports Sweetser's (1990) theory of the universality of vision metaphor and the connection between vision and intellection. ...
... Using a different approach that depends on a discourse of conversational data, Grigore (2014), in his article, analyzed the polysemy of the verb of perception ‫شاف‬ (shāf') "to see" in colloquial Baghdadi Arabic by testing two universal hypotheses regarding verbs of perception. The first is Viberg's (1983) universal hierarchy of the senses within the sense modality (i.e., intra-field extensions, like "to see" > "to hear") and the second by Sweetser (1990), which dealt with the cognitive semantic extension of verbs of perception to domains of intellection and knowledge (i.e., trans-field extensions, like "to see" > "to know"). ...
... The results of his study showed that both hypotheses are evident in the verb ‫شاف‬ (shāf') "to see" in Baghdadi Arabic. The findings of the study support Viberg's (1983) hypothesis of the hierarchy of the senses which states that the sense of sight is on the top of this hierarchy. Moreover, the study supports Sweetser's (1990) theory of the universality of vision metaphor and the connection between vision and intellection. ...
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This study focuses on whether the metaphors of visual perception are really as universal as has been argued in the literature as research in non-Western languages has demonstrated that the metaphors are not universal. Thus, this study aims at unraveling the conceptual metaphors underlying the linguistic expressions of the Arabic verb of visual perception ىأر (ra’a) in fiction writing. This study adopts a qualitative approach and is situated within the field of cognitive semantics. A corpus of Arabic fiction writing, comprising 1 million words, between the period of 2010 and 2017 was compiled from different sources. Specifically, a sample consisting of 1,000 examples of the Arabic verb of visual perception ىأر was randomly extracted from the corpus using Ghawwas_V4.6 concordancer. The metaphor identification procedures (MIPs) were used to identify the metaphorical linguistic expressions in the corpus, and Lakoff and Johnson’s and Sweetser’s analytical frameworks were adopted for data analysis. The data analysis revealed many conceptual metaphors of knowledge and understanding underlying the metaphorical linguistic expression of the verb ىأر in Arabic. The findings of this study support Sweetser’s claim regarding the universality of conceptual metaphors related to the verbs of visual perception in motivating metaphors of knowledge and intellection. Thus, this study contributes to the literature on verbs of perception, particularly verbs of visual perception, as it is the first to address the conceptual metaphors underlying the verb ىأر in Arabic using real authentic corpus of fiction writing.
... Kolejne badania korpusowe (Czyżewska, 2011;Popova, 2005;Shen, 1997;Viberg, 1984;Williams, 1976) potwierdzają tezę Ullmanna (1957) o tendencyjnej kierunkowości metafor intersensualnych, w których mniej dystynktywne (pod względem ewolucyjnym, fizjologicznym, ale i językowym) domeny zmysłów kontaktu bezpośredniego (usytuowany na dnie skali wyrazistości sensorycznej dotyk, następnie smak oraz zapach) określają wtórnie jakości pochodzące z bardziej wyspecjalizowanych i precyzyjniej różnicujących bodźce zmysłówsłuchu oraz wzroku. Częstsze transfery oddolne (typu "ciepłe → spojrzenie") Czyżewska (2011) nazywa "konwencjonalnymi", zaś rzadsze odgórne (typu "cicha → woń") -"niekonwencjonalnymi". ...
... Ginter, 2016), podejmujące temat w granicach pola badawczego profilowanego już jako ściślej literaturoznawcze -choć nie stroniące od wycieczek interdyscyplinarnych. Najczęstszą metodą opracowań wcześniejszych było podejście językoznawcze (zob. również analizy Wysockiej, 2009), zwłaszcza zaś metodologia lingwistyki korpusowej (Czyżewska, 2011;Popova, 2005;Shen, 1997;Ullmann, 1957;Viberg, 1984;Williams, 1976). Cenna analiza Tsura (2007) wskazuje na odmienne efekty literackie, uzyskane wskutek wyróżnionych przez Ullmanna (1957) kierunków transferów -częstsze synestezje oddolne spajają, prymitywizują doświadczenie (efekt pożądany przez romantyków, symbolistów), zaś rzadsze metafory odgórne (częstsze w poezji barokowej, metafizycznej) kreują wrażenie wyrafinowanego eksperymentu, intelektualnego dowcipu, maniery, udziwnienia doświadczenia 2 . ...
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WPROWADZENIE Chociaż zjawisko synestezji znane jest od kilkuset lat, w ostatniej dekadzie zainteresowanie synestezją przeżywa niezwykły rozkwit. Aktualnie badania nad synestezją prowadzone są w wielu ośrodkach na świecie, w perspektywie psychologii, kognitywistyki, neurologii, genetyki, medycyny, jak również muzyki, sztuk pięknych i literatury. Niniejsza publikacja wpisuje się w ten nurt rozważań. Przybliża polskiemu czytelnikowi po raz pierwszy światową literaturę naukową, wyjaśniając synestezję z punktu widzenia psychologii różnic indywidualnych, nauk poznawczych i neuropsychologii. Zjawisko synestezji jest tu ukazane z perspektywy nauki i sztuki. Przegląd współczesnych badań naukowych nad synestezją został uzupełniony opisem i analizą własnych doznań synestetycznych autorów niniejszej publikacji, którzy wykorzystują nierzadko synestezję do własnej twórczości artystycznej w dziedzinie muzyki, plastyki czy poezji. Subiektywny opis doświadczeń „z pierwszej ręki” łączy się tu z obiektywnym wglądem w naturę synestezji w perspektywie naukowej, co stanowić może nieocenioną wartość dla badacza tego zjawiska. Czytelnik może porównać też własne doznania z synestetyczną percepcją świata, opisywaną przez autorów tej książki, aby przekonać się, do jakiego stopnia możemy różnie postrzegać otaczający nas świat, jak niezwykłe są nasze zmysły i jak fascynująca może być próba odkrycia zagadki ludzkiego umysłu. Psychologowie dostarczają wyjaśnień teoretycznych, opisując zjawisko, klasyfikując rozliczne rodzaje i typy synestezji, ukazując możliwości jej diagnozy, dokonując przeglądu badań empirycznych. Artyści dostarczają wskazówek praktycznych, opierając się na autorefleksji, studiach przypadków i wywiadach z wybitnymi synestetykami, co pomaga zrozumieć, jak funkcjonuje synestetyk na co dzień, jak wykorzystuje swoje specyficzne możliwości w procesie twórczym. W ten sposób niniejsza książka prezentuje syntetyczny opis zjawiska synestezji, który może zaciekawić zarówno ekspertów, jak i nieprofesjonalistów. Pierwsza część publikacji przedstawia zjawisko synestezji w świetle badań psychologicznych. Justyna Skowronek w artykule „Czy jesteś synestetykiem? O rodzajach i diagnozowaniu synestezji” ukazuje ogromne zróżnicowanie sposobów przejawiania się synestezji i dokonuje próby usystematyzowania jej licznych typów. Artykuł ten wprowadza Czytelnika w tematykę synestezji, prezentując krótką historię psychologicznych badań nad naturą synestezji, jak również przegląd metod badawczych, wykorzystywanych do diagnozowania tego zjawiska. Artykuł Karoliny Czerneckiej „Biologiczne podłoże synestezji” doskonale wpisuje się w dominujący nurt współczesnych badań nad synestezją w perspektywie neuropsychologicznej. Autorka dokonała analizy badań nad biologicznymi korelatami synestezji z wykorzystaniem technik neuroobrazowania. Celem przeglądu rozmaitych teorii i modeli funkcjonowania mózgu synestetyka jest wykrycie neuronalnych mechanizmów powstawania doświadczeń synestetycznych. Wyjaśnienie biologicznych podstaw różnic indywidualnych wśród synestetyków wymaga też prezentacji badań nad odziedziczalnością synestezji i wyznaczenia kierunków dalszych badań. Zwieńczeniem tej części publikacji jest artykuł Aleksandry Rogowskiej, zatytułowany „Czy synestezja jest normalna?” Autorka prezentuje wyniki badań własnych nad zjawiskiem synestezji, rozumianej jako cecha ciągła z silnym i słabym natężeniem na obu biegunach. Na podstawie przeglądu badań z zakresu psychopatologii argumentuje, aby synestezję traktować jako zjawisko normalne o charakterze kompensacyjnym. Część druga książki odnosi się do historii związków między synestezją a sztuką. Iryna I. Boyczuk, w swym artykule pt. „Synestezja jako klucz do poszerzonego odbioru, poznawania i twórczości” prezentuje zjawisko synestezji w kontekście sztuki muzycznej i filmowej. Autorka stawia tezę, iż synestezja stanowi jedną z form abstrakcyjnego asocjacyjnego myślenia twórczego, a wszystkie wywołujące ją zjawiska są wynikiem wzajemnych relacji i wpływu sfery poznawczo-sensorycznej oraz emocjonalnej człowieka. Przegląd teorii, opierających się na wielomodalnym spostrzeganiu natury świata, ukazuje synestezję jako naturalny wytwór ludzkiego myślenia i twórczości w dziedzinie artystycznej jak i naukowej. Rozwinięciem teorii sztuki, wykorzystującej wielomodalną synestezję, jest praca Joanny Ganczarek, zatytułowana „Synestezja w malarstwie jako doświadczenie protomentalne”. Synestezja protomentalna jest stosowana jako środek artystyczny, polegający na integracji informacji wzrokowych i proprioceptywnych. Zgodnie z teorią prezentowaną przez Autorkę, pierwotna synestezyjna fuzja zmysłów stanowi podstawę bardziej złożonych procesów, prowadzących do głębszego doświadczenia dzieła sztuki poprzez włączenie specyficznych odczuć i emocji. Zaprezentowane tu współczesne teorie z pogranicza estetyki i psychologii, kładą nacisk na rolę synestezji w formowaniu ucieleśnionego przeżycia estetycznego. W trzeciej części Czytelnik może zapoznać się z przejawami synestezji w literaturze pięknej. Anna Ginter w rozdziale „Barwne synestezje Vladimira Nabokova” dokonuje szczegółowej analizy językoznawczej rozmaitych dzieł słynnego pisarza, w kontekście jego doznań synestezyjnych. Jak wykazuje Autorka, barwa i wielomodalne skojarzenia odegrały ogromną rolę w twórczości literackiej Nabokova. Niezwykle ciekawe są metapoznawcze próby uchwycenia natury i mechanizmu swych doznań, zaprezentowane przez Nabokova w książkach autobiograficznych. Przejawów synestezji poszukuje też Zuzanna Kozłowska w poezji Haliny Poświatowskiej. W artykule „Synestezyjna poezja Haliny Poświatowskiej” zaprezentowane są dzieła poetki, w których zaznacza się fundamentalna egzaltacja ciała oraz zmysłów. Autorka przedstawia liczne przykłady synestetycznej sensualizacji mowy, pisma, emocji i czasu w twórczości Haliny Poświatowskiej. Synestezyjne splątanie zmysłów potęguje i pogłębia doznawanie rzeczywistości. Jak twierdzi Zuzanna Kozłowska, „synestezja staje się w poezji Poświatowskiej hiperbolą samego istnienia w świecie”. Przykłady wykorzystania synestezji we własnej twórczości artystycznej stanowią zawartość ostatniej części tej publikacji. Cykl otwiera artykuł Szymona S. Strzelca i Anny Sztwiertni pt. „Tysiące odcieni czerni. Synestezja wielomodalna jako mechaniczna podstawa rozumienia w komunikacji i twórczości artystycznej”. Szymon Strzelec opisuje własne doznania synestezyjne w kontekście pracy kompozytorskiej. Autorzy przedstawiają wyniki własnego eksperymentu artystycznego, w którym muzyka, skomponowana przez Szymona Strzelca, została przetworzona na język graficzny przez Annę Sztwiertnię. Synestezja jest tu widziana jako jeden z głównych katalizatorów postępu twórczości w epoce wczesnego posthumanizmu. W artykule „Barwna emanacja sztuki. Wykorzystanie polimodalnej synestezji w twórczości muzycznej i poetyckiej” Monika Kozakiewicz ukazuje zjawisko synestezji w twórczości kompozytorskiej Aleksandra Skriabina i Oliviera Messiaena. Synestezja nie zawsze pozytywnie wpływa na twórczość i codzienne życie, jak wynika z przeglądu studiów przypadków pacjentów Olivera Sacksa. Autorka przedstawia też przykłady przenikania wielomodalnych wrażeń synestetycznych do własnej twórczości muzycznej i poetyckiej, nadając doświadczeniom estetycznym nowego wymiaru. Artykuł Marty Mołodyńskiej-Wheeler, pt. „Synestezja – implikacje praktyczne w pracy muzyka i anglisty” jest swoistym „studium własnego przypadku”. Autorka przytacza liczne opisy własnych doznań synestezyjnych (językowych i muzycznych), jak również podaje wiele przykładów wykorzystywania synestezji w nauce języków obcych, zapamiętywaniu ważnych informacji i interpretacji utworów muzycznych. Niekiedy też synestezja prowadzi do zamieszania czy chaosu informacyjnego, prowokując dyskusję nad przydatnością tego zjawiska w codziennym życiu. Niniejsza monografia jest jedną z nielicznych polskich publikacji na temat synestezji. Do zapoznania się z jej zawartością zachęcamy psychologów, pedagogów, artystów, osoby zainteresowane niezwykłymi zjawiskami percepcyjnymi oraz samych synestetyków. Mamy nadzieję, że książka ta przybliży szerokiemu gronu polskich czytelników to fascynujące zjawisko, jakim jest synestezja. dr hab. Aleksandra Rogowska, prof. UO Instytut Psychologii, Uniwersytet Opolski dr Julia Kaleńska-Rodzaj, Katedra Psychologii, Uniwersytet Pedagogiczny w Krakowie, Krakowski Ośrodek Doradztwa dla Artystów "KODA"
... These verbs are also referred to as object-oriented perception verbs (Whitt 2009(Whitt , 2010a, stimulus subject perception verbs (Levin 1993), phenomenon-based verbs (Viberg 2001), flip-perception verbs (Rogers 1971(Rogers , 1972(Rogers , 1974, and perceptual resemblance verbs (Asudeh & Toivonen 2012). This group of verbs is one of three subclasses of perception verbs, as distinguished in the typological study by Viberg (1984). The other subclasses are active perception verbs and cognitive perception verbs. ...
... Further research is needed to investigate why the use of te 'too' would allow for indirect object experiencers. (Viberg 1984(Viberg , 2001 (2) a. ...
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This article demonstrates the diachronic development of present-day Dutch klinken as an evidential copular verb meaning ‘to seem, based on (auditory) evidence’ from the Middle Dutch intransitive verb klinken meaning ‘to give off a clear sound’. I identify four semantic stages in the history of klinken, which are divided by processes of semantic bleaching (14th–16th century, 16th–17th century) and subjectification and copularization (during the 16th century). I claim that the process of copularization is the trigger of both the evidential meaning and the subjective interpretation that copular constructions with klinken receive. Furthermore, I show that, unlike the development of eruitzien ‘look’ and voelen ‘feel’ from cognitive perception verbs, klinken has developed much like the Dutch copular verbs schijnen ‘seem’ and blijken ‘turn out’: from an intransitive verb with a sensory-related meaning.
... Osjetilni glagoli aktivne percepcije nazivaju se još i aktivni osjetilni glagoli(Poutsma 1926: 341; Leech 1971: 23; Rogers 1971: 206;Viberg 1984: 123) te glagoli s aktivnim subjektom doživljavačem (engl. active experience subject)(Lehrer 1990: 223), a osjetilni glagoli pasivne percepcije pasivnom percepcijom (engl. ...
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U ovome radu analizira se semantička uloga subjekta u konstrukcijama s osjetilnim glagolima iz kognitivnogramatičke perspektive, a prije svega njegova agentivnost. Naime temeljna kategorizacija osjetilnih glagola uspostavlja se upravo u odnosu na semantičku ulogu subjekta u konstrukcijama s osjetilnim glagolima, a glavna je značenjska odrednica subjekta, na temelju koje se osjetilni glagoli dijele na voljne ili glagole aktivne percepcije, nevoljne ili glagole pasivne percepcije te izokrenute osjetilne glagole, pritom upravo njegova agentivnost. Glavni je cilj ovoga rada preispitati općeprihvaćenu kategorizaciju osjetilnih glagola kao stativnih glagola ili glagola stanja, posebice kada su u pitanju glagoli poput vidjeti i čuti , koji se na temelju često pojednostavljenih i nepreciznih jezičnih testova svrstavaju u kategoriju glagola pasivne percepcije i stativnih glagola, a njihov subjekt često opisuje kao pasivni, nevoljni i neagentivni, što onda vodi prema nepreciznomu gramatičkom opisu i pogrešnome shvaćanju ne samo osjetilnih glagola već i drugih gramatičkih koncepata važnih za proučavanje glagola općenito poput događajne strukture konstrukcije ili aktionsarta , semantičkih ekstenzija glagola, sintaktičke okoline u kojoj se pojavljuju, prijelaznosti i sl. Analiza semantičke uloge subjekta u konstrukcijama s osjetilnim glagolima vida i sluha u ovome radu temelji se na metodologiji kognitivne lingvistike, odnosno kognitivne gramatike, s naglaskom na ideju utjelovljenja jezika (engl. embodiment ), koja uključuje i enciklopedijski pogled na značenje, koncept kanonskoga događajnog modela, čiji jezični odraz predstavlja prijelazna konstrukcija, te ideju radijalnih kategorija utemeljenih na efektu prototipa. Radna je pretpostavka ovoga rada da se osjetilni glagoli, kao i sve drugo u jeziku, ne mogu gramatički opisati, a da se u taj opis ne uključi i naša vlastita predodžba o ljudskim osjetilnim organima, njihovim mogućnostima i ograničenjima te načinu na koji funkcioniraju, odnosno da se ne analiziraju veze između tjelesnoga iskustva, općih kognitivnih sposobnosti čovjeka, konceptualnih struktura te samih jezičnih struktura.
... The experiencer notices the sensory data but may do so accidentally. Cognitive sensing 3 Rogers (1971), Viberg (1984) and I independently arrived at the same three-way classification of English perception verbs. I subsequently adopted two of Rogers' class labels: 'cognitive' and 'active'. ...
... (2) Усети остра миризма (3) Обувките бяха с мирис на пот и гума. Table 4 shows that Viberg's (1984) basic paradigm of smell correlates to the paradigm of the Bulgarian verb мириша and the cognate nouns мирис, миризма. The Bulgarian corpus presents examples of the three "dynamic systems": the two "experiencer-based" Activity (see Table 4_Ex. ...
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Perception is universal for human beings but linguists are interested whether it is conceptualized the same way in different languages. The focus of this article is the concept of smell and how it is linguistically coded in English and Bulgarian. Such cross-linguistic meanings have not been systematically investigated when they appear in context. This study is corpus-based to capture, on the one hand, the conceptual organization of smell and, on the other hand, the structure of more abstract concepts. The study applies the cognitive perspective to interpret the conceptual metaphors in the domain of smell. The interplay of senses is used to enhance the “linguistic codability” of perceptions. Smell, which is on the whole understudied, together with touch and taste, offers a wide variety of metaphoric interpretations not only within one language but also across languages. The range of usage that is readily observable in the corpus reveals that this type of data must form the basis for empirically grounded studies of semantics. Moreover, these data suggest that cross-linguistic analogy in polysemous meanings may rely not only on universal cognition, but also on the universal experiences of social interaction.
... Esto reviste una estrecha relación con el acervo lingüístico. Viberg (1983), realizó una investigación en más de 50 idiomas para determinar si existía una jerarquía de los sentidos en el léxico. Encontró que entre los diversos modos de percepción, la vista era la más proclive a ser diferenciada entre dos elementos léxicos, seguida por el sentido del oído, el tacto, el sabor y el color, aunque este último orden en algunas culturas difería. ...
Research
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Con la llegada de los medios digitales, las nuevas plataformas comenzaron a modificar el proceso comunicativo, en una transición profunda que destronó el predominio de la palabra, para pasar a la preponderancia de la imagen, vehiculizada a través de memes, gif y emoticones. Especialmente en las nuevas redes sociales como Youtube, se vinculan los productores de contenido con los consumidores, siendo por lo general estos creadores quienes definen y elaboran el contenido audiovisual, que tiene una especial incidencia en los niños. Pero a veces estos límites se desdibujan y surgen nuevas interrelaciones. Aparece así la figura del prosumidor, tal como ocurre en el canal de Aula365 de Youtube, donde una dinámica llamada Emoji Challenge , ha evidenciado nuevas formas de expresión y de vinculación tanto con este lenguaje, como con la propia propuesta editorial de dicho canal. En este proyecto se busca profundizar en el comportamiento de los usuarios dentro de esta red social mediada por el uso de los emojis. Palabras clave Comunicación-Lenguaje-Cultura Digital Introducción El impacto de internet y especialmente la aparición de los smartphone , ha sido clave para modificar costumbres y hábitos en la comunicación, con una transición que ha ido desde la superioridad de la palabra escrita, a la proliferación de imágenes que buscan sintetizar y expresar de forma más acabada las ideas. La tecnología juega un papel determinante en el control de los significados, y es en ese universo donde los emojis se convierten en un protagonista indiscutido.
... The semantic network of "see" (a corpus-based study).6. According toViberg (1984), there is a third group, source-based, which refers to constructions where the perceiver is not mentioned (e.g., Mary looks young). The last category, however, remains outside the scope of this study as it is not associated with spatial particles and does not form verb-particle constructions. ...
Article
In Cognitive linguistics verb-particle (VP) constructions are treated as compositional and analyzable. The particles when combined with the verbs contribute to the overall meaning in the form of image schemas. This article compares the verbparticle constructions with look and see. It aims at analyzing the nuances of meaning of two synonymous verbs that combine with spatial particles and examines the image schemas associated with them. When the corresponding image schemas are activated they influence the VP constructions, thus they bring forth new evidence for the embodied nature of language and thought. This study also uses the theoretical framework of Construction Grammar to focus on the different ways of processing spatial and non-spatial VP constructions.
... Along with the cross-linguistic trends shown thus far, a hierarchy of lexicalization is marked given the five senses. Based on 50 languages, the hierarchy is proposed in the following order by Viberg (1984Viberg ( , 1993: Were one language to exhibit merely one of the above perception verbs, it would be "see". Given the fact that another language would have two of them, it would be "see" and "hear" (Viberg 2008(Viberg , 1993. ...
Conference Paper
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Due to the importance of vision in human perception, different verbal behaviors are expected in the congenitally blind individuals and the sighted ones. Therefore, in this research, two groups of poets (the congenitally blind and control group of the sighted) were found to explore how differently they represent their perception of the five predominant senses. Strikingly, the statistical results show that the frequency of verbs of vision are not only significantly high but also are more frequent than the same verbs in the poems of the sighted. This might be explained through the fact that perception is reflected and codified in language. Thus, the blind can perceive visual phenomena through language however they are congenitally blind. The second qualitative experiment shows that these blind people use different visual metaphors more than the sighted. This might prove Halliday and Mathiessen's belief that conceptual structure and semantic structure are just different metaphors of one thing.
... 18. According to Viberg (1984), there is a third group, source-based, which refers to constructions where the perceiver is not mentioned (e.g., Mary looks young). The last category, however, remains outside the scope of this study as it is not associated with spatial particles and does not form verb-particle constructions. ...
Article
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Abstract: Corpus linguistics has surely secured its position and status in the world of science nowadays. Its role in linguistic research, and consequently its implications for the linguistic theory and practice are practically indisputable today. Nevertheless, what started capturing researchers’ attention in the last decades is the role that corpus linguistics has in the domain of translation studies and training. In fact, corpus linguistics has extended its influence so much that it is safe to claim that providing proper training to trainee translators and doing translation in general is inconceivable and inadmissible without taking full advantage of the benefits of corpora. The paper aims to take a closer look at the current research done on the role of corpus linguistics in the sphere of translation studies and translation training by examining closely some of the most recent and relevant studies which have dealt with this issue recently. More specifically, the aim of the paper is to offer an overview of the most salient findings and results obtained from these studies, and eventually to draw conclusions as to how future translators could apply these insights into their practical work in order to secure their competitiveness in the global labour market. Key words: corpora, corpus linguistics, translation training
... Outside these three major lines of inquiry, a slew of studies have examined the lexicalization of particular concepts, often with particular emphasis on polysemy networks involved in their expression (e.g., Viberg 1984;Evans and Wilkins 2000;Ponsford et al. 2013;inter alia). Lastly, semantic typology overlaps with lexical typology in the sense that the term is used by Koptjevskaja-Tamm et al. (2007) and Koptjevskaja-Tamm and Vanhove (2012), though not so much in that of Lehmann (1990). ...
Article
We examine the extent to which practices of language use may be diffused through language contact and areally shared, using data on spatial reference frame use by speakers of eight indigenous languages from in and around the Mesoamerican linguistic area and three varieties of Spanish. Regression models show that the frequency of L2-Spanish use by speakers of the indigenous languages predicts the use of relative reference frames in the L1 even when literacy and education levels are accounted for. A significant difference in frame use between the Mesoamerican and non-Mesoamerican indigenous languages further supports the contact diffusion analysis. © 2015
... Within the domain of epistemic modality, a connecting line is found between full support or certainty meaning and partial support or probability, reflected for example in the diachronic movement of French sans doute, which has now come to express "less than full support" (Boye 2012: 141 Cross-domain connecting lines between semantic spaces within evidentiality and those within epistemic modality are also found. As Boye (2012) notes, multifunctional expressions covering direct justification and full support or epistemic certainty are attested, for example, in some Polynesian and Australian languages, where a single perception verb covers the meanings of 'to see' and 'to know' (Viberg 1984). Finally, both synchronic polyfunctionality and diachronic changes support a link posited between indirect justification or evidence and partial support or epistemic probability. ...
Article
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This article explores the use of epistemic stance strategies in journalistic discourse in English and Spanish. The linguistic resources of epistemic stance include evidential and modal expressions, as well as verbs of cognitive attitude and expressions of factivity. This article examines the pattern of distribution of epistemic stance expressions in three types of journalistic genres in English and Spanish and the presence of multifunctionality of some evidential expressions in the two languages. The article aims to reveal possible similarities or differences in the use of the stance resources in the various genres and across languages.
... Wine tasting notes frequently use combinations of both. Viberg (1984) proposes the following hierarchy for sense codification: sight > hearing > touch > smell > taste and demonstrates that a verb that has its basic meaning in a sensory modality to the left in the hierarchy may have an extended meaning covering some or all sensory modalities below in such a hierarchy. ...
Article
Resumen Se presenta un algoritmo descriptivo para un corpus léxico de cata de vinos. Primero, se presentan algunas características idiosincrásicas del corpus. En segundo lugar, se discute la similitud estructural de las ontologí-as, gramáticas y el algoritmo propuesto. En tercer lugar, se debate la propuesta de Langacker de separar ontológicamente entre objetos e interacciones. Final-mente, se discute una propuesta de etiquetado anota-tivo y se presentan algunos ejemplos. Abstract A descriptive algorithm for a wine tasting lexicon cor-pus is presented. Firstly, some characteristics of the lexical field where the corpus will be obtained are shown. Secondly, the claim of the structural similarity of ontologies, grammars and the proposed algorithm is discussed. Thirdly, Langacker's ontological separa-tion between objects and interactions is debated. And, finally, a proposal for tagging annotation will be dis-cussed in a few examples.
... Perception metaphors have been discussed in cognitive linguistics since the pioneering work of Sweetser (1990), who showed the systematic relations between perception through the senses -especially, the so-called 'major' modalities or 'far senses' such as vision and hearing -and the internal self and sensations. Other scholars have since shown that the 'minor' senses of smell, touch, and taste are likewise richer than expected in terms of metaphorical mappings (Ibarretxe-Antuñano 1999a/b, 2002Viberg 1983Viberg , 1984Viberg , 2001. ...
Article
The sense of smell has been relatively neglected in the Western research. It is not regarded as particularly useful compared to the perceived importance of senses like sight, sound, and touch. Correspondingly, English speakers are ill-equipped to describe qualities of smells, instead invoking entities that share similar olfactory qualities, e.g. like roses . This raises the question: which odours do English speakers frequently refer to, and which terms describe them? This corpus-driven study looks at nouns in olfactory contexts, and the conceptual domains they fall into. Results show that speakers invoke different smells according to context: when talking about a smell they perceive, when describing a smell, or in a description of another smell, which demonstrates the differential communicative functions of smells. Further analysis shows that smells that are described are more variable than those used as descriptors, and smells being used to describe are more emotional using psychometric norming data.
Article
Verbs in the literature; It is generally handled according to their structures, performative meanings and frameworks. With the increasing vocabulary studies in recent years, there are also attempts to classify verbs in terms of semantics. However, it does not seem possible for now to talk about fully widespread classifications on this subject. On the other hand, mental verbs, which were studied in the field of cognitive linguistics in relation to psychology, and later became one of the subjects of interest to researchers working in the field of Turcology, have also started to take place among the studies of classifying verbs in terms of semantics. The word mental corresponds to concepts such as “rational, mental, spiritual” in Turkish, and mental verbs express the verbs that occur in the mind, and it is different from other verbs that have the meaning of physical movement. In this study, mental verbs in Ali's Kıssa-i Yûsuf, which is the first work in Turkish literature in which the story of Yusuf is processed, has been examined. Kıssa-i Yûsuf is a mixed language work that reflects the characteristics of Oghuz Turkish as well as some language features specific to Eastern Turkish. The mental verbs determined in the work were classified as sensation verbs, thought verbs, emotion and psychological situation verbs and communication verbs, considering the classifications made so far.
Article
This article deals with estimative (also called ‘tropative’) constructions meaning ‘find/consider X to be Y ’, where Y stands for a noun or an adjective. It systematically investigates morphological estimatives and their relationship to causative, applicative and denominal derivations from synchronic and diachronic perspectives. In addition, the article presents a survey of periphrastic estimative strategies in the world’s languages.
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This paper describes a method to enrich lexical resources with content relating to linguistic diversity, based on knowledge from the field of lexical typology. We capture the phenomenon of diversity through the notions of lexical gap and language-specific word and use a systematic method to infer gaps semi-automatically on a large scale. As a first result obtained for the domain of kinship terminology, known to be very diverse throughout the world, we publish a lexico-semantic resource consisting of 198 domain concepts, 1,911 words, and 37,370 gaps covering 699 languages. We see potential in the use of resources such as ours for the improvement of a variety of cross-lingual NLP tasks, which we demonstrate through a downstream application for the evaluation of machine translation systems.
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This study examines some semantic-cum-pragmatic issues in realising the senses of the Igbo verbs of perception. The specific objective of the study is to find out how the gap between linguistic meaning and speaker’s meaning is filled and enriched through the context; and how the contextual features underpin what an utterance communicates using some Igbo verbs of perception. The verbs involved are hụ́(see), lé(look at), nụ́(hear), gè(listen), mètụ́(touch), nụ́(ụ̄tọ̄) (taste) and nụ́(ísì) (smell). By adopting a combination of the Cognitive Semantics approach and Neo-Griceanism, a corpus-based analysis of the Igbo verbs of perception was carried out in different contexts of usage. An audio text was transcribed, and the Antconc concordance software was used on the transcribed text for this purpose. The study’s findings indicate that the senses of Igbo verbs of perception depend significantly on some pragmatic features of the verbs’ contexts of usage. This is because the pragmatic features determine the verbs’ referents, which are established only in specific contexts. However, without the establishment of these contexts, the utterance would not make sense.
Article
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This paper presents a corpus-based contrastive analysis of French sentir, Spanish sentir, and Hungarian érez 'feel'. These basic-level multimodal perception verbs (i.e. verbs encoding multiple sensory modalities) have many semantic features in common, but they operate in different linguistic and sociocultural contexts, and Hungarian érez differs from its Romance counterparts concerning its etymology as well. Based on 500-500 random concordance lines extracted from the TenTen corpora, I have examined the verbs' semantic and formal properties, taking into account not only their primary contextual meanings but also features such as epistemicity, figurativity, the degree of grammaticalization, and the constructions they occur in. By doing so, I have extended the seminal study of Enghels and Jansegers (2013)-who looked into the degree of equivalence between French sentir, Spanish sentir, and Italian sentire-to a genealogically and typologically different language and to novel aspects of analysis. The quantitative results highlight important differences in usage and also point to promising future perspectives in the investigation of multimodal perception verbs.
Chapter
The chapter is a study of the system of olfactory expressions in Georgian, Megrelian, and other Kartvelian languages, including questions of etymology and semantic extensions. Olfactory expressions in the Kartvelian languages are explored with Viberg (1984) as a point of departure, making a division into activity, experience and copulative (source-based) expressions. The study largely relies on data from text corpora of Standard Georgian as well as Georgian dialects. The Kartvelian languages are shown to exhibit specific olfactory terminology, but show numerous examples of expressions being used in several perception modalities. Keywords: olfactory perception, etymology, Georgian, Megrelian
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The human sense of smell can accomplish astonishing feats, yet there remains a prevailing belief that olfactory language is deficient. Numerous studies with English speakers support this view: there are few terms for odors, odor talk is infrequent, and naming odors is difficult. However, this is not true across the world. Many languages have sizeable smell lexicons — smell is even grammaticalized. In addition, for some cultures smell talk is more frequent and odor naming easier. This linguistic variation is as yet unexplained but could be the result of ecological, cultural, or genetic factors or a combination thereof. Different ways of talking about smells may shape aspects of olfactory cognition too. Critically, this variation sheds new light on this important sensory modality.
Book
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Evidentiality is a linguistic phenomenon that refers to the way by which the speaker encodes information. It is also a cross-linguistic category abundant in most world languages. There are two types of evidentiality: direct and indirect. Direct sensory evidentiality relates to the physical sensory evidence the speaker has acquired directly through his senses, such as visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory and olfactory, while indirect non-sensory evidentiality is associated with the types of inference the speaker has, i.e. assumptive and deductive, or reported evidence, such as quotative and hearsay. Assumptive evidentiality indicates that the speaker bases his/her evidence on personal and past experiences. Deductive evidentiality, on the other hand, is associated with the speaker’s deduction based on the results of the action or situation. Reported quotative evidentiality entails that the event was reported to the speaker directly from someone else. As for hearsay evidentiality, it dictates that the speaker has got the evidence through general/shared knowledge, rumour, gossip, and folklore. This book investigates evidentiality in Modern Standard Arabic.
Article
This paper offers an experimental approach to the polysemy of the Estonian perception verb tundma ‘to feel’ from the perspective of the perception ➔ cognition metaphor. First, a sorting task is used to map how native speakers perceive the different senses of tundma ‘to feel’. The results show that cognition-related senses of tundma form the most distinct and coherent group. This set was researched further by means of a second experiment, a conceptual feature rating task. The aim of this task was to assess if the cognition-related meanings of tundma differ from other cognition verbs of Estonian ( teadma ‘to know’, aru saama ‘to understand’) in that they are metaphorically linked to physical perception. It was predicted that native speakers use characteristics tied to the physical perception in the conceptualisation of the type of knowledge expressed by tundma . However, native speakers did not rate sentences with tundma as more physical than sentences with abstract cognition verbs. This result is indicative of the nature of the semantics of tundma being more varied than was first thought. It is argued that the semantics of tundma refer to it being a verb of general proximal perception.
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Is there a universal hierarchy of the senses, such that some senses (e.g., vision) are more accessible to consciousness and linguistic description than others (e.g., smell)? The long-standing presumption in Western thought has been that vision and audition are more objective than the other senses, serving as the basis of knowledge and understanding, whereas touch, taste, and smell are crude and of little value. This predicts that humans ought to be better at communicating about sight and hearing than the other senses, and decades of work based on English and related languages certainly suggests this is true. However, how well does this reflect the diversity of languages and communities worldwide? To test whether there is a universal hierarchy of the senses, stimuli from the five basic senses were used to elicit descriptions in 20 diverse languages, including 3 unrelated sign languages. We found that languages differ fundamentally in which sensory domains they linguistically code systematically, and how they do so. The tendency for better coding in some domains can be explained in part by cultural preoccupations. Although languages seem free to elaborate specific sensory domains, some general tendencies emerge: for example, with some exceptions, smell is poorly coded. The surprise is that, despite the gradual phylogenetic accumulation of the senses, and the imbalances in the neural tissue dedicated to them, no single hierarchy of the senses imposes itself upon language.
Article
Perception verbs prototypically occur with a grammatical subject NP referring to a person. However, see and witness also license an inanimate grammatical subject, more precisely a spatial or temporal setting, in a “setting-subject construction” (Langacker 1991, 2008). The present study addresses this kind of variation, and demonstrates how the two alternate constructions reveal shifts from an egocentric perspective to an anthropocentric perspective. It sets out to accomplish three main goals: first, to establish whether each construction aligns perfectly with one particular perspective; second, to identify the semantic and syntactic characteristics of setting-subject constructions and explain how an inanimate subject NP can be favored over a human subject NP; third, to determine what can motivate speakers’ choices between the two alternate constructions licensed by see and witness. To achieve this, a qualitative, corpus-based analysis is carried out, which helps to understand to what extent the grammatical coding embodies a specific way of viewing the scene. First, the cognitive theoretical concepts (e.g., the Extended Animacy Hierarchy (Croft, 2003), egocentric and canonical viewing arrangements, cognitive schemas and models) that are helpful for the proper characterization of the two structures are presented, as well as the methodology employed to collect data for the present study. I then focus on prototypical, human subject NP constructions which reveal either an egocentric or an anthropocentric point of view of the scene. Finally, setting-subject constructions are addressed: not only are the characteristics of such structures highlighted but also the parameters and factors that contribute to their occurrence are identified. The study shows that such constructions convey the conceptualizer’s assessment of a situation, as the viewing relationship is construed subjectively. A setting-subject construction thus reveals a perspective that indirectly turns out to be more anthropocentric than ‘setting-centric’, as the inanimate locative subject, ranking at the bottom of the Animacy hierarchy, winds up alluding to any possible human being, including the speaker, the addressee and the Other.
Article
Stative verbs such as German wiegen ‘weigh’ and heißen ‘be called’ encode an attribute of the subject referent such as WEIGHT or NAME and, in addition, allow for the specification of a value for this attribute. From a cognitive perspective, we refer to attributes of this type as object dimensions and to stative verbs encoding object dimensions as stative dimensional verbs . We argue in favor of the relevance of these verbs to cognitive science and semantics. After introducing basic types of stative dimensional verbs, we discuss the results of an in-depth investigation of these verbs in German. In addition to the kind of dimensions encoded by stative verbs, there will be a particular focus on contrasts in the distribution of dimension encoding verbs, nouns, and adjectives. Moreover, we will present a taxonomy of stative dimensional verbs in dependence of the specific dimension.
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In this paper, I report on a long-term research project concerned with the elaboration of the description of the system of PROCESS TYPE (within the overall system of TRANSITIVITY), extending this description in delicacy, or degree of detail. I discuss the background to the research and different approaches that have been taken to the development of more delicate descriptions of PROCESS TYPE. Then I introduce the approach that I have taken — to classify Levin’s (1993) verb classes in terms of the systemic functional description of the system of PROCESS TYPE (Halliday 1967/8, 1985). Having outlined the approach, I summarize the outcome of the classificatory project, and go on to identify all the instances where it was necessary to split verb classes and all the cases where it was necessary to add verb classes. I characterize the classification in terms of the cline of delicacy (the continuum between grammar and lexis); in fact, the result of the classificatory project provides strong evidence in favour of Halliday’s (1961) hypothesis that lexis can be described as delicate grammar — what he called ‘the grammarian’s dream’. In addition, I indicate how the result of the classification can be used as a resource in the development of more delicate systemic descriptions of the type pioneered by Hasan (1987) in her pursuit of the grammarian’s dream.
Article
The century-old failure of historical linguistics to discover regularities of semantic change comparable to those in phonological change, as described by Grassmann or Grimm, has forced us to entertain as 'semantic laws' proposals that express mere tendencies, or are so restricted to a particular time, language, or narrow inventory, that the 'law' is indistinguishable from a description of a discrete historical event. But in the lexical field of English adjectives referring to sensory experience, there has been a continuing semantic change so regular, so enduring, and so inclusive that its description may be the strongest generalization in diachronic semantics reported for English or any other language. On the basis of very similar evidence from Indo-European cognates and from Japanese, the possibility exists that the regularity described here might characterize more than just these languages. It qualifies as a testable hypothesis in regard to future semantic change in any language.
Article
We suggest that verb-split (conditioned by semantics of verbs, e.g. action versus state) and TAM-split (conditioned by tense/aspect/mood, eg. past versus nonpast) are fundamentally no different from each other, involving common semantics and case-marking mechanisms: (a) effectiveness condition (EF-CON), concerning effectiveness/conclusiveness of verb; (b) verb-type hierarchy, expressing degree of effectiveness of verbs; (c) unmarked-case constraint, and (d) universal case-hierarchy: marked case > unmarked case > oblique cases ERG, ACC ABS, NOM DAT, LOC, INST, etc. When EF-CON is met (e.g. hit’ vis-à-vis like’ in verb-split; past vis-à-vis nonpast in TAM-split), we have the transitive frame (ERG-ABS or NOM-ACC). But, when EF-CON fails, one or both of the two NPs can be demoted on the case-hierarchy, and we will have non-transitive frame (s) in addition to, or in place of, the transitive frame. This paper shows that (a) a split is not a conflict of two (or more) patterns, but operates as one integrated scheme; and (b) each type of split occurs in a non-random fashion, both cross-linguistically and intralinguistically. Our observations apply to both ergative and accusative languages.
Article
It is important for language teaching to show how grammar and meaning are interrelated in the structure of language. One way in which this interrelationship can be revealed is through an analysis of the activities and states of perceiving the five senses: sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. Examples of these pairs of perception verbs are presented in English (e.g. “listen to”– the activity of using the ears; “hear”—the state of using the ears), and the constraints which operate upon these verbs are discussed in some detail. The paper concludes with examples of perception verbs in other languages and a discussion of a third type of perception verb, resultative verbs (e.g. “to sound”—the result of the state of using the ears).
and Mustafa Yetkin. In addition to them more than 70 persons have acted as informants
  • T V Ananthapadmanabha
  • Tej Bhatia
  • Lars Benktson
  • Marie Bonnier
  • Brian Butterworth
  • Kirsti Koch Christensen
I would like to thank the following persons for making valuable suggestions and for providing me with data: Lars Ahrenberg, Tesfaye Alemayehu, Tesfaye Alemu, Jens Allwood, T. V. Ananthapadmanabha, Tej Bhatia, Lars Benktson, Marie Bonnier, Brian Butterworth, Kirsti Koch Christensen, Bernard Comrie, Yavuz Çekirge, Osten Dahl, John Davies, Tore Janson, Paul Kay, Britta Kinnemark, Svend Kolte, Magnus Ljung, Tom McElwain, Huu Nguyen-Binh, Whaja Park and Mustafa Yetkin. In addition to them more than 70 persons have acted as informants, an invaluable help, of course, for which I am not able to extend individual thanks.
A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages
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How factive are SEE, HEAR and FEEL and their Polish counterparts
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