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Digitization of cultural collections: reuse, curation and preservation



The increasing availability of digital information and its intensive use by means of devices based on digital technologies by all segments of society-culture, scientific research, education, government and business-have increased the demand for online services offered by cultural heritage institutions. All over the world, museums, and other cultural heritage institutions, recognizing the importance of this phenomenon, are routinely digitizing their collections and acquiring and creating digital artifacts, and making them available via the web, and also using these assets as a management tool of physical collections in the process of documentation, conservation, restoration and security. However, the capabilities of digital collections can be extended if they are reconfigured as raw material for packaging, reinterpretation, aggregation and representation in new contexts with new purposes, establishing spaces for collaboration and dialogue that collectively define the concept of reuse. As a challenge for heritage institutions it remains the need for a permanent and sustainable technological and management infrastructure and qualified professionals that enable the digital curation processes , including dynamic management, archiving and long-term preservation of the digital collections. Adopting as a methodology the literature analysis, this paper aims to identify reuse opportunities that expand informational and communicational potential of digital cultural heritage collections.
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... Tammaro (2016) defines digital curation as providing reliable valorisation of digital data and information management and usage either now or in the future. Heritage data and information tend to be heterogeneous, and heritage experts have been interested in digital curation (Sayão, 2016). Recent digital heritage management initiatives such as cyber archaeology consider heritage curation as an integrated part of archaeological heritage management policy (Stanish & Levy, 2013). ...
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Highlights:  This paper illustrates the potential of scan-to-HBIM notion for heritage sites by employing an innovative data-driven approach to conservation actions.  This research offers an HBIM workflow for the sophisticated representation of heterogenic archaeological datasets.  This study creates a digital twin of the archaeological building remains and offers a method tailored for future monitoring and conservation. Abstract: Digital surveying tools provide a highly accurate geometric representation of cultural heritage sites in the form of point cloud data. With the recent advances in interoperability between point cloud data and Building Information Modelling (BIM), digital heritage researchers have introduced the Heritage/Historic Information Modelling (HBIM) notion to the field. As heritage data require safeguarding strategies to ensure their sustainability, the process is closely tied to conservation actions in the architectural conservation field. Focusing on the intersection of the ongoing trends in HBIM research and the global needs for heritage conservation actions, this paper tackles methodological pipelines for the data-driven management of archaeological heritage places. It illustrates how HBIM discourse could be beneficial for easing value-based decision-making in the conservation process. It introduces digital data-driven conservation actions by implementing a novel methodology for ancient building remains in Erythrae archaeological site (Turkey). The research ranges from a) surveying the in-situ remains and surrounding stones of the Heroon remains with digital photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to b) designing a database system for building archaeology. The workflow offers high geometric fidelity and management of non-geometric heritage data by testing out the suitability and feasibility for the study of material culture and the physical assessment of archaeological building remains. This methodology is a fully data-enriched NURBS-based (non-uniform rational basis spline) three-dimensional (3D) model-which is integrated and operational in the BIM environment-for the holistic conservation process. Using a state-of-the-art digital heritage approach can be applied from raw data (initial stages) to decision-making about an archaeological heritage site (final stages). In conclusion, the paper offers a method for data-driven conservation actions, and given its methodological framework, it lends itself particularly well to HBIM-related solutions for building archaeology. Keywords: building archaeology; digital archaeology 3D heritage database; conservation decisions; Historic Building Information Modelling (HBIM); NURBS (non-uniform rational basis splines); scan-to-HBIM Resumen: Las herramientas topográficas digitales proporcionan una representación geométrica muy exacta de sitios patrimoniales en forma de datos (nubes de puntos). Con los avances recientes de interoperabilidad entre nubes de puntos y modelado de información de la construcción (BIM), los investigadores en patrimonio digital han introducido la noción de modelado de información de la construcción patrimonial/histórica (HBIM) en este campo. Como los datos patrimoniales requieren estrategias de salvaguardia que garanticen su sostenibilibidad, el proceso está íntimamente ligado a acciones de conservación en el campo de la conservación arquitectónica. Teniendo en cuenta las últimas tendencias en investigación HBIM y las necesidades globales de las acciones de conservación patrimonial, este artículo afronta el flujo metodológico de la gestión basada en datos de sitios patrimoniales arqueológicos. Se introducen acciones de conservación basadas en datos que implementan una metodología novedosa en los restos edificados del sitio arqueológico de Erythrae (Turquía). La investigación aborda tanto la fase desde a) el topografiado in situ de los restos y las piedras circundantes de los restos de Heroon con fotogrametría digital y escaneado láser terrestre, hasta b) la fase del diseño del sistema de bases de datos en arqueología de la arquitectura. El flujo de trabajo ofrece alta fidelidad geométrica y de gestión de datos patrimoniales no geométricos; también prueba la idoneidad y viabilidad de cara al DATA-DRIVEN CONSERVATION ACTIONS OF HERITAGE PLACES CURATED WITH HBIM Virtual Archaeology Review, 13(27): 17-32, 2022 18 estudio de la cultura material y a la evaluación física de los restos de edificios arqueológicos. El modelo tridimensional (3D) enriquecido con datos basados en NURBS ('non-uniform rational B-splines'), se demuestra que es operativo en el proceso de conservación integral; este trata desde los datos sin procesar hasta la toma de decisiones sobre un sitio arqueológico-patrimonial, utilizando un procedimiento digital puntero. En conclusión, el artículo presenta un método orientado a acciones de conservación basadas en datos y, dado su marco metodológico, se presta particularmente bien a soluciones relacionadas con HBIM en arqueología de la arquitectura. Palabras clave: arqueología de la arquitectura; bases de datos patrimoniales 3D; decisiones de conservación; modelado de información de la construcción histórica (HBIM); NURBS (B-splines racionales no uniformes); escaneado-a-HBIM
... Bunun sonucu olarak, dijital kürasyon miras alanında ilgi çeken bir kavram olmaya başlamıştır. Dijital kürasyonla, miras alanında dijitalize miras enformasyonu dinamik şekilde yönetilebilir ve devamlılığı sağlanarak sürdürülebilir miras bilgisine ulaşılabilir(Sayão, 2016). Kültürel miras bağlamında dijital teknolojileri konu eden ve kullanan bu çalışma kapsamında bu tarifleri yapmak anlamsal bağlamı kurmak için gereklidir.Şekil 2.11 Miras dijitalleştirme ve miras dijitalizasyonu Miras dijitalleştirme, fiziksel bir nesnenin, eserin yani miras verilerinin teknolojik araçlar ile sayısallaştırılmasıdır, dijital temsilidir. ...
Cultural heritage artifacts foster versatile data and information. Today, recording heritage data is conducted via digital acquisition tools and methods. Despite the digital practice in heritage digitization, final representations are still limited to two-dimensional drawings, especially in conservation actions. As a result of the conventional implementation habits, conservation actions remain not fully integrated in the digital workflow and thus integrity issues remain an open research question. To remedy the gap, this study offers a methodology for sustainable management of heritage information bridging the technological advances and the practical needs of typical conservation actions. To tackle the research problem, the remains in the Erythrae archaeological site in Turkey, the in-situ remains of the Heroon, and the scattered stones around it offered as the case. By revisiting the conservation process, this study established a new data-driven conservation action process to offer a fully functional heritage information representation and management process. These actions are as follows: (i) data acquisition, (ii) data processing, (iii) information management, and (iv) curation. The study conducted digital context capturing methods, image-based (photogrammetry) and range-based (terrestrial laser scanning) techniques, for the data acquisition step. Next, the researchers analyzed the material culture of the remains in the data processing phase. Rendering the synthesis and intervention decisions is the third step for the conservation actions process. In the last phase, the workflow utilized the heritage building information modeling (HBIM) platform for the curation process. Consequently, this study offers a state-of-the-art management workflow of multi-dimensional heritage information modeling and a novel integration method into the conservation process paradigm. The offered method is open to adjustments and calibration for other cultural heritage artifacts and intended to be as comprehensive as possible for benefiting different heritage applications at large.
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The amount of digitized cultural heritage in Europe continues to grow: the digitization activities have a positive impact on the society, by making the cultural heritage more accessible for the citizens, and by generating benefits to the content owners. Several questions arise about digitized cultural heritage: how can digital cultural data be re-used at best, what is the impact on society and how to preserve it in the long term? This paper offers an overview of EU projects that try to provide answers: EuropeanaPhotography, Europeana Space, RICHES, PREFORMA, Civic Epistemologies. The common key-words in order to guarantee the best results are in any case knowledge-sharing and networking.
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Archives and museums hold great potential for encouraging greater participation in learning, and hence for raising not only educational levels in theactive population but also for enhancing the quality of citizens’ lives. In thischapter we analyse how archives and museums approach the challenges of therising information society in their education and mediation activities. Our answer is far from being comprehensive; it is rather an introduction to the utilisation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in arts and cultural heritageeducation. We outline the domain of arts and cultural heritage education and thedomain of e-learning from a theoretical perspective. With this knowledge we theninvestigate the current use of digital media in education, in the exhibition roomand on the Internet. Before we conclude this chapter, we analyse our observationsin order to identify threads and patterns in the field of today’s arts and culturalheritage education in archives and museums. Gruber, M. R. u. Glahn, C. (in press). E-learning for arts and cultural heritage education in archives and museums. In: Hasebrook, J., Muhr, G. u. Schrader, A. (Eds.). Applying digital media to culture. Amsterdam: IOS Press. (written in 2007/2008, not published at all)
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A considerable part of the results of research activities is being created in digital formats. Although valuable, these data are at risk of being lost by technological obsolescence and by the inherent fragility of digital media. Thus, the management of research data in a digital networked and distributed environment becomes an increasing challenge for the world of research and for the information science. In response to this challenge arises the concept of digital curation, which involves the management of research data from its planning, ensuring its long-term preservation, discovery, interpretation and reuse. In this sense, this study briefly examines the importance of research data and of the idea of digital curation and its impact on the formulation of new documents and scientific communication.
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From the Coliseum in Rome to the verdant landscape of the Loire Valley, the world's cultural heritage has withstood the test of time. Today though, the pace of progress --- from urban sprawl to pollution, neglect, conflict, and even tourism --- threatens these landmarks of our past at an ever-increasing pace. In recent years, rapid advances in digital technologies, from 3D graphics, to multimedia, and virtual reality, have given heritage new hope: from archaeology to architecture, emerging digital tools offer promise in documenting, analyzing, and disseminating culture. Using examples from a decade of research at the University of California at Berkeley, and highlights from the 7th Int'l Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia (VSMM), we will explore the problems and potential of emerging documentation tools, representation and modeling aids, and presentation technologies.Despite the promise, more often than not, those responsible for recording, preserving, and teaching about culture have not been part of this digital revolution. Coupled with this, early 'digital heritage' failed to live up to expectations, whether due to limited tools, questionable research, or lack of visual realism. VAST and other gatherings are beginning to bridge researchers and practitioners, from government to academia, and archaeology to computer science. Using the Virtual Heritage Network and recent international media workshops with UNESCO as examples, we will explore the need for, and potential of, global cross-disciplinary collaboration. From the now obliterated Buddhist statues at Bamiyan, Afghanistan, to Minoru Yamasaki's Twin Towers in New York, we owe it to future generations to harness our digital tools to preserve and protect the world's cultural legacy.
This article summarises a presentation given on behalf of LOCSCOT to the 'Google or Bust: Challenging the Profession' CILIPS day event in Dundee on 27 September 2006. The presentation explored certain issues faced by regional and local libraries regarding management, collection and preservation of digital cultural heritage resources i.e. websites and e-journals. The full presentation is available from the DCC and UKOLN websites.
Conference Paper
The last two decades have witnessed an ever increasing penetration of digital media initially in the management and, subsequently, in the study of culture. From collections management, object documentation, domain knowledge representation and reasoning, to supporting the creative synthesis and re-interpretation of data in the framework of digital productions, significant progress has been achieved in the development of relevant knowledge and software tools. Developing a standard ontology for the cultural domain stands out as the most prominent such development. As a consequence of this progress, digital repositories are created that aim at serving as digital cultural memories, while a process of convergence has started among the different kinds of memory institutions, i.e., museums, archives, and libraries, in what concerns their information functions. The success of digital cultural memories will be decided against rivals with centuries-long tradition. The advantages offered by technology, mass storage, copying, and the ease of searching and quantitative analysis, will not suffice unless reliability, long-term preservation, and the ability to re-use, re-combine and re-interpret digital content are ensured. To this end digital curation is exercised. In this talk we will examine the development of digital cultural memories using digital curation. More specifically, we will discuss issues of knowledge representation and reasoning, we will present some examples of interesting research and development efforts, and will refer to certain current trends.
This paper is based on the transcript of a largely extemporaneous keynote address given at the Web-Wise 2002 Conference on March 20, 2002 at Johns Hopkins University. It has been edited, but it preserves the character of an informal talk rather than a formal paper. I have taken the opportunity to expand upon or clarify a few points, and have also added a few footnotes and pointers to additional information on some of the topics discussed. Parts of the question and answer segment that were captured as part of the transcript have also been included, though I've had the advantage of being able to reconsider some of my answers while the questioners have not had that opportunity; my apologies to them.
01: virtual reality, archeology and cultural heritage
  • Ference On Vast
FERENCE ON VAST 01: virtual reality, archeology and cultural heritage, 1, 2001. Proceed-
What is digital curation? Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre
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ABBOTT, Daisy. What is digital curation? Edinburgh: Digital Curation Centre, 2010. Available at: <>. Access on: 20 Oct. 2016.
Athens: University of Athens
  • Ference
FERENCE ON VAST 01: virtual reality, archeology and cultural heritage, 1, 2001. Proceedings... Athens: University of Athens, p. 343 -354. Available at: < cfm?id=584993&picked=prox>. Access on: 20 Oct. 2016.