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... was initiated in the Netherlands to provide insights for designing nourishment on ebb-tidal deltas. The project included numerical modelling (Brakenhoff et al., 2020;De Wit et al., 2019;Reniers et al., 2019) and field measurement campaigns (van Prooijen et al., 2020;van der Werfet al., 2019b). Point measurements of hydrodynamics and suspended sediment characteristics were carried out at five locations across the delta. ...
... • Dual tracer signatures (fluorescence and ferrimagnetism) were very beneficial, increasing the ease of tracer recovery in the field and analysis in the laboratory. In particular the suspended magnets placed on mooring lines were both an effective means of recovering tracer and potentially offer a route to sampling the suspended sediment load in deeper water or environments where it is challenging to sample frequently, but also an afforded an "opportunistic" measurement: the magnets were place on marker buoys of pressure sensors mounted on the seabed as part of a different experiment Reniers et al., 2019). • Magnets were highly effective at recovering tracer, with large quantities of tracer particles (>1000) found on all of the recovered magnets. ...
Article
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Sediment tracer studies use uniquely identifiable particles to track the pathways and fate of individual sand or silt grains in marine environments. These techniques are best applied to assess connectivity between potential sediment sources and sinks, such as between a sand nourishment and an ecologically sensitive area. Significant challenges exist when applying sediment tracing techniques to further understanding of systems with complicated hydrodynamic, sediment, and morphological regimes. Ebb-tidal deltas are highly dynamic coastal environments shaped by the complex interplay of waves and tides, but have been under-explored. In this study, we use dual signature (fluorescent and ferrimagnetic) sediment tracers to simulate the dispersal of dredged sediment placed as a sand nourishment on an energetic ebb-tidal delta (at Ameland Inlet, the Netherlands). After deployment, sediment dispersal and grain size sorting behaviour were monitored via the collection of seabed grab samples and magnetic sampling of sediment transported in suspension. The tracer content within collected samples were put in context with hydrodynamic conditions observed during the study period. Here we show that the use of such dual signature tracers, in addition to novel tracer recovery and analysis techniques, enables the dispersal of sediment to be monitored even in such complex settings and energetic conditions as an ebb-tidal delta. Our observations show that tracers transported in suspension are significantly finer than tracers that accumulated in the seabed. These suggest that preferential transport as a function of grain size is a key process in shaping the morphology of ebb-tidal deltas and thus governing the dispersal of sand nourishments there. The findings of this study and the approach used here provide valuable tools for assessing the baseline conditions of complex coastal environments today, and for planning the interventions which may be necessary in future responses to climate change. Lessons learned from the application of sediment tracers in this study are provided to assist future researchers and practitioners in applying this technique in dynamic coastal environments.
... The point clouds of each sonar scan were interpolated on a regular grid with a 0.01 m step size using a second-order LOESS interpolator, following Ruessink et al. (2015). This interpolator also removes spikes. ...
... The subsequent bathymetric surveys provide information about the morphological feedback resulting from these processes. First steps were taken in Nederhoff et al. (2019) and Reniers et al. (2019) to calibrate numerical models of the area. ...
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A large-scale field campaign was carried out on the ebb-tidal delta (ETD) of Ameland Inlet, a basin of the Wadden Sea in the Netherlands, as well as on three transects along the Dutch lower shoreface. The data have been obtained over the years 2017–2018. The most intensive campaign at the ETD of Ameland Inlet was in September 2017. With this campaign, as part of KustGenese2.0 (Coastal Genesis 2.0) and SEAWAD, we aim to gain new knowledge on the processes driving sediment transport and benthic species distribution in such a dynamic environment. These new insights will ultimately help the development of optimal strategies to nourish the Dutch coastal zone in order to prevent coastal erosion and keep up with sea level rise. The dataset obtained from the field campaign consists of (i) single- and multi-beam bathymetry; (ii) pressure, water velocity, wave statistics, turbidity, conductivity, temperature, and bedform morphology on the shoal; (iii) pressure and velocity at six back-barrier locations; (iv) bed composition and macrobenthic species from box cores and vibrocores; (v) discharge measurements through the inlet; (vi) depth and velocity from X-band radar; and (vii) meteorological data. The combination of all these measurements at the same time makes this dataset unique and enables us to investigate the interactions between sediment transport, hydrodynamics, morphology and the benthic ecosystem in more detail. The data provide opportunities to calibrate numerical models to a high level of detail. Furthermore, the open-source datasets can be used for system comparison studies. The data are publicly available at 4TU Centre for Research Data at https://doi.org/10.4121/collection:seawad (Delft University of Technology et al., 2019) and https://doi.org/10.4121/collection:kustgenese2 (Rijkswaterstaat and Deltares, 2019). The datasets are published in netCDF format and follow conventions for CF (Climate and Forecast) metadata. The http://data.4tu.nl (last access: 11 November 2020) site provides keyword searching options and maps with the geographical position of the data.
... In another study [20], a numerical model in an idealized inlet domain that accounted for asymmetric waves showed that larger waves contributed to the migration and growth of shoals on ebb-tidal deltas. Using a realistic domain [21], it was shown that the skewness of the waves was responsible for the enhancement of sediment transport into the inlet and the evolution of the ebb-tidal delta during storm conditions. Recent modeling [22][23][24][25][26] studies have shown the importance of wave-driven transport under combined action during wave-current interaction. ...
Article
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The shoaling transformation from generally linear deep-water waves to asymmetric shallow-water waves modifies wave shapes and causes near-bed orbital velocities to become asymmetrical, contributing to net sediment transport. In this work, we used two methods to estimate the asymmetric wave shape from data at three sites. The first method converted wave measurements made at the surface to idealized near-bottom wave-orbital velocities using a set of empirical equations: the “parameterized” waveforms. The second method involved direct measurements of velocities and pressure made near the seabed: the “direct” waveforms. Estimates from the two methods were well correlated at all three sites (Pearson’s correlation coefficient greater than 0.85). Both methods were used to drive bedload-transport calculations that accounted for asymmetric waves, and the results were compared with a traditional excess-stress formulation and field estimates of bedload transport derived from ripple migration rates based on sonar imagery. The cumulative bedload transport from the parameterized waveform was 25% greater than the direct waveform, mainly because the parameterized waveform did not account for negative skewness. Calculated transport rates were comparable to rates estimated from ripple migration except during the largest event, when calculated rates were as much as 100 times greater, which occurred during high period waves.
... A field measurement campaign was carried out from August 29 to October 9, 2017, with the goal of characterizing hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes in the inlet and on its ebb-tidal delta De Wit et al., 2019;Reniers et al., 2019;van der Werf et al., 2019;Van Prooijen et al., 2020). Measurements of flow, waves, SPM, bedform dynamics, and water quality were made at four locations across the site. ...
Article
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Quantifying and characterizing suspended sediment is essential to successful monitoring and management of estuaries and coastal environments. To quantify suspended sediment, optical and acoustic backscatter instruments are often used. Optical backscatter systems are more sensitive to mud particles ( < 63μm) and flocs, whereas acoustic backscatter systems are more responsive to larger sand grains ( > 63μm). It is thus challenging to estimate the relative proportion of sand or mud in environments where both types of sediment are present. The suspended sediment concentration measured by these devices depends on the composition of that sediment, thus it is also difficult to confidently measure concentration with a single instrument when the composition varies and extensive calibration is not possible. The objective of this paper is to develop a methodology for characterizing the relative proportions of sand and mud in mixed sediment suspensions by comparing the response of simultaneous optical and acoustic measurements. We derive a sediment composition index (SCI) that is used to directly predict the relative fraction of sand in suspension. Here we verify the theoretical response of these optical and acoustic instruments in laboratory experiments, and successfully apply this approach to field measurements from Ameland ebb-tidal delta (the Netherlands). Increasing sand content decreases SCI, which was verified in laboratory experiments. A reduction in SCI appears during more energetic conditions when sand resuspension is expected. Conversely, the SCI increases in calmer conditions when sand settles out, leaving behind mud. This approach provides crucial knowledge of suspended sediment composition in mixed sediment environments.
... A recent numerical study for this specific tidal inlet by Reniers et al. [36] investigated the relevance of wave-shape induced transport compared to the traditional transport where sediment is stirred up by waves and transported by the currents. They found that the contribution of wave-shape transport is the dominating mode of transport in stormy conditions at the shallow locations, and can counteract the tide-induced sediment transport leading to a net onshore sediment transport. ...
Article
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Field measurements of waves and currents were obtained at ten locations on an ebb-tidal shoal seaward of Ameland Inlet for a six-week period. These measurements were used to investigate the evolution of the near-bed velocity skewness and asymmetry, as these are important drivers for wave-induced sediment tranport. Wave shape parameters were compared to traditionally used parameterizations to quantify their performance in a dynamic area with waves and tidal currents coming in from different directions over a highly variable bathymetry. Spatially and temporally averaged, these parameterizations compared very well to observed wave shape. However, significant scatter was observed. The largest deviations from the parameterization were observed at the shallowest locations, where the contribution of wave-induced sediment transport was expected to be the largest. This paper shows that this scatter was caused by differences in wave-breaking, nonlinear energy transfer rate, and spatial gradients in tidal currents. Therefore, it is proposed to include the prior evolution of the wave before reaching a location in future parameterizations in numerical modeling instead of only using local parameters to predict wave shape.
Thesis
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In an era of rising seas and other challenges posed by climate change, coastal regions like the Netherlands are facing ever graver threats. Strategic sand nourishments could mitigate the threat of coastal erosion and sea level rise on barrier island coasts while limiting ecological impacts. However, insufficient knowledge of sediment transport pathways at tidal inlets and ebb-tidal deltas prevents an informed response in these areas. The main goal of this project was to describe and quantify the pathways that sediment takes on an ebb-tidal delta. To reach this goal, we focused our analyses on Ameland ebb-tidal delta in the Netherlands. Before we could begin to tackle this challenge, we needed to develop new tools and techniques for analyzing a combination of field measurements and numerical models. These include a method for analyzing the stratigraphy and mapping the morphodynamic evolution of ebb-tidal deltas, a new metric for characterizing suspended sediment composition, and innovative use of sediment tracers. We also established a quantitative approach for looking at and thinking about sediment pathways via the sediment connectivity framework, and developed a Lagrangian model to visualize and predict these pathways efficiently. The techniques developed here are useful in a wider range of coastal settings beyond Ameland, and are already being applied in practice. We foresee that the main impacts of this project will be to improve nourishment strategies, numerical modelling, and field data analysis. This dissertation also points forward to numerous opportunities for further investigation, including the continued development of the connectivity framework and SedTRAILS. By managing our coastal sediment more effectively, we will set the stage for a more sustainable future, in spite of the challenges that lie ahead.
Article
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The nonlinear wave shape, expressed by skewness and asymmetry, can be calculated from surface elevation or pressure time series using bispectral analysis. Here, it is shown that the same analysis technique can be used to calculate the bound superharmonic wave height. Using measured near-bed pressures from three different field experiments, it is demonstrated that there is a clear relationship between this bound wave height and the nonlinear wave shape, independent of the measurement time and location. This implies that knowledge on the spatially varying bound wave height can be used to improve wave shape-induced sediment transport predictions. Given the frequency-directional sea-swell wave spectrum, the bound wave height can be predicted using second order wave theory. This paper shows that in relatively deep water, where conditions are not too nonlinear, this theory can accurately predict the bispectrally estimated bound superharmonic wave height. However, in relatively shallow water, the mismatch between observed and predicted bound wave height increases significantly due to wave breaking, strong currents, and increased wave nonlinearity. These processes are often included in phase-averaged wind-wave models that predict the evolution of the frequency-directional spectrum over variable bathymetry through source terms in a wave action balance, including the transfer of energy to bound super harmonics. The possibility to calculate and compare with the observed bound super harmonic wave height opens the door to improved model predictions of the bound wave height, nonlinear wave shape and associated sediment transport in large-scale morphodynamic models at low additional computational cost.
Article
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The mean current velocity profile in the combined wave-current motion is calculated by use of the depth-integrated momentum equation. The velocity distribution is assumed to be logarithmic inside as well as outside the wave boundary layer, but with different slopes. Hereby, it is possible to describe the flow in the whole range from the pure wave motion (without any mean current) to the pure current motion (without any waves). The theory covers an arbitrary angle between wave propagation direction and mean current direction.
Article
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This paper reviews the state-of-the-art as perceived by the Wave-Current Interaction (WCI) group which forms part of the MAST G6M Coastal Morphodynamics project, and includes some new results arising out of that project. Those processes which affect the vertical profiles of current and wave kinematics, and the bed shear-stresses, are discussed, but “horizontal” processes such as refraction of waves by currents, and generation of longshore currents, are not included. Among the group's conclusions are recommendations for the calculation of wave-induced bottom orbital velocities with and without WCI, and direct parameterisations of the bed shear-stresses produced by WCI. The latter is the results of a comprehensive intercomparison of WCI boundary-layer models and data. The results are aimed at aiding the formulation of numerical models of coastal morphodynamics.
Article
A third-generation numerical wave model to compute random, short-crested waves in coastal regions with shallow water and ambient currents (Simulating Waves Nearshore (SWAN)) has been developed, implemented, and validated. The model is based on a Eulerian formulation of the discrete spectral balance of action density that accounts for refractive propagation over arbitrary bathymetry and current fields. It is driven by boundary conditions and local winds. As in other third-generation wave models, the processes of wind generation, whitecapping, quadruplet wave-wave interactions, and bottom dissipation are represented explicitly. In SWAN, triad wave-wave interactions and depth-induced wave breaking are added. In contrast to other third-generation wave models, the numerical propagation scheme is implicit, which implies that the computations are more economic in shallow water. The model results agree well with analytical solutions, laboratory observations, and (generalized) field observations.
Article
Non-linear tidal constituents, such as the overtide M4 or the compound tide MS4, are generated by interaction in shallow seas of the much larger astronomically forced “primary” tidal constituents (e.g., M2, S2). As such, errors in modeling these “secondary” shallow-water tides might be expected to be caused first of all by errors in modeling the primary constituents. Thus, in the context of data assimilation, observations of primary-constituent harmonic constants can indirectly constrain shallow-water constituents. Here we consider variational data assimilation for primary and secondary tidal constituents as a coupled problem, using a simple linearized perturbation theory for weak interactions of the dominant primary constituents. Variation of the resulting penalty functional leads to weakly non-linear Euler–Lagrange equations, which we show can be solved approximately with a simple two-stage scheme. In the first stage, data for the primary constituents are assimilated into the linear shallow water equations (SWE), and the resulting inverse solutions are used to compute the quadratic interactions in the non-linear SWE that constitute the forcing for the secondary constituents. In the second stage, data for the compound or overtide constituent are assimilated into the linear SWE, using a prior forced by the results of the first stage. We apply this scheme to assimilation of TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry data on the Northwest European Shelf, comparing results to a large set of shelf and coastal tide gauges. Prior solutions for M4, MS4 and MN4 computed using inverse solutions for M2, S2, and N2 dramatically improve fits to validation tide gauges relative to unconstrained forward solutions. Further assimilation of along-track harmonic constants for these shallow-water constituents reduces RMS differences to below 1 cm on the shelf, approaching the accuracy of the validation tide gauge harmonic constants.
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Computer modeling of sediment transport patterns is generally recognized as a valuable tool for understanding and predicting morphological developments. In practice, state-of-the-art computer models are one- or two-dimensional (depth-averaged) and have a limited ability to model many of the important three-dimensional flow phenomena found in nature. This paper presents the implementation and validation of sediment transport formulations within the proven DELFT3D three-dimensional (hydrostatic, free surface) flow solver. The paper briefly discusses the operation of the DELFT3D-FLOW module, presents the key features of the formulations used to model both suspended and bedload transport of noncohesive sediment, and describes the implemented morphological updating scheme. The modeling of the three-dimensional effects of waves is also discussed. Following the details of the implementation, the results of a number of validation studies are presented. The model is shown to perform well in several theoretical, laboratory, and real-life situations.
Wind-induced effects on intertidal flat sediment transport
  • I Colosimo
  • P L M Vet
  • D S Van Maren
  • A J H M Reniers
  • J C Winterwerp
  • B C Van Prooijen
I. Colosimo, P.L.M. de Vet, D.S. van Maren, A.J.H.M. Reniers, J.C. Winterwerp and B.C. van Prooijen (2019). Wind-induced effects on intertidal flat sediment transport, paper in preparation.
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Isobe, M. and K. Horikawa (1982). Study on water particle velocities of shoaling and breaking Waves, Coastal Eng. in Japan, 25, 109-123.
General view on sand transport by currents and waves
  • L C Van Rijn
Van Rijn, L. C. (2000). General view on sand transport by currents and waves, Rep. No Z2899.20 Z2099.30-Z2824.30, Delft Hydraulics, Delft, The Netherlands.