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Comprehend of Patho-physiological Changes & Consequential Prognosis in Marmabhighata (Injury to Marma)

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  • Govt. ayurved college and hospital bilaspur

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"Marma‟ literary communicates the sense of vital parts of the body. The science of Marma is an unique approach of Ayurveda and established to help the practice of surgery. There are total 107 Marma‟s in the human body. These are classified into five types according to location, structures involved, effect and consequences or prognosis of the trauma over there. Any type of Marmabhighata (injury to Marma) is likely to produce subjective manifestations governed by the extent and the nature of injuries to the Marmas. Tridosha in the body have their Panchabhautik origin. The Pancha mahabhautas are the main constituting component of Tridosha such that, the consequence of traumatised Marma has got direct bearing on the predominance of Tridoshas over there. Any trauma to these Marmas is likely to provoke both the Shareerik and Manasik dosha which thereby affects the body (Sharira) and Mind (Mana). So, as the base (body and Mind) gets affected, the Jeevatma or Bhootatma itself ceases to exit. This changes in Marma after injury such as deformities and delayed healing mainly depends upon the consequences that occur due to patho-physiological changes over Marma.
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International Journal of Scientific Research in _____________________________ Review Paper .
Biological Sciences
Vol.6, Issue.2, pp.160-168, April (2019) E-ISSN: 2347-7520
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26438/ijsrbs/v6i2.160168
Comprehend of Patho-physiological Changes & Consequential Prognosis
in Marmabhighata (Injury to Marma)
Hiarman Banjare1*, Susil Meher2, Sachin kumar Baghel3, Sujit Dalai4
1Mahaveer College of Ayurvedic Science, Rajnandgaon, Chhatishgarh
2Govt.Ayurved College, Balangir, Odisha
3Govt Ayurvedic College, Bilaspur, Chhatishgarh
4Bharati Ayurved Medical College & Hospital, Durg, Chhatishgarh
Available online at: www.isroset.org
Received: 21/Mar/2019, Accepted: 19/Apr/2019, Online: 30/Apr/2019
Abstract- Marmaliterary communicates the sense of vital parts of the body. The science of Marma is an unique approach of
Ayurveda and established to help the practice of surgery. There are total 107 Marma‟s in the human body. These are
classified into five types according to location, structures involved, effect and consequences or prognosis of the trauma over
there. Any type of Marmabhighata (injury to Marma) is likely to produce subjective manifestations governed by the extent and
the nature of injuries to the Marmas. Tridosha in the body have their Panchabhautik origin. The Pancha mahabhautas are the
main constituting component of Tridosha such that, the consequence of traumatised Marma has got direct bearing on the
predominance of Tridoshas over there. Any trauma to these Marmas is likely to provoke both the Shareerik and Manasik dosha
which thereby affects the body (Sharira) and Mind (Mana). So, as the base (body and Mind) gets affected, the Jeevatma or
Bhootatma itself ceases to exit. This changes in Marma after injury such as deformities and delayed healing mainly depends
upon the consequences that occur due to patho-physiological changes over Marma.
Keyword: Marma, Marmabhighata, injury to Marma, Tridosha, Panchabhuta, Consequences
I. INTRODUCTION
„„Marma Sharira a science of vital anatomical sites with higher life value, has been established to help the practice of surgery
in Ayurveda. Sushruta „the father of surgery‟ has signified this science by equating it, as „half of the knowledge of surgery[1].
He has elaborated that there are 107 such anatomical sites/points (vulnerable) lies in the body[2,3] which need special attention
of the clinicians during practice. This vital point of the body is having very technical and practical utilization from traumatic
attack and diagnosis of various diseases.
The term „Marma‟ literary communicates the sense of vital parts of the body. Any injuries or mechanical involvement directly
affecting the sites of Mamas are likely to take away the life. Knowledge pertaining the structure and location of Marma in the
body finds better scope in the battle field, when enemies counteract each other. The biggest war recorded in the history of India
with the highest causality was the battle of Mahabharata[4].
In comparison to an elaborate and tedious description of all the structures of the body, the knowledge of regional Anatomy
finds its better scope in the management of the injuries involving the Marma or the vital parts of the body. Besides the perfect
knowledge of Anatomy the surgeons have to rely upon their own experiences and take care of the vital structures like nerves,
arteries, joints and tendons, etc. Knowledge of Marma popularised the excellence of Indian surgeons in the field of the surgery
even though the details of anatomical approaches in the field concerned was not performed.
Marma’s are the specific locations on the human body, which when traumatized, will either surely cause death or permanent
deformity with extreme pain[5,6]. Marmas are the juncture of Mamsa (muscular tissue), Sira (blood vessels), Snayu (nerve or
tendons or ligament), Asthi (bone tissue) and Sandhi (joints). The Pranas are specifically situated in Marmas by the virtue of
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their nature, hence a trauma to any one of these Marmas will invariably causes physical disturbances in accordance with their
particular types[7,8].
Marmabhighata (trauma or injury to Marma) is likely to produce subjective manifestations governed by the extent and the
nature of injuries to the Marmas. The behaviour of Marma after injury or consequences are the end results in relation to
existence of life process. Such consequences are the deformities precipitating over the body, time factor etc are mainly depends
upon the prognosis and its patho-physiological changes. This consequential prognosis of Marmabhighata has been the unique
approach of Ayurveda.
III. CLASSIFICATION
107 numbers of Marmas has been structurally classified into five types depending on the structures involved like Mamsa
(muscles), Sira (blood vessels), Snayu (nerve or tendons or ligament), Asthi (bones) and Sandhi (joints). These Marmas are
named as Mamsa Marma, Sira Marma, Snayu Marma, Asthi Marma and Sandhi Marma. In general, depending on the
predominance of anyone of these above said structures, the body Marmas have been designated accordingly[9].
Table 1: Name & Number of Marmas according to Structural (Rachananusar) Classification
Mamsa Marma (Total 11)
Sl.No
Name of the Marma
Number of Marma
Sl.No
Name of the Marma
1
Tala Hridaya
4
3
Guda
2
Indravasti
4
4
Stanarohita
Sira Marma (Total 41)
1
Nila Manya
4
9
Apasthamha
2
Matrika
8
10
Hridaya
3
Sringataka
4
11
Nabhi
4
Apanga
2
12
Parswa Sandhi
5
Sthapani
1
13
Brihati
6
Phana
2
14
Lohitaksha
7
Stanamula
2
15
Urvi
8
Apalapa
2
Snayu Marma (Total 27)
1
Ani
4
6
Vasti
2
Vitapa
2
7
Kshipra
3
Kashadhara
2
8
Amsa
4
Kurcha
4
9
Vidhura
5
Kurcha Sira
4
10
Utkshapa
Asthi Marma (Total 8)
1
Katika Taruna
2
3
Amsa Phalaka
2
Nitamba
2
4
Sankha
Sandhi Marma (Total 20)
1
Janu
2
6
Manibandha
2
Kurpura
2
7
Kukundara
3
Simanta
5
8
Avarta
4
Adhipati
1
9
Krikatika
5
Gulpha
2
The next most important classification of Marmas is based on the consequences or prognosis produced as a result of trauma
over Marmas. Under this approach, all the 107 Marmas of the body have been again classified into five groups. They are Sadya
Pranahara (death immediately after injury), Kalantara Pranahara (death after laps of sometime), Vishalyaghna,(death soon
after removing the Shalya), Vaikalyakara (injury causing disability) and Rujakara (injury causing severe pain). Pointing out the
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number of these five types of Marma, Sadyah Pranahara Marma are 19, Kalantara Pranahara are 33, Vishalyaghna are 3,
Vaikalyakara are 44 and Rujakara Marmas are 8 in number[10].
Table 2: Name & Number of Marmas according to classification based on consequences of trauma over the Marma area
Sadyah Pranahara Marma (Total 19)
Sl.No
Name of the Marma
Number of Marma
Sl.No
Name of the Marma
1
Srungataka
04
5
Guda
2
Adhipati
01
6
Hridaya
3
Shankha
02
7
Vasti
4
Matrika
08
8
Nabhi
Kalantara Pranahara Marma (Total 33)
1
Simanta
05
7
Parswa Sandhi
2
Tala Hridaya
04
8
Brihati
3
Khipra
04
9
Nitamba
4
Indra Vasti
04
10
Stanamula
5
Katik- Taruna
02
11
Stanarohita
6
Apasthambha
02
12
Apalapa
Vishalyaghna Marma (Total 03)
1
Sthapani
01
2
Utksepa
02
Vaikalyakara Marma (Total 44)
1
Lohitaksa
04
10
Vidhura
2
Ani
04
11
Krikatika
3
Janu
02
12
Amsa
4
Urvi
02
13
Amsaphalaka
5
Kurcha
04
14
Apanga
6
Vitapa
02
15
Nila
7
Kurpara
02
16
Manya
8
Kukundara
02
17
Phana
9
Kaksadhara
02
18
Avarta
Rujakara Marma (Total 08)
1
Gulpha
02
2
Manibandha
02
3
Kurchasira
04
107 Marmas present all over the body are preciously situated over the trunk and the extremities. In view of significance, the
Marmas situated over the trunk carry more importance in comparison to those situated over the extremities. Ayurveda
emphasizes upon the Shiras (Head), Hridaya (Heart) and Vasti (Bladder) of the body, designated as Trimarma (Three vital
parts)[11] and specifically indicated that these are the special seat of Pranas or life out of 107 Marmas.
III. MARMABHIGHATA
Any Injury to Marma
due to incision, stabbing, burning or external blow
is termed as Marmabhighata which is mild or
severe in nature[12]. In general, any type of Marmabhighata is likely to produce subjective manifestations governed by the
extent and the nature of injuries to the Marmas. In dealing with the manifestations, more emphasis has been given on the
consequences produced as a result of trauma.
Certain clinical features like Bhrama (confusion), Pralapa (delirium), Dourvalya (weakness), Chittanasha (lack of
consciousness), Strastanga (restlessness), loss of sensation of parts, rise in body temperature, loss of function of the joints,
unconsciousness, shallow breathing, severe pain, bleeding, loss of perception of senses, giddiness, paleness of the body,
burning sensation over the cardiac area and postural un stability are commonly seen when Marmas are traumatized[13,14]. All
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these symptoms are found in a condition where death is sure. Besides the general manifestation of the Marmabhighata,
following specific manifestations are observed when the body components like Mamsa, Sira, Snayu, Asthi and Sandhi marmas
are injured[15].
Mamsa Marma: continuous bleeding, reduced viscosity of blood, blood resembles like washed water of meat, pallor skin,
loss of function of sense organs & speedy death.
Sira Marma: Constant flow of thick blood in large quantity, their manifests thirst, giddiness, dyspnoea, delusion (confusion or
fainting) and hiccups which ultimately leads to death. These symptoms are suggestive of cut injury to the blood vessels
particularly veins.
Snayu Marma: Ayama (contraction or bending) or atrophy of body, Akshepa (convulsion), Sthambha (stiffness of the body),
Severe pain, inability in riding, sitting and standing, distortion of Snayu. Marmabhighata is suggestive of injuries to nerve or
nerve plexus. Most of the symptoms like rigidity, pain, convulsion etc are specific symptoms of nerve injury.
Asthi Marma: Discharge of thin fluid mixed with bone marrow intermittently and severe pain continuously.
Sandhi Marma: Sense of feeling of full of thorns at the site of injury, squeezing of organ or lameness even when wound is
completely healed up, loss of strength and movement, emaciation or atrophy (affected body organ) and swelling or oedema of
the Joints (distal).
Dhamani Marma: Flow of warm, frothy blood with a sound and the person becomes unconscious.
Above all the sign and symptoms are results when Marma is injured. Apart from these, various sign and symptoms or some
specific disease are produced in Individual Marma also[16].
Table 3: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of lower extremity
Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Kshipra
In between great toe and the
second toe of the foot
Aksepaka (clonic spasm or convulsions)
of the leg and ultimately leads to death
2
Tala Hridaya
Mid of the sole of the foot (plantar
aspect) to a straight line drawn
from the root of the middle toe
Pain & Death
3
Kurcha
Above and both sides of the
Kshipra Marma
Shivering and bending deformity of the
foot
4
Kurcha Sira
Both sides of Gulpha Sandhi
(ankle joints)
Pain and swelling of the affected part
5
Gulpha
Junction of Pada (foot) and
Jangha (leg)
Stabdhapada, Khanjata i.e. pain, rigidity
or limping foot, and impotency
6
Indravasti
Mid of the Jangha (leg) in the line
of the Parsani (heel or calcaneum)
Excessive hemorrhage leads to death
7
Janu
Junction of Jangha (leg) and Uru
(thigh)
Limping or Lameness (difficulty in
walking)
8
Ani
Both the sides of lower one third
part of the femur, three fingers
above the Janu (knee joint)
Urusthambha (Enormous swelling and
stiffness of the thigh)
9
Urvi
Mid of the Uru (thigh)
Wasting of the Sakthi (atrophy of the arm
and legs) due to loss of blood or
diminished blood supply
10
Lohitaksha
Root of fold of Uru (thigh), above
the Urvi Marma and below the
Vankshana Sandhi (Hip joint)
Pakshaghata (hemiplegic) and Shosa
(atrophy) of the whole inferior extremity
due to loss of blood or diminished blood
supply
11
Vitapa
In between the Vanksana (Groin)
and the Vrisana (Testis)
Rise impotency or oligospermia
Table 4: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of upper extremity
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Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Kshipra
In between thumb and the index
finger
Aksepaka (clonic spasm or convulsions)
of the hand and ultimately leads to death
2
Tala Hridaya
Mid of the palm at joining the line
along with the middle finger
Severe pain and death
3
Kurcha
Above on both sides of Kshipra
Marma
Shivering and bending deformity of the
hand
4
Kurcha Sira
Below and one side of
Manibandha sandhi (Wrist joint)
Pain and swelling of the affected part
5
Manibandha
At the junction (wrist joint) in
between palm of the hand and fore
hand
Pain, rigidity or Kunitwa (Deformity)
6
Indravasti
Mid of the fore arm facing to
ventral aspect of the hand
Excessive hemorrhage leads to death
7
Kurpura
At the junction of the forearm and
arm
Permanent disability of the limb
8
Ani
On both the sides, three Angula
(finger) above the elbow joint
Swelling, Stiffness or paralysis of the arm
9
Bahvi
In the mid of the arm
Wasting or atrophy of the arm due to loss
of diminished blood supply
10
Lohitaksha
At root of the upper extremity
(brachium) adjacent to auxiliary
fold and above the Bahvi Marma
Pakshaghata (hemiplegic) and Shosa
(atrophy) of the whole upper extremity
due to loss of blood or diminished blood
supply
11
Kakshadhara
In between the chest and arm pit
Precipitates paralysis of the limb
Table 5: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of Head & Neck
Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Nila Manya
High up in the neck on either side of
the kantha nadi (trachea)
Loss of speech, defective voice, loss
of taste
2
Matrika
Anterior external, post external jugular
veins and common facial veins
Immediate death
3
Krikatika
Junction of head and neck
Instability of neck and death
4
Vidhura
Below and behind the ear
Mookatwa (Mutism/Aphasia)
5
Phana
Both side of nasal passage & near the
roof of the nose
Loss of sense of Smell
6
Apanga
Outer side of orbits and below the
lateral end of the Bhru (eyebrow)
Andhatwa (Blindness or defective
vision)
7
Avarta
Above and below the Bhru (eyebrow)
Andhatwa (Blindness or impaired
vision)
8
Sankha
In between Karna (ear) and Lalata
(forehead) and just above the
termination of the superciliary arch
Immediate death
9
Utkshepa
Above the Sankha (temple) and near
the hairy margin of the scalp (parietal
region on the scalp) on both the sides
of the head
Keeps the person alive till it lodges
over theses or if it comes out after
suppuration but he cannot survive if
the Shalya (foreign body) is extracted
out by force immediately after injury
10
Sthapani
In between the Bhrus (eye brows or
supercillary arches and underneath the
bony vault)
Same as Utkshepa Marma
11
Simanta
Five structural Joints in the vault of
skull
Unmada (insanity), Bhaya (Fear) and
Chittanasa (Madness or lack of
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Consciousness) leading to death
12
Sringataka
Junction of the confluence of Siras
(vein) providing nutrition to the
Ghrana (nose), Shrotra (ear), Akshi
(eyes) and Jivha (tongue)
Immediate death
13
Adhipati
Inside the cranium superiorly at the
confluence of Sira (vain). This point is
just under the romabert (ringlet of the
hair)
Immediate death
Table 6: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of Thorax
Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Hridaya
Superficially located in between Stana
Granthi (breast) and near the opening
of the Stomach
Immediate death
2
Stanamula
Bilaterally two fingers below the Stana
(breast)
Fills up the Kostha (thoracic cavity)
with cough and proves to be fatal with
troublesome cough & breathing
3
Stanarohita
Two fingers above the Chuchuka
(nipples) of both the Stana Granthi
Fills the cavity with blood and ends in
death due to Kaph and dysponea
4
Apalapa
Below the Amsakuta (Sholder joint)
and above the sides or lateral aspect of
chest (in the axilla)
Hemorrhage leads to result in pus
formation becomes fatal
5
Apasthambha
Both the side of Ura (Chest)
Fills the chest with air and results in
death due to Kapha and dysponea
Table 7: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of Abdomen
Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Guda
Attached to Sthulantra (Large
intestine) i.e. anal region
Immediate death
2
Vasti
Within the Kati pradesha (Pelvis) i.e.
bladder
Immediate death except an wound
which is formed during extraction of a
calculus
3
Nabhi
In between Pakvashaya (Colon) and
Amashaya (Stomach) i.e. umbilicus
Immediate death
Table 8: Consequence and patho-physiological changes resulting from trauma to specific Marma of Back
Sl.
No.
Name of the
Marma
Location
Consequential Prognosis
1
Katikataruna
Both the side of the Pristhavamsa
(Vertebral column) corresponding to
each Shronikasthi (Hip bone)
Pallor, discoloration of skin due to
hemorrhage or loss of blood
2
Kukundara
Both the side of the Pristhavamsa
(Vertebral column) and the lateral
sides of the outer part of Jaghanasthi
(femur)
Loss of sensation and movement in
lower part of the body
3
Nitamba
Above Shroni kanda (Hip bone) which
covers the Ashaya (Viscera) and
connects the lateral part of Vertebral
column
Sosa (atrophy) in lower extremity with
weakness leads to death
4
Parsvasandhi
Just at the middle of Janghanaparsva
bhaga (Gluteus region) and joining the
Death due to collection of blood in
Pelvic cavity
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lower part of two flanks
5
Brihati
Posteriorly both side of the
Pristhavamsa (Vertebral column) at
the level of Stanamula (Base of the
breast)
Excessive bleeding results into death
6
Amsa Phalaka
In the upper part of the Pristha (back)
near to the scapular region and on both
the sides of vertebral column attached
to Trika (Sacrum)
Sosa (Atrophy) of Bahu (Arm)
7
Amsa
In between the root of the arm and
neck, joins the Amsa-peetha (Scapular
region) and Skandha (Shoulder)
together
Stiffness in upper extremity produces
loss of function to the arm
3.1 EFFECT OF MARMABHIGHATA
If Sadhya Pranahara Marma gets injured it may leads to Kalantara Pranahar or
death. If Kalantara Pranahara Marma gets injured it may lead to Vaikalyakara. If
Vishalyghna gets injured it may lead to Vaikalyakara. If Vaikalyakara Marma gets injured It will
leads to distress and pain
after a certain period while Rujakara Marma injury leads to
mild pain[17].
IV. DISCUSSION
The prognostic consequence of Marmabhighata is the patho-physiological changes precipitating over the concerned part of the
body. The five categories like Sadya Pranahara, Kalantar Pranahar, Vaikalyakara Vishalaghna, and Rujakara have been
worked out based on the end results that one has to face soon after injuries over the Marmas. The consequences and the
symptomatology point out the prognosis of the case are variable as per site and locations of the Marmas and its injury. It is
apparent from the above said statement that if all the types of Marmas are injured extensively they may all prove fatal.
Trauma to Sadya Pranahara Marmas results in inability of sense organs to perceive their respective subjects. Mind and
intelligence can‟t function properly and severe pain precedes the death. Fatal period of death is
immediate or within seven
days. It is noted that this group of Marmas possesses Agni Mahabhuta as fiery properties get very quickly inflamed and they
prove fatal to the life. When Kalantara Pranahara Marma is injured, loss of Agni, Soma and Dhatus (blood etc) causes
extreme pain leading to eventual death. Fatal time is 15 days to one month. As this group of Marmas posses Agni as well as
Saumya guna (properties), Agni guna gets inflamed rapidly but Saumya guna takes a considerable time in diminishing. Thus
this group of Marmas prove fatal after some time of Injury. An injury to any of the Vaikalyakara Marmas produced permanent
disability of the affected part. Death supervenes immediately or after some time. As this group of Marmas possesses Saumya
guna, it supports the Prana by virtue of its stabilising and cooling properties. Injured Vishalyaghna marmas
causes Shwasa
(Asthma), Kasa (Cough) and results in
death. Death does not occur until weapon exists at site of entry. As soon as weapon
is removed death occurs. Vishalyghna Marmas are Vataja in properties, so long as the Vata remains due to obstruction by the
Shalya (foreign body) & patient survives. But as soon as the Shalya is extracted out, the Vata escapes from the Marma sthana
and patient dies. Therefore, if the Shalya comes out after suppuration in Marmasthana then the patient can survive. Injured
Rujakara Marmas gives rise to various types of pain or pain like condition in affected organs, which ultimately results in
deformity of the same part. This group of Marmas are predominant in Agni and Vayu gunas. They are specially pain
germinating in their properties. On the contrary, one says that the pain results from all Panchbhutas [18].
In another context Sushruta has further illustrated the presence of Trigunas, Mahagunas and the Bhootatma (Supreme power or
life principle) in the Marmas also, where Soma (Jala Tatva), Maruta (Vayu Tatva), Teja (Agni Tatva) representing the Tridosas
in the body and Satva, Raja, Tama as well as the Bhootatma are situated. Hence injuries to these Marmas are likely to result
fatal[19].
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The Tridosha in the body have got their Pancha Bhautik origin. The basic elements of Pancha bhautik are the main
constituting component of Tridosha. It is seen in the above verse that the consequence of traumatised Marma has got direct
bearing on the predominance of Tridoshas over there.
This description though gives more emphasis for the presence of Sharirik dosha and Manasik dosha at the site of Marma but
in true sense both the doshas are purgating all over the body. Any trauma to these Marmas are likely to provoke both the
Shareerik and Manasik dosha which thereby affect the Sharira & Mana (body and mind) and thus when the base (body and
mind) is afflicted the Jeevatma or Bhootatma itself ceased to be there.
Again, there are four types of Siras i.e., Vata, Pitta, Kapha, and Rakta carrying channels in the body. These channels remain
seated in Marma sthanas and any injury to them may lead to death due to excessive loss of the blood and other body tissues
resulting into aggravation of Pitta which in turn, causes increased thirst, emaciation, toxicity, unconsciousness, severe
perspiration, weakness and looseness of body[20].
V. CONCLUSION
Marma have been taken up as a vulnerable points or weak point in the body which when gets injured or traumatized leads to
fatality. In view of underneath body component structures like Mamsa, Sira, Snayu, Asthi and Sandhi, the Marmas have been
accepted as a juncture of these structures. The Marmabhighata on such structures are likely to precipitate the paralysis or
atrophy or weaknesses in the limbs are over the areas supplied by them or other specific diseases or death arises. The
consequences or the prognostic changes occurring due to trauma over these five types of Marmas are not due to predominance
of Doshas or Dhatus present over the area concerned, but it is the Swabhava (natural inode quality) of that particular Marma
which determines the end results. The intensity of trauma that decides the prognosis irrespective of structural components like
Mansa, Sira, Snayu etc or functional elements like Doshas.
In present day of advance surgery, there should be clear-cut knowledge of vascular system, nervous system, muscles and their
origin insertion, ducts and their courses, with a view to have an expertise operations on the patients. The ancient literature, no
doubt, lacks with the knowledge of advance anatomical background in comparison to the present advances in the field. Though
knowledge of anatomy and physiology of today have really removed the mystery of surrounding structure situated at the site of
Marmas and minimized or made more less or nil the hazardous and dangerous task for surgeon. The concept of Marma
described in ancient literature is possibly to make the subject matter more crystallized, based on the wide experience of
expertise surgeons paying more attention towards the vital structures like arteries, veins, nerves tendons and ligaments. The
surgeons based on their practical knowledge could map out the dangerous spots of the body and consequently postulate their
own theory of Marma. This was the reason that made the surgery of ancient India to get more popularized and enabled it to
achieve the highest position during the days of ancient civilization of the world.
REFERENCE
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[2] Shastri A, Sharira Sthana, Susrut Samhita, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;6:3, 1997
[3] Shastri S N, Chikitsa Sthana, Charak Samhita, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, Varanasi;26:3;pp.716, 1993
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[7] Shastri A, Sharira Sthana, Susrut Samhita, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;6:16, 1997
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Int. J. Sci. Res. in Biological Sciences Vol. 6(2), Apr 2019, ISSN: 2347-7520
© 2019, IJSRBS All Rights Reserved 168
[11]Shastri S N, Chikitsa Sthana Charaka Samhitha, Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;26:3;pp.716, 1993
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[18]Shastri A, Sharira Sthana, Susrut Samhita, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;6:17,pp.38-41, 1997
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Authors Profile
Hiraman Banjare pursed B.A.M.S & M.D (Sharir Rachna) from Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur, Chhatishgarh, India.
He is currently working as an Associate Professor & Head of the Department Sharir Rachana in Mahaveer college of Ayurvedic
science, Rajnandgaon, Chhatishgarh. He is currently pursuing his Ph. D. degree on subject entitled “A critical study on Rujakar
Marma with special reference to Structural Anatomy” under the guidance of Susil Kumar Meher at Sambalpur University, Burla,
Odisha, India. He is acting as external examiner for U.G (B.A.M.S) courses of Sambalpur University, Odisha
Susil Kumar Meher pursued B.A.M.S from Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha and M.D in Samhita Sidhanta from Gujrat
Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujrat, India. He is completed his Ph.D from Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, Varanasi, India.
He is retired from his job as Associate Professor, Department of Samhit & Sidhanta, Govt Ayurved College, Balangir, Odisha on
30th April 2019. He is acting as external examiner, question paper setter for U.G (B.A.M.S) courses of various Universities
Sachin Kumar Baghel pursued B.A.M.S from Maharastra University of health science, Nashik and M.D in Agadtantra from
Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharastra, India. He is currently working as an Associate Professor in
Department of Agadtantra at Govt Ayurvedic College, Bilaspur, Chhatishgarh. He is written three books on Agadtantra in Hindi
language (Agad Tantra Evam Visha Vggyan, Pratyakshika Agadtantra & Agadtantra upyogi Saaranee tatha shlok) for B.A.M.S
students.
Sujit Kumar Dalai pursued B.A.M.S from Utkal University, Bhubaneswar and M.D (Rasashastra & B.K) from National Institute
of Ayurved, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. He also pursued Ph.D from Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha, India. He has
worked as Senior Research Officer at Arogyadham, Deendayal Research Institue, Chitrakoot, Satna, M.P, India. Now he is
working as an Professor & Head of the Department Rasashastra and Bhaisajya Kalpana at Bharati Ayurved Medical College and
Hospital, Durg, Chhatishgarh, India. He has received sponsored project form KVIC, Bhopal, India entitled “Establishment of In
house test Laboratory (honey)” and completed the project at DRI, Chitrakoot, Sa tna, M.P in year 2006. He has published more
than 25 research papers in reputed international and national journals. He has presented research papers in oral presentation in
various international and national conferences. He is acting as external examiner, question paper setter for U.G (B.A.M.S)&
D.Pharm (Ayurved) courses of various Universities.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
  • A Shastri
  • Sharira Sthana
  • Susrut Samhita
Shastri A, Sharira Sthana, Susrut Samhita, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;6:17,pp.38-41, 1997
  • S N Shastri
  • Chikitsa Sthana
  • Charak Samhita
Shastri S N, Chikitsa Sthana, Charak Samhita, Chaukhamba Bharati Academy, Varanasi;26:3;pp.716, 1993
  • Sharira Murthy K R S
  • Sthana
Murthy K R S, Sharira Sthana, Astanga Samgrah of Vagbhatta, Chaukhamba Orientalia, Varanasi;7:10-16; pp.90 -97, 2016
  • B N Tripathy
  • Sharira Sthana
Tripathy B N, Sharira Sthana, Astanga Hridaya, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;4:38;pp.394, 1999
  • S N Shastri
  • Chikitsa Sthana Charaka
  • Samhitha
Shastri S N, Chikitsa Sthana Charaka Samhitha, Choukambha Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi;26:3;pp.716, 1993
He is acting as external examiner, question paper setter for U.G (B.A.M.S) courses of various Universities Sachin Kumar Baghel pursued B.A.M.S from Maharastra University of health science, Nashik and M.D in Agadtantra from
  • Susil Kumar Meher Pursued
  • B A M From Sambalpur University
  • Sambalpur
  • M.D In Odisha
  • Samhita
Susil Kumar Meher pursued B.A.M.S from Sambalpur University, Sambalpur, Odisha and M.D in Samhita Sidhanta from Gujrat Ayurved University, Jamnagar, Gujrat, India. He is completed his Ph.D from Sampurnanand Sanskrit University, Varanasi, India. He is retired from his job as Associate Professor, Department of Samhit & Sidhanta, Govt Ayurved College, Balangir, Odisha on 30 th April 2019. He is acting as external examiner, question paper setter for U.G (B.A.M.S) courses of various Universities Sachin Kumar Baghel pursued B.A.M.S from Maharastra University of health science, Nashik and M.D in Agadtantra from Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur, Maharastra, India. He is currently working as an Associate Professor in Department of Agadtantra at Govt Ayurvedic College, Bilaspur, Chhatishgarh. He is written three books on Agadtantra in Hindi language (Agad Tantra Evam Visha Vggyan, Pratyakshika Agadtantra & Agadtantra upyogi Saaranee tatha shlok) for B.A.M.S students.
  • A Shastri
  • Sutra Sthana
  • Susrut Samhita
Shastri A, Sutra Sthana, Susrut Samhita, Chaukhamba Sanskrit Sansthan, Varanasi; 25:pp.34-35, 1997