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Abstract

Information Technology’s advancements are revolutionizing every business and firms. Social media marketing is the process of gaining awareness, driving traffic and engaging your customers and prospects using social media channels. Despite the current boom of Social networking sites for marketing, this study reveals that effectiveness of advertising through social networking sites. However, a Social networking site provides the ideal platform for direct communication between organizations and customers. Marketing on social network sites has to follow new rules and principles and each organization has to clearly determine if social media marketing is appropriate for them or not. Communication through internet is more specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet advertising has taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional mediums like print media, television and radio. Marketing communication is becoming precise, personal, interesting, interactive and social. Different strategies of communication are followed in various social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and Orkut etc., they not only create effect over the users but also make them interact with the marketing statistics created. People get attached to brand communication in social networking sites than usual banner and pop up ads. The study finds that social media marketing effectiveness is highly influenced by its messages/contents quality, the company’s involvement, and its association with the other marketing platforms. In addition, a complex and detailed analysis of the strategy is needed in order to accurately measure the return on investment of the social media marketing. The study also finds that generation Y might be the main users of social media sites, but they are not the main target audience of the social media marketing.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1042 editor@iaeme.com
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)
Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2017, pp. 1042–1047, Article ID: IJCIET_08_09_116
Available online at http://http://www.iaeme.com/ijciet/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=9
ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
© IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed
THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA ON
ENHANCING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS
D. Lakshmanan
Research Scholar,
Department Of Commerce and Business Administration,
Bharath University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
Dr. S. Rabiyathul Basariya
Associate Professor, Department of Commerce and Business Administration,
Bharath University, Chennai, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
ABSTRACT
Information Technology’s advancements are revolutionizing every business and
firms. Social media marketing is the process of gaining awareness, driving traffic and
engaging your customers and prospects using social media channels. Despite the
current boom of Social networking sites for marketing, this study reveals that
effectiveness of advertising through social networking sites. However, a Social
networking site provides the ideal platform for direct communication between
organizations and customers. Marketing on social network sites has to follow new
rules and principles and each organization has to clearly determine if social media
marketing is appropriate for them or not. Communication through internet is more
specified, with effective interactive strategy among its users. In recent days, internet
advertising has taken new forms which have more advantages over the traditional
mediums like print media, television and radio. Marketing communication is becoming
precise, personal, interesting, interactive and social. Different strategies of
communication are followed in various social networking sites like Facebook, Twitter,
LinkedIn and Orkut etc., they not only create effect over the users but also make them
interact with the marketing statistics created. People get attached to brand
communication in social networking sites than usual banner and pop up ads. The
study finds that social media marketing effectiveness is highly influenced by its
messages/contents quality, the company’s involvement, and its association with the
other marketing platforms. In addition, a complex and detailed analysis of the strategy
is needed in order to accurately measure the return on investment of the social media
marketing. The study also finds that generation Y might be the main users of social
media sites, but they are not the main target audience of the social media marketing.
Cite this Article: D. Lakshmanan and Dr. S. Rabiyathul Basariya, The Role of Social
Media On Enhancing Advertising Effectiveness. International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 8(9), 2017, pp. 1042–1047.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=8&IType=9
D. Lakshmanan and Dr. S. Rabiyathul Basariya
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1043 editor@iaeme.com
1. INTRODUCTION
Advertising on Social Networking Sites The best use out of social networks is not to make
money directly off them, but to harness their marketing potential and to use them to market
your own business. We put forth the concerned networking features, friend focus, search,
security, help & support. Social networks provide the ability to set profiles to private in some
way or another. Additionally they have the ability to report and block users. A good social
network goes above and beyond just allowing users to post profiles and update pictures.
Additional features includes music sections, video uploads, groups and more. The object of a
social network is to find friends and expand relationships. Top social networking websites
allows members to search for other members in a safe and easy to use environment. Common
search functions include search by name, city, school and email address. Social network sites
are self-explanatory. No doubt social network is a significant new way of reaching people, but
the market is far from being mature.
2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Silva et.al. (2017) conducted a survey on “Advertising on social networking sites” with the
objective of ascertaining the effectiveness of users towards advertisement messages. It also
aimed at assessing the influence of social networking sites on the consumer buying behaviour.
An amount of 39% increase in advertising spends on Social networking sites have been
forecasted for 2016. Results from the analysis indicated that social media is a very important
tool for networking among youngsters.
Hindshaw, (2016) has studied on “Effectiveness of advertisement in social networking
sites” with aim to measure both the positive and negative aspects of advertisements. He
concluded that the advertisement creators must concentrate moron the information and social
aspects in any advertising and must avoid for harm products. A questionnaire measuring
motivation, knowledge and effectiveness of advertisements
Bashar et.al., (2016) have done an empirical research to understand the effectiveness of
social networking sites as a marketing tool and an effort has been made to analyze the extent
social networking sites helps consumers in buying decision making. Results of paper
suggested that the medium is growing very fast and holds huge potential but is still in its
nascent stage in India. Therefore, it is time for the companies to make effective strategies and
execute them to win larger share of business through this revolutionary medium and become
the innovative firm of coming future.
Vijai, and Sharma, (2015) have done a study on social networking sites experience of
consumers and marketers in the State of Punjab. Based on the results of the study and
reviewed literature, the paper suggested the measures for effective of advertising on Social
networking sites (SNS) strategies that Above all, social networking sites marketing content
should be “interesting”, “informative”, “interactive” and “reliable”. Marketers should align
their social marketing effort with the changing tastes and preferences of customers. They
suggested that the advertisement promotes competition in the market which leads to supply
better quality products for consumers.
Yadav, (2015) has made an attempt to set up the significance of social networks as an
advertising medium and evaluated the existing advertising methods that are in trend via
certain case studies and concluded that social websites are not just a tool to interact with the
different people but also medium to reach the prospective customers.
The Role of Social Media On Enhancing Advertising Effectiveness
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1044 editor@iaeme.com
3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The present study identifies the outcomes of using social networking sites in promoting the
business. In this research we need to further know how effective and convenient on the part of
young marketers and entrepreneurs to use social networking sites as their tool for advertising
and marketing their goods and services and also the average business owners or marketers do
not fully understand the risks and challenges in it. The field is still so fresh that it is difficult
to evaluate the qualifications of social media “experts” who offer their services online. So,
before a company step into the field of social media marketing, they have to complete full
research on social media practices. An organization has to master basic principles and tactics
of using social media as an effective tool in order to survive in the field of social media
marketing.
4. HIGHLY INFLUENTIAL FACTORS ON SOCIAL MEDIA
MARKETING EFFECTIVENESS
1. Content quality, not quantity
Blanchard (2015) suggests that millions of followers/fans could act as “ghost followers”,
which means these followers/fans have never been actively involved in the online
conversation. In addition, research published by the Advertising Age suggests that the number
of brand mentions are not the real indicator of the SMM effectiveness, especially when the
word is so generic, which can be misinterpreted by the social media monitoring tool. For
instance, an “accident”, which the researcher called “The Salt Lake City Effect” or “The
Bieber Distortion” when there was a sudden increase in number of mention for the word
“salt” on Twitter, which the researcher thought was caused by the release of Angelina Jolie’s
latest movie at that time entitled “Salt.” After spending some time to track back the individual
tweets, he finally found out that the increase was caused by pop star Justin Bieber who was
then on tour and has just arrived in Salt Lake City, where he tweeted “Salt Lake City is super
chill. Air just feels clean…” his fans retreats generated a big boost for the word “salt”. This
example also shows that managers should not totally rely on the monitoring software to
measure and analyze their social media campaign. The Twitter analysis shows that some
brands/companies (e.g. Microsoft, Charmin) used their Twitter account to connect and to
communicate with customers. Their tweets were about communicating and connecting with
their followers, through some personal conversations in subjects that were relevant to their
customers. As a result, they were able to beat their main competitors in financial
performances and Twitter activities.
2. Building trust and long-term relationship
Rust, Moorman, and Bhalla (2016) discuss that marketing approach has changed. It used to be
about persuading consumers to buy products by “bombarding” customers with numerous
advertisements. Today, marketing is about building relationships and trust through effective
two-way communications (e.g., talk about something that customers are interested in), and
creating products that will help to solve customers’ problems. Ironically, some of today’s
social media marketing campaigns are still driven by the old-fashioned marketing and focus
on short-term effect (sales), which is also known as incentive–induced behaviour. Blanchard
(2015) says that trust and genuine buyer/seller relationships achieved through consistent and
engaging conversation will increase the messages (SMM) level of influence.
D. Lakshmanan and Dr. S. Rabiyathul Basariya
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1045 editor@iaeme.com
3. Offline community to extend their relationship and customers’ loyalty
Firms should start their involvement by inviting their customers or prospects to join their
social media community. For example, firms can post the icons of the social media sites that
they are a part of on their main website, or by giving some special deals to customers who
become their fans or followers. In the online community, firms should start writing more
effective posts. An effective post should reflect humbleness, honesty, and conciseness, which
Woessner (2015) suggests as key elements of an effective post. It should also be informative
to satisfy the customers’ need for information and experts’ opinions. Effective contents
should be able to elicit call-to-actions from the audience (conversion) so that by the end of
this process, fans/followers will place an order, subscribe newsletter, or participate on online
surveys. In the offline community, managers/executives should share their expertise with their
community by volunteering as a guest speaker in the local community, which will help to
attract more followers or fans and to strengthen their connection with the community. As was
discussed previously, it is important to maintain the content relevancy within customers’ main
interests and to not overwhelm the customers with too many posts/messages, which is really
important in keeping customers engaged. In doing so, it will help companies to increase their
brands/products awareness especially in the smaller community/market, enhance their
expertise among their colleagues in their industry as well as expand their influence, and
strengthen companies’ relationships with current customers.
4. Integration with other marketing platforms.
Some managers are worried that their social media campaign can affect the number of their
main website’s visitors, because more and more customers switch to Facebook or Twitter. If
the social media program is done correctly, website’s visitors will not be affected by the
growth of companies’ fans/followers in the social media sites. This is because in the end
customers should be directed to the company’s main website. As a result social media
marketing becomes the medium to increase the website’s traffic as well as the company’s e-
commerce. A research shows that “most successful salespeople, over two-thirds believe social
media is integral to their sales success”, because social media has enabled marketers to
engage with customers along their buying process. From the Twitter/revenue analysis, AT&T
did a good job on combining some its marketing platform in its Twitter account. AT&T has
utilized its Twitter account as an additional tool to answer any questions from its customers
regarding AT&T’s services as well as to handle some complains for its customers/followers
(e.g. customer service and customer support), which clearly has increased the quality of its
customer service department and its customer satisfaction.
5. METHODS TO MEASURE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF
ADVERTISING
1. Establish a baseline
Managers should list all the data that they are trying to measure (i.e. sales volume, net
transactions, number of brand mentions) as the baseline of their campaign also supports this
idea, and emphasizes the importance of taking benchmarks before firms launch their
campaign to see “before and after” impact of the SMM.
2. Create activity timelines
Companies should plot all of the activities from all departments and media platforms that
might have an effect on the non-financial outcomes. One way to do this is by creating a
The Role of Social Media On Enhancing Advertising Effectiveness
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1046 editor@iaeme.com
shared document that will allow all departments to integrate their campaign, which will
prevent any misinterpretations/misassumptions when analyzing the result.
3. Monitor the volume of mentions
There are two things that firms need to do in this step. First, staffs need to measure the brand
mentions all across the web (i.e. social media sites, blogs, news sites) using social media
monitoring tools. Second, to measure the mix of sentiment of the brand mentions that is
measured from the previous step.
4. Measure transactional precursors
This is where the firm need to measure the non-financial outcomes that may indicate the
changes in consumers’ behaviours resulted from their SM activities such as number of fans,
followers, shares, recommendations, RSS subscriptions, content downloads
5. Look at transactional data
In this stage, companies need to measure the financial data by combining both the changes in
net transacting customers and the number of net transactions. This will give the firm more in
depth analysis as for which customers (e.g. new or current customers) contribute to the sales
increase.
6. Overlay all data (steps 1-5) onto a single timeline
This is where managers need to put the baselines, and add other relevant data such as
competitors’ press release, important events (i.e. natural disasters, new technology
introduction) during certain timelines that might affect the firm’s SMM activities.
7. Look for patterns
There are three different patterns that demonstrate some possible impacts of the firm’s social
media campaign. The first pattern shows that there is an increasing trend even before the
campaign was launched. The impact of social media activities is difficult to determine from
this pattern, due to lack of significant changes on the firm’s performance. On the other hand,
the second pattern (flat line) shows that there is lack of influence from the SM program. In
this case, executives need to look closer for any particular factors that might cause this
pattern. This might also be caused by the firm’s activities’ outside the social media. For
instance, the SMM was successful to bring some new customers to the store, but there was not
stock available at the store, which interrupted this conversion process. The last pattern is the
desired outcomes of the SMM. It indicates that there is a significant increase shortly after the
social media campaign started, and it also shows that there might be some relations between
the SMM and this performances increase, which will be discussed on the next stage.
8. Prove and disapprove relationship
In order to prove that the 3rd pattern resulted from the firm’s SMM, executives need to work
their way backward from the outcome to trace the correlation between the change in firm’s
performances and its SMM by connecting the firm’s performance metrics with the timeline
from step 6. For example, whether there is a correlation between the firm’s Face book
campaigns during the new product’s introduction with an increase in volume of customers’
conversations about the product, increase in website’s visitors, and ultimately an increase in
the product’s sales. In doing so, it will give executives clear analysis of how the firm’s SM
activities contribute to the outcomes.
D. Lakshmanan and Dr. S. Rabiyathul Basariya
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp 1047 editor@iaeme.com
6. CONCLUSION
The social media provides new opportunities, paving way for enhancing brand image‘s firms
that need to put it in their top priority. Also the new and old brands would use the social
media to improve their competitiveness in the market and to gain momentum with their
consumers in order to achieve customer satisfaction. Through the use of social media would
easily reach the user-friendly interactive system, understanding customers’ special and unique
needs in a way that clients themselves are can adapt and understand well. In the course of data
analysis many consumers turned to doing word of mouth for brands, making them a brand’s
indirect advertisement force. Even so some firms believe that using social media extensively
would cheapen the way of enhancing brand image businesses because evidences as available
by checking out social media pages, blogs, forums and such we can understand that customer
satisfaction has been increased in a way that while these networks are not the backbone of
service providers, they got better feedback regarding the use of these networks and media.
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(2011). The thank you marketing. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
... This consequently creates possibilities for any marketers or businesses to use this platform to make their ads visible among consumers since this medium is developing extremely quickly and has enormous potential. (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) Following that, internet platforms are utilized to convince customers to purchase goods by "flooding" them with advertising. Currently, advertising is about developing connections and trust via effective two-way communication, such as discussing topics of interest to consumers and developing solutions that assist address their issues. ...
... Additionally, both new and established brands would use social media to increase their competitiveness in the market and build momentum with their consumers in order to attain customer satisfaction. By use of online platform and social media, consumers may quickly access a user-friendly interactive system that understands their specific and unique requirements in a manner that they can adapt to and comprehend (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017). ...
... For digital media, TNB used the platform to reach their audience with technology savvy, which is parallel with the current globalization era and trend where most people are using digital media and the internet as their main platforms to get information and also entertain. According to (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) the effectiveness of advertising strategies on social networking sites (SNS) depends on the marketing content being interesting, informative, interactive, and trustworthy. Therefore, marketers should tailor their social marketing efforts to their customers' evolving tastes and preferences. ...
Research Proposal
Full-text available
Hundreds of advertisements promoting businesses are continually reminded of what makes the best advertising today. Thus, every brand's advertising in Malaysia aims to influence consumer perceptions of the brand. As a result, the key issues are: what are Tenaga Nasional Berhad's (TNB's) advertising appeals, and which medium does TNB use to publish their advertisement. The research used a quantitative approach, with a sample of the population aged 18–35 years old. The data has been measured by SPSS software to interpret the findings from the survey that has been distributed to 30 respondents. Finally, the result of this study will show the advertising appeals and medium used in TNB's advertisements.
... This consequently creates possibilities for any marketers or businesses to use this platform to make their ads visible among consumers since this medium is developing extremely quickly and has enormous potential. (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) Following that, internet platforms are utilized to convince customers to purchase goods by "flooding" them with advertising. Currently, advertising is about developing connections and trust via effective two-way communication, such as discussing topics of interest to consumers and developing solutions that assist address their issues. ...
... Additionally, both new and established brands would use social media to increase their competitiveness in the market and build momentum with their consumers in order to attain customer satisfaction. By use of online platform and social media, consumers may quickly access a user-friendly interactive system that understands their specific and unique requirements in a manner that they can adapt to and comprehend (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017). ...
... For digital media, TNB used the platform to reach their audience with technology savvy, which is parallel with the current globalization era and trend where most people are using digital media and the internet as their main platforms to get information and also entertain. According to (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) the effectiveness of advertising strategies on social networking sites (SNS) depends on the marketing content being interesting, informative, interactive, and trustworthy. Therefore, marketers should tailor their social marketing efforts to their customers' evolving tastes and preferences. ...
... This consequently creates possibilities for any marketers or businesses to use this platform to make their ads visible among consumers since this medium is developing extremely quickly and has enormous potential. (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) Following that, internet platforms are utilized to convince customers to purchase goods by "flooding" them with advertising. Currently, advertising is about developing connections and trust via effective two-way communication, such as discussing topics of interest to consumers and developing solutions that assist address their issues. ...
... Additionally, both new and established brands would use social media to increase their competitiveness in the market and build momentum with their consumers in order to attain customer satisfaction. By use of online platform and social media, consumers may quickly access a user-friendly interactive system that understands their specific and unique requirements in a manner that they can adapt to and comprehend (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017). ...
... For digital media, TNB used the platform to reach their audience with technology savvy, which is parallel with the current globalization era and trend where most people are using digital media and the internet as their main platforms to get information and also entertain. According to (Lakshmanan & Basariya, 2017) the effectiveness of advertising strategies on social networking sites (SNS) depends on the marketing content being interesting, informative, interactive, and trustworthy. Therefore, marketers should tailor their social marketing efforts to their customers' evolving tastes and preferences. ...
Research Proposal
Hundreds of advertisements promoting businesses are continually reminded of what makes the best advertising today. Thus, every brand's advertising in Malaysia aims to influence consumer perceptions of the brand. As a result, the key issues are: what are Tenaga Nasional Berhad's (TNB's) advertising appeals, and which medium does TNB use to publish their advertisement. The research used a quantitative approach, with a sample of the population aged 18–35 years old. The data has been measured by SPSS software to interpret the findings from the survey that has been distributed to 30 respondents. Finally, the result of this study will show the advertising appeals and medium used in TNB's advertisements.
... Було досліджено роботи: Савицької Н. Л. [1] у контексті визначення сучасного стану маркетингу соціальних медіа, його поточних особливостей; Іщейкіна Т. Є. [2] та Колосінської М. І. зі співавторами [3] в рамках дослідження споживчої поведінки в соціальних медіа, що впливатиме на розробку стратегії. Було проаналізовано роботи зарубіжних науковців щодо цілей залучення маркетингу соціальних медіа, їх погляди на його розвиток та ефективність, а саме: роботи: Drummond C., O'Toole T., McGrath H. [7] і Ferreira M., Zambaldi F., Guerra D. [9] у контексті їх моделей створення стратегії маркетингу в соціальних медіа; Zhan W., Hyun Gon K. [6] і Lakshmanan D., Rabiyathul B. [5] у контексті адаптації стратегії до споживчої поведінки соціальних мереж, а також інших авторів щодо особливостей функціонування маркетингу соціальних медіа та побудов стратегій. У зв'язку з динамікою розвитку об'єктів дослідження все ще є актуальними залишаються питання розробки підходів до формування стратегії соціальних медіа, що вимагає додаткового вивчення особливостей функціонування маркетингу соціальних медіа. ...
...  поведінка користувачів як споживача в соціальних мережах [2; 3];  методи та практики залучення соціальних медіа в діяльність підприємства [4];  вивчення впливу SMM на параметри діяльності підприємства, оцінка ефективності використання соціальних мереж у бізнес-цілях [5]. Дослідження, сфокусовані на формуваннях стратегії соціальних медіа, вивчають цілі, які підприємства бажають досягти через SMM, основні аспекти тактичних і стратегічних управлінських рішень, а також сприйняття фірмою використання SMM у своїй діяльності. ...
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The article explores modern approaches to formation of a social media marketing strategy, taking into account the dynamics of their development, peculiarities of functioning and possible goals that can be set by economic actors on the face of such a marketing segment. A modern view on the use of social media as a marketing tool is specified, the specific features and existing approaches to the formation of marketing strategies in this sphere are defined. The current state and specificity of social media for business, marketing and consumer behavior are studied and analyzed. A characterization of the existing approaches to the formation of a social media marketing strategy is provided. The main functions of social media marketing content are allocated and generalized, namely: audience search, engagement, coordination and cooperation, which should become the basis for building up an effective strategy. The peculiarities of each function in the context of their application by different enterprises for various purposes are considered; their specifics are defined and summarized. The specifics of social media marketing work in the context of choosing goals and means of interacting with the audience through content are analyzed, on the basis of which two main approaches to the formation of a content strategy for social media marketing, namely consumer and customer approaches, are summed up and classified. Their role, place and importance in forming the strategy of marketing interaction with consumers, partners and other users of social media are substantiated. A characterization of these approaches in the context of their goals, instruments and means is presented. Based on the carried out research, elements of the problem such as social media content marketing functions, their role in shaping social media strategy are generalized and classified; also generalized and allocated are the approaches to the formation of social media marketing. Based on this information, it is possible to take a more objective approach to the formation of the social media marketing strategy necessary for the goals of an enterprise, and on the basis of the drawn conclusions – to carry out further research in this direction.
... geleneksel reklam mecraları olarak kabul edilmektedir(Raudeliuniene˙, Davidaviˇciene, Tvaronaviˇcien˙e ve Jonuška, 2018).Geleneksel ya da destek reklam mecraları: Mobil araçlar, interaktif ortamlar, blog ve vlogları, satış noktası, sosyal ağlar, sinema ve film mecraları en çok bilinenlerdir. Ayrıca bu mecralar reklam vermeyen kitleleri birer reklam veren konumuna getirmiştir(Can ve Serhateri, 2016;Lakshmanan ve Basariya, 2017;Süar, 2017).Geleneksel olmayan reklam mecraların kullanımı ile daha az maliyetle reklam yapılabilmekte ve hedef kitleye ulaşılabilmektedir. Reklamların işlevlerinden biri olarak kabul edilen ihtiyaç oluşturma özelliği ile tüketicilerin almak istemediği veya ihtiyaç hissetmediği bir malı veya hizmeti de satın alabilmektedir. ...
... geleneksel reklam mecraları olarak kabul edilmektedir(Raudeliuniene˙, Davidaviˇciene, Tvaronaviˇcien˙e ve Jonuška, 2018).Geleneksel ya da destek reklam mecraları: Mobil araçlar, interaktif ortamlar, blog ve vlogları, satış noktası, sosyal ağlar, sinema ve film mecraları en çok bilinenlerdir. Ayrıca bu mecralar reklam vermeyen kitleleri birer reklam veren konumuna getirmiştir(Can ve Serhateri, 2016;Lakshmanan ve Basariya, 2017;Süar, 2017).Geleneksel olmayan reklam mecraların kullanımı ile daha az maliyetle reklam yapılabilmekte ve hedef kitleye ulaşılabilmektedir. Reklamların işlevlerinden biri olarak kabul edilen ihtiyaç oluşturma özelliği ile tüketicilerin almak istemediği veya ihtiyaç hissetmediği bir malı veya hizmeti de satın alabilmektedir. ...
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