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Functional Role of Probiotics and Prebiotics on Skin Health and Disease

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Scientific and commercial interest of probiotics, prebiotics and their effect on human health and disease has increased in the last decade. The aim of this review article is to evaluate the role of pro- and prebiotics on the normal function of healthy skin as well as their role in the prevention and therapy of skin disease. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacterium are the most commonly used probiotics and thought to mediate skin inflammation, treat atopic dermatitis (AD) and prevent allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Probiotics are shown to decolonise skin pathogens (e.g., P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, A. Vulgaris, etc.) while kefir is also shown to support the immunity of the skin and treat skin pathogens through the production of antimicrobial substances and prebiotics. Finally, prebiotics (e.g., Fructo-oligosaccharides, galacto-oligosaccharides and konjac glucomannan hydrolysates) can contribute to the treatment of diseases including ACD, acne and photo aging primarily by enhancing the growth of probiotics.
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... Lactiplantibacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bi. breve, and Bi. bifidum reportedly inhibit UVB-induced photoaging [21,22]. Although the skin photoprotective effect of various LAB strains have been reported, studies on some species are insufficient. ...
... Therefore, agents that protect skin against UVB are required. The genera most commonly found in the gut, such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus, are beneficial for the skin [21]. L. plantarum HY7714 has confirmed antiwrinkle effects on skin cells, in vivo models, and clinical studies [19,20,27]. ...
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Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure causes a breakdown of collagen, oxidative stress, and inflammation. UVB activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), activator protein-1 (AP-1), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). In this study, we evaluated 2,2′-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) radical scavenging activity and the photoprotective effect of lactic acid bacteria LAB strains, including Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus genera in UVB-exposed skin fibroblasts. Nine LAB strains displayed antioxidant activity by regulating superoxide dismutase in UVB-exposed skin fibroblasts. Four LAB strains (MG4684, MG5368, MG4511, and MG5140) recovered type I procollagen level by inhibiting MMPs, MAPK, and AP-1 protein expression. Additionally, these four strains reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting oxidative stress. Therefore, L. fermentum MG4684, MG5368, L. rhamnosus MG4511, and S. thermophilus MG5140 are potentially photoprotective.
... Probiotics, as dietary supplements, are generally known to have a protective effect against gastrointestinal disorders [12]. Probiotics has been actively studied for skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and photoaging [13]. It has been previously reported that Lactobacillus plantarum, Bi. longum, and Bi. ...
... It has been previously reported that Lactobacillus plantarum, Bi. longum, and Bi. breve have shown efficacy in preventing photo-aging [13]. Metabolites contained in the cell-free supernatant (CFS) of probiotics that affect skin health include diacetyl, lipoteichoic acid, lactic acid, and acetic acid [14]. ...
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Skin photoaging, which causes wrinkles, increased epidermal thickness, and rough skin texture, is induced by ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure. These symptoms by skin photoaging have been reported to be involved in the reduction of collagen by the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). This study investigated the protective effects of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis MG741 (Bi. lactis MG741) in Hs-68 fibroblasts and hairless mice (HR-1) following UVB exposure. We demonstrated that the Bi. lactis MG741 reduces wrinkles and skin thickness by downregulating MMP-1 and MMP-3, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and c-FOS in fibroblasts and HR-1. Additionally, in UVB-irradiated dorsal skin of HR-1, Bi. lactis MG741 inhibits the expression of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), an inflammation-related factor. Thus, Bi. lactis MG741 has the potential to prevent wrinkles and skin inflammation by modulating skin photoaging markers.
... Enterococci, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria are the most commonly used probiotics that are the natural residents of the human organism [197,198]. Their possibility to modulate the skin and gut microbiota can prevent inflammation, allergic diseases and boost antiviral immunity [197,199,200]. It is important to highlight the effective role of microbiota composition in health status [201]. ...
... Enterococci, lactobacilli, and bifidobacteria are the most commonly used probiotics that are the natural residents of the human organism [197,198]. Their possibility to modulate the skin and gut microbiota can prevent inflammation, allergic diseases and boost antiviral immunity [197,199,200]. It is important to highlight the effective role of microbiota composition in health status [201]. ...
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Aging is a very complex process that is accompanied by a degenerative impairment in many of the major functions of the human body over time. This inevitable process is influenced by hereditary factors, lifestyle, and environmental influences such as xenobiotic pollution, infectious agents, UV radiation, diet-borne toxins, and so on. Many external and internal signs and symptoms are related with the aging process and senescence, including skin dryness and wrinkles, atherosclerosis, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, etc. Oxidative stress, a consequence of the imbalance between pro-and antioxidants, is one of the main provoking factors causing aging-related damages and concerns, due to the generation of highly reactive byproducts such as reactive oxygen and nitrogen species during the metabolism, which result in cellular damage and apoptosis. Antioxidants can prevent these processes and extend healthy longevity due to the ability to inhibit the formation of free radicals or interrupt their propagation, thereby lowering the level of oxidative stress. This review focuses on supporting the antioxidant system of the organism by balancing the diet through the consumption of the necessary amount of natural ingredients, including vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), essential amino acids, probiotics, plants' fibers, nutritional supplements, polyphenols, some phytoextracts, and drinking water.
... Probiotics are well-known to exert beneficial activities against a plethora of pathological conditions including, but not limited to, infectious diseases, diabetes, obesity, inflammatory diseases, cancer, and allergy [33]. In the context of skin disorders, the beneficial effects associated with oral consumption of probiotics have been proven to be effective in promoting healthy skin microbioma composition and in achieving clinically satisfactory results against different clinical conditions such as atopic dermatitis, acne, rosacea, and psoriasis [34,35]. Moreover, the use of the topical application of probiotics as an effective therapeutic approach for treating patients with dermatological diseases remains undervalued [23]. ...
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Background Abnormal and deregulated skin wound healing associated with prolonged inflammation may result in dermal fibrosis. Since the current therapeutic strategies revealed unsatisfactory, the investigation of alternative approaches such as those based on the use of specific probiotic strains could provide promising therapeutic options. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the lysate from S. thermophilus could antagonize the fibrogenic effects of TGF-β1 in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). Methods NHDF were exposed to TGF-β1 to establish a fibrotic phenotype. Proliferation rate and cell number were measured using the IncuCyte® Live Cell Imager system and the trypan blue dye exclusion test. Phenoconversion markers (α-SMA and fibronectin) and collagen I levels were assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence. The mRNA levels of TGF-β1 were evaluated by RT-PCR. The Smad2/3 phosphorylation level as well as β-catenin and PPARγ expression, were assessed by western blot. The cell contractility function and migration of NHDF were studied using collagen gel retraction assay, and scratch wound healing assay, respectively. The effects of S. thermophilus lysate, alone or combined with TGF-β1, were evaluated on all of the above-listed parameters and markers associated with TGF-β1-induced fibrotic phenotype. Results Exposure to the S. thermophilus lysate significantly reduced the key mediators and events involved in the abnormal activation of myofibroblasts by TGF-β1 within the fibrotic profile. The S. thermophilus treatment significantly reduced cell proliferation, migration, and myo-differentiation. In addition, the treatment with probiotic lysate reduced the α-SMA, fibronectin, collagen-I expression levels, and affected the collagen contraction ability of activated dermal fibroblasts. Moreover, the probiotic targeted the TGF-β1 signaling, reducing Smad2/3 activation, TGF-β1 mRNA level, and β-catenin expression through the upregulation of PPARγ. Conclusion This is the first report showing that S. thermophilus lysate had a remarkable anti-fibrotic effect in TGF-β1-activated NHDF by inhibiting Smad signaling. Notably, the probiotic was able to reduce β-catenin and increase PPARγ levels. The findings support our point that S. thermophilus may help prevent or treat hypertrophic scarring and keloids.
... This intestinal dysbiosis has the ability to negatively impact skin function since it promotes immune dysregulation by increasing intestinal permeability via pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus contributing to chronic systemic inflammation [9,12,29]. Consequently, the gut-skin axis may be receptive to modulation via dietary modification, namely, via probiotic ingestion, thus representing a potential complementary alternative in AD therapy [31][32][33][34]. ...
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The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a dynamic system influenced by various environmental factors, including diet and exposure to ingested probiotics, and prone to various functional impairments. These impairments are mostly related to any combination of motility alterations, visceral hypersensitivity, and changes in the mucosa, immune function, and intestinal microbiota. Intestinal microbial imbalance and immunological dysfunction have been linked to several chronic inflammatory disease states, including atopic dermatitis (AD). Disruption of the intestinal microbial balance, known as gut dysbiosis, has been demonstrated to negatively impact skin function by increasing the intestinal permeability. Consequently, the gut–skin axis may be receptive to modulation via dietary modification, namely, via ingestion of probiotics, thus representing interesting potential as an AD therapy. Kefir is an ancient probiotic food that has been demonstrated to positively impact the general condition of the digestive system, including the intestinal microbiota. However, the literature is still scarce on the impact on the gut–skin relationship of a diet containing kefir. This study, continuing research in our group, aimed to evaluate the impact of kefir intake on GI symptoms in healthy and AD skin subjects. Results showed a significant improvement in GI status, namely, in functional constipation, abdominal pain intensity, and abdominal distension, thus supporting the hypothesis that kefir intake is positively associated with improvement in GI status. The existence of a relationship between the improvement in skin parameters and the improvement in GI status after kefir consumption was established, thus reinforcing the role of homemade kefir as a potential modulator of the gut–skin axis in both healthy and atopic individuals.
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Exposure of ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation is the main factor from the environment to cause skin photoaging. Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469, is a probiotic strain with a good track record for enhancing human health. The present study conducted the impacts of heat‐killed Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469 (RL) on photoaging in vitro using mouse skin fibroblast (MSF) cells and human epidermal melanocytes (HEM) exposed to UVB. The results showed that (1) RL protected UVB‐induced cytotoxicity relating to absorb UVB and reduce DNA damage. (2) RL exerted the anti‐wrinkle impact involved in two aspects. Firstly, RL down‐regulated MMP‐1, 2, 3 expressions associating with MAPK signaling, resulting in the increased the protein expression of COL1A1, further booting type I collagen abundant thereby promoting the anti‐wrinkle impact in MSF cells. Secondly, RL reduced ROS content, further decreasing oxidative damage relating to Nrf2/Sirt3/SOD2 signaling, thereby promoting the anti‐wrinkle impact in MSF cells. (3) RL suppressed tyrosinase and TYRP‐2 activity and/or levels associating with PKA/CREB/MITF signaling, thereby promoting anti‐melanogenesis impact in HEM cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that RL could reduce photoaging caused by UVB via anti‐wrinkle and anti‐melanogenesis properties and may be a potential anti‐photoaging beneficial component, which is applied in the cosmetic industry.
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Chapter
It has always been important for men and women to look beautiful, healthy and well-groomed during their lifetime, and they have always made an effort to maintain this image. For this purpose, they use various cosmetic preparations to improve the daily appearance with colored cosmetics, to maintain the permanent health of the external parts of the body by supplementing their needs externally, and to slow down or prevent aging. Almost every individual uses many cosmetic products without the need of a professional for application. The active substances in cosmetic preparations that are daily and continuously used should not have systemic and toxic effects. Because most of the cosmetic products contain synthetic chemicals and some of these chemicals have toxic effects, people are moving over to cosmetics prepared with natural products. This situation has revealed the need for a large amount of natural raw materials. After proving that it is possible to produce pure biological products in large quantities using biotechnological methods depending on the developments in technology, biotechnology has made a rapid entry into the cosmetics sector. Within the scope of this chapter, examples of cosmetic products obtained using biotechnological methods from plants and microorganisms, and cellular treatment approaches are briefly mentioned.
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is one of the most common inflammatory skin diseases diagnosed all over the world. The course of this complicated disease is chronic and relapsing and there have been many variants both endogenic and phenotypic already described and despite of our better understanding of AD we have no well “structured” therapeutical approach to many of our patients. Mainly because we do not understand it in an adequate way and complexity of treatment must be highly individualized. Recent studies suggest prevention of AD can be achieved through early intervention to protect the disturbed skin barrier. While the skin lesions are developed AD requires appropriate control of local and systemic immune activation for optimal management which obviously may cause the whole variety of adverse events. Therefore it seems that early intervention might improve long-term outcomes of AD and reduce the risk of development of systemic sensitization that leads to associated allergic/atopic diseases within the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. For some time probiotics have been suggested as an intervention to prevent allergic diseases such as AD. Therefore besides many publications, a systematic review of randomized trials assessing the effect of any probiotics administered to pregnant women breast-feeding mothers, and/or infants have been analyzed in this review paper in order to state what is the “real truth” about this type of preventive approach.