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Historical Statistics of Coffee Production and Trade from 1700 to 1960. Appendix

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Abstract

The goal of this statistical chapter is to summarily present reliable time series on production, volume of net exports and net imports, as well as selected information on prices from the beginning of the eighteenth century to 1960. The information provided here is part of a larger data set, abbreviated for publication.We sought to provide a relevant selection for those interested in the history of coffee-producing regions of the world, of the international coffee commodity chain, and of consumption trends. General readers may find the abridged tables helpful in terms of clarity, while specialists will perhaps appreciate the detailed annual data.We hope that these tables and the broader database from which they are derived will be improved on in the future through our collective efforts, as we continue to explore sources and share information.
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Appendix
Historical Statistics of Coffee Production and Trade from
1700 to 1960
Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
Introduction
The goal of this statistical chapter is to summarily present reliable time
series on production, volume of net exports and net imports, as well
as selected information on prices from the beginning of the eighteenth
century to 1960. The information provided here is part of a larger data
set, abbreviated for publication. We sought to provide a relevant selection
for those interested in the history of coffee-producing regions of the world,
of the international coffee commodity chain, and of consumption trends.
General readers may find the abridged tables helpful in terms of clarity,
while specialists will perhaps appreciate the detailed annual data. We hope
that these tables and the broader database from which they are derived
will be improved on in the future through our collective efforts, as we
continue to explore sources and share information.
This endeavor has been a cooperative project at several levels. The ini-
tiative came out of the conference on “Coffee Production and Economic
Development, ca. 17001960,” held at Oxford in 1998. The two coau-
thors subsequently undertook this task with the enthusiastic support of
the editors, who generously contributed their own data and expertise.
William G. Clarence-Smith supplied information on a number of African
and Asian cases, and Steven Topik on Brazil; both offered relevant sug-
gestions and valuable feedback. Several other researchers also provided
data and source references for the historical cases with which they are
familiar. We especially thank Carlos Alfaro, Gwyn Campbell, Elizabeth
Dore, Jos ´
e A. Fern ´
andez, David Geggus, Rachel Kurian, Hildete Pereira
411
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412 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.1. Coffee Exports, 1712–1821 (metric tons,
five-year averages)
Java Surinam Jamaica Brazil
17121716 1.08
17171721 20.60
17221726 822.80
17271731 1728.20 174.34
17321736 1677.40 614.40
17371741 1461.20 1867.73 28.18
17421746 1593.00 1423.15 15.84
17471751 1381.00 1654.22 18.33
17521756 1512.40 2423.21 33.54
17571761 1521.40 4745.33 52.68
17621766 1731.00 6160.37 50.21
17671771 1896.40 6130.98 105.70 47.95
17721776 2284.00 7615.47 359.93 44.20
17771781 1819.40 6355.17 206.20
17821786 2197.20 6117.64 577.44
17871791 1678.40 5143.20 817.21
17921796 1855.38 2,431.19
17971801 622.89 5,012.45 481.69
18021806 2382.54 9,976.82 348.24
18071811 3024.09 11,642.17 374.58
18121816 1363.20 11,050.26 1,507.87
18171821 3187.83 8,525.03 6 ,124.10
Sources:Brazil:1741,1750,175677,17961802,180616: Teixeira
de Oliveira (1984), pp. 20810,237, table 1(includes only ex-
ports from Brazilian regions to Portugal and geographical coverage
varies, so data do not reect all Brazilian exports in those years);
181719 (sum of several regions to Portugal, and from Rio de
Janeiro to all destinations): Teixeira de Oliveira (1984), table 1, and
Thurber (1883), p. 135;1820 (only Rio de Janeiro): Thurber (1883),
p. 135;1821 (for all Brazilian exports): Rodrigues da Cunha (1992),
table 1.6(material supplied by Steven Topik and Hildete Pereira de
Melo). Jamaica :173756,176878,17821821: Rodriguez (1961).
Java :171280,178394,1803,180810: Bulbeck et al. (1998),
tables 5.1,5.2B. From 1724 to 1794, coffee purchased by VOC; for
1803,180810, and 1822, coffee production of all Java. Surinam:
17241821: van Stipriaan (1993); pp. 42933, data supplied by
William G. Clarence-Smith; Ukers (1935).
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S.Domingue/Haiti
Brazil
Jamaica
SurinamJava
40.000,0
35.000,0
30.000,0
25.000,0
20.000,0
15.000,0
10.000,0
5.000,0
0,0
Metric tons
1712 1719 1726 1733 1740 1747 1754 1761 1768 1775 1782 1789 1796 1803 1810 1817
figure a.1. Annual coffee exports, 17121822, in metric tons. Sources: Brazil, Jamaica, Java, and Surinam: See Table A.1. Saint
Domingue/Haiti: Izard (1973), p. 208; Moral (1961), pp. 20,91; Tarrade (1972), pp. 34 and 747; exports from Saint Domingue to
France, supplied by David Geggus; data for 1772,177478,1781,178487 contributed by David Geggus, compiled from various
primary sources. Accuracy may vary, and volume smuggled is unknown.
413
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414 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.2. British Net Coffee
Imports, 17011810 (metric
tons, ve-year averages)
17011705 242.0
17061710 108.7
17111715 406.5
17161720 123.2
17211725 372.0
17261730 258.8
17311735 161.1
17361740 336.3
17411745 120.5
17461750 154.4
17511755 220.6
17561760 41.1
17611765 176.6
17661770 84.9
17711775 302.2
17761780 176.8
17811785 169.5
17861790 638.4
17911795 775.4
17961800 1,789.0
18011805 823.9
18061810 9,968.9
Source: Schumpeter (1960), table 18.
The last average is for three years,
18068, and imports were excep-
tionally high in the latter year.
de Melo, Gustavo Palma, Simon D. Smith, Michel Tuchscherer, Jean C.
Tulet, and Robert Williams.
Scope of Statistical Survey
There is a great deal of statistical information on various aspects of the cof-
fee industry, much of which is buried in archival sources and unpublished
research material inaccessible to us. We set ourselves a modest target of
compiling, inasmuch as feasible, a reasonably complete and reliable set of
statistics on amounts harvested and traded, as well as international prices
of coffee from 1700 to 1960. We have relied on material already pub-
lished and some unpublished research work made available to us by our
colleagues or obtained from primary sources through our own research.
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Appendix 415
table a.3. Prices of Coffee in Amsterdam, 17331812
(guilders per pound, ve-year averages)
Java Mocha Surinam S. Domingo
17331737 0.69 0.99 0.61
17381742 0.47 0.62 0.37
17431747 0.59 1.07 0.53
17481752 0.65 0.85 0.55
17531757 0.57 0.85 0.46
17581762 0.49 0.89 0.37 0.37
17631767 0.52 0.99 0.40 0.41
17681772 0.60 0.88 0.53 0.51
17731777 0.44 0.79 0.32 0.28
17781782 0.50 0.89 0.51 0.48
17831787 0.54 1.02 0.47 0.45
17881792 0.68 0.75 0.57 0.52
17931797 0.77 0.86 0.73 0.70
17981802 1.14 1.25 0.92 0.89
18031807 1.03 0.99 0.99 0.94
18081812 2.12 1.96 1.98
Source: Posthumus (1946), vol. 1, pp. 7579 (material supplied
by William G. Clarence-Smith).
This body of information is incomplete for some variables and years in
specic cases. We avoided lling the gaps through statistical extrapola-
tion or other procedures commonly used to estimate aggregate gures at
the expense of local, year-by-year precision. However, we did include the
more reasonable aggregate estimates for each major variable, as a means
both to assess the coverage of our own data and to identify overall trends
as well as changing orders of magnitude.
While we cannot enter here into an in-depth methodological discussion,
we must say that there are major discrepancies among various authors
estimates of world production, exports, and imports, as can be seen in
Tables A.5to A.7. While original sources are the same for certain pe-
riods, they differ in others, and since information is often incomplete,
gaps are lled in by various means: repetition of data or use of averages
from previous years, interpolation and extrapolation, or simply making
rough estimates based on more or less reasonable assumptions. Deni-
tions also vary from one country or period to another, so aggregate time
series sometimes combine disparate data.
Overall exports and imports rarely match, partly because informa-
tion derives from very different sources of information in the countries
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1728 1740 1746 1752 1758 1764 1770 1776 1782 1788 1794 1800 1806 1812 1818
S. Domingo
Surinam
Mocha
Java
2,50
2,00
1,50
1,00
0,50
0,00
Guilders per lb
1734
figure a.2. Annual prices of coffee in Amsterdam, 17281821, in guilders per pound. Source: See Table A.3.
416
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Appendix 417
table a.4. Wor ld Co ffee Produ cti on
Estimates, 18561960 (thousands of metric
tons, ve-year averages)
(A) (B)
18561860 326.40 324.70
18611865 315.60 314.70
18661870 408.00 407.81
18711875 426.00 426.76
18761880 512.40 510.50
1881-1885 600.96 600.91
18861890 538.32 550.80
18911895 634.08 650.40
18961900 888.36 868 .80
19011905 1,032.36 979.20
19061910 1,152.24 1,076.40
19111915 1,180.20 1,129.20
19161920 1,179.96 1,083.60
19211925 1,437.12 1,280.40
19261930 1,983.96 1,775.96
19311935 2,341.44 2,172.70
19361940 2,330.76 2,260.14
19411945 1,820.52 1,765.38
19461950 2,237.52 2,056.52
19511955 2,598.96 2,498.36
19561960 3,681.48 3,521.00
Sources: (A) 18561960: Rodrigues da Cunha (1992),
table 1.1(material provided by Steven Topik and
Hildete Pereira de Melo); (B) 185683: van Delden
La¨
erne (1885), p. 462;18841928: Daviron (1993),
table 19;192960: FAO (1961), table IA.
that ship and receive coffee. The distinction between exportable pro-
duction and coffee that is actually exported becomes more signicant
after the late nineteenth century, and valorization schemes involving re-
tention or destruction of coffee complicate matters. Amounts purchased
by international traders and actually imported into various countries also
vary.
Estimates of production often differ from, and are sometimes lower
than, export data. This is primarily due to the fact that production data
refer to the harvest year, which in turn varies from one country to another,
while trade information is usually supplied for the calendar year. How-
ever, this is not always the case, and in certain countries the information
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418 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.5. Wor ld Co ffee Expor t Est ima tes,
18511960 (thousands of metric tons,
ve-year averages)
(A) (B)
18511855 289.21
18561860 319.05
18611865 324.51
18661870 403.57
18711875 439.21 384.45
18761880 472.75 413.88
18811885 585.53 529.80
18861890 534.43 492.51
18911895 620.71 585.24
18961900 800.55 808.62
19011905 980.83 890.06
19061910 1,055.75 851.76
19111915 1,101.64 1,092.18
19161920 1,056.76 1,056.76
19211925 1,277.21 1,277.21
19261930 1,443.89 1,443.89
19311935 1,549.01 1,549.01
19361940 1,614.94 1,623.34
19411945 1,320.00 1,389.60
19461950 1,844.40 1,843.20
19511955 1,945.96 1,929.60
19561960 2,352 .41 2,335.20
Sources: (A) 18511960:Rodrigues da Cunha (1992),
table 1.6(material provided by Steven Topik and
Hildete Pereira de Melo); (B) 18711912: Lewis
(1978), table A.10 (dates in the original source are
listed here as the previous year, since they refer to
the agricultural year ending in the one listed by
Lewis; this is mentioned by the author in Appendix
III and was corroborated by comparison with other
sources); 191328: Wickizer (1943), table 5;1929
60: Junguito and Pizano (1993), table III-1.
was rst supplied for harvest years, and then for calendar years. Further-
more, data on production proper were often nonexistent before the late
nineteenth or early twentieth century, so they were often inferred from
and sometimes confused with export data.
Clearly, caution must be exercised in short-term correlations and sim-
ilar analyses, although the information is useful to perceive approximate
magnitudes and general trends.
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Appendix 419
table a.6. Wor ld Co ffee Impor t Est ima tes,
18511960 (thousands of metric tons,
ve-year averages)
(A) (B)
18511855 289.21
18561860 319.05
18611865 324.51
18661870 403.57
18711875 439.21 420.12
18761880 472.75 479.04
18811885 612.39 588.84
18861890 616.74 581.52
18911895 648.00 653.16
18961900 815.94 798.12
19011905 951.78 954.48
19061910 1,008.95 1,051.08
19111915 1,021.04 1,144.92
19161920 1,055.72 1,005.36
19211925 1,256.42 1,237.68
19261930 1,422.11 1,388.76
19311935 1,554.68 1 ,434.60
19361940 1,564.13 1,555 .08
19411945 1,195.70 1,309.92
19461950 1,729.57 1,799.88
19511955 1,933.73 1,911.24
19561960 2,343.24 2,316 .96
Sources: (A) 18511960: Rodrigues da Cunha
(1992), table 1.7(material provided by Steven
Topik and Hildete Pereira de Melo); (B) 1871
1960: Daviron (1993), table 22.
Data included here on physical volumes cover total production, net
exports, and net imports of coffee. These variables were understood and
treated as follows.
Production: As far as possible, we included data on total production
as opposed to exports. In some cases there was a clear distinction, while
in others the difference was negligible. A few coffee-producing countries
did not export at all in certain periods. Secondary-source data purported
to refer to production may in a number of cases actually refer to exports,
while rough estimates of local consumption are sometimes used by others
to infer production levels; when this was clearly the case and we were
not able to determine actual production, we excluded that information.
We have not adjusted export gures by estimating local consumption to
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5.000,00
4.500,00
4.000,00
3.500,00
3.000,00
2.500,00
2.000,00
1.500,00
1.000,00
500,00
0,00
1852 1858 1864 1870 1876 1882 1888 1894 1900 1906 1912 1918 1924 1930 1936 1942 1948 1954 1960
Production Exports Imports
Thousands of metric tons
figure a.3. Annual world coffee production, exports, and imports, 18521960, in thousands of metric tons. Source: Rodrigues da
Cunha (1992), tables 5to 7.
420
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Appendix 421
table a.7. Central American and Mexican Coffee Production, 18811960
(thousands of metric tons, ve-year averages)
Costa El
Rica Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Mexico
18811885 14.96 9.34 18.18 1.56 4.08 6.72
18861890 11.96 7.68 17.40 1.92 4.13 5.52
18911895 12.06 11.58 28.56 1.80 5.66 13.20
18961900 16.50 13.20 29.16 1 .14 5.94 24.49
19011905 15.41 25.86 31.74 1.20 8.40 31.67
19061910 13.36 27.36 35.06 1.04 7.98 44.68
19111915 11.53 26.23 36.84 1.09 9.00 45.10
19161920 9.28 27.00 40.92 1.15 9.96 34.56
19211925 14.89 40.57 43.10 1.19 15.10 42.36
19261930 19.58 52.94 42.64 1.42 14.14 51.18
19311935 22.52 57.26 52.90 1.66 14.16 48.32
19361940 23.50 67.56 54.08 1.20 15.18 57.56
19411945 23.02 63.02 54.82 2.38 12.56 54.25
19461950 22.10 65.82 54.58 8.46 14.92 58.01
19511955 27.20 69.24 63.18 15.78 21.80 80.90
19561960 50.48 91.82 84.42 20.24 23.56 105.83
Sources: Springuett (1935), table World Coffee Production; FAO (1961), table IA;
Hern ´
andez (1996).
table a.8. Caribbean Coffee Production, 18811960 (thousands of metric
tons, ve-year averages)
Cuba Dominican Republic Haiti Jamaica Puerto Rico
18811885 30.82 5.52 11.78
18861890 26.16 5.94 18.86
18911895 28.56 6.78 16.56
18961900 25.79 5.10 11.58
19011905 23.74 5.16 8 .16
19061910 22.74 3.96 8.32
19111915 26.24 3.72 10.86
19161920 27.19 3.66 10.26
19211925 29.60 4.34 10.62
19261930 31.88 3.72 2.54
19311935 28.38 18.00 30.80
19361940 29.20 23.72 22.32
19411945 30.02 19.80 21.68
19461950 30.06 22.72 36.52
19511955 36.44 29.18 37.46
19561960 39.40 33.88 27.96
Sources: Springuett (1935); FAO (1961), table IA; Ukers (1935).
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422 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.9. South American Coffee Production, 18811960
(thousands of metric tons, ve-year averages)
Brazil Colombia Ecuador Venezuela
18811885 347.88 6.47 1.50 36.67
18861890 306.67 10.78 2.10 35.98
18911895 360.95 19.51 2.64 42.72
18961900 608.60 26.78 2.40 51.48
19011905 752.93 35.05 2.52 43 .20
19061910 879.19 37.06 2.40 43.42
19111915 866.69 56.96 2.76 60.84
19161920 807.17 78.42 3.00 60.54
19211925 902.70 127.62 3.20 59.40
19261930 1,311.62 161.10 7.80 56.40
19311935 1,424.83 222.52 10.04 55.08
19361940 1,319.24 269.36 13 .82 56.72
19411945 760.90 330.54 12.98 38.98
19461950 931.20 345.00 14.92 41.36
19511955 994.14 380.46 25.24 48.36
19561960 1,619.38 451.12 37.62 53.32
Sources: Di Fulvio (1947), table 1.3; Junguito and Pizano (1991),
table I-1; FAO (1961), table IA.
table a.10. Asian Coffee Production, 18811960 (thousands of metric tons,
ve-year averages)
Portuguese
Ceylon India Indonesia Malaya Timor Yemen
18811885 18.59 109.48 1.64
18861890 6.14 77.62 1.43
18911895 3.11 73 .24 0.19 1.00
18961900 2.00 74.39 1.31 0.19
19011905 65.79 3.12 0.68
19061910 0.15 50.05 1.12
19111915 65.15 0.58
19161920 88.64
19211925 86.29
19261930 116.09
19311935 15.90 120.83 4.66
19361940 15.86 119.30 4.10
19411945 19.08 68.94 9.04
19461950 21.00 27.42 5.62
19511955 26.68 58.31 4.40
19561960 44.90 77.55 5.46
Sources: Bulbeck et al. (1998); Springett (1935); Graham (1912), p. 11 (only data on
production, as other gures in this table refer to exports); FAO (1961), table IA.
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Appendix 423
table a.11. African Coffee Production, 19311960 (thousands of metric tons,
ve-year averages)
Congo
(Belgian,
Cameroon Zaire) Ethiopia Kenya Madagascar Tanganyika Uganda
19311935 0.70 10.62 17.74 14.60 14.49 13.54 5.46
19361940 3.68 24.40 9.30 16.68 32.68 14.58 14.90
19411945 5.42 29.22 11.08 13.08 23.50 14.12 19.74
19461950 6.82 30.46 20.80 9.30 26.26 13.88 28.06
19511955 11.28 37.22 41.56 17.80 42.80 17.72 45.80
19561960 26.28 72.26 51.28 30.14 50.33 23.86 90.86
Sources: FAO (1961), table IA; data for Madagascar supplied by Gwyn Campbell.
arrive at production levels, as there are few reliable gures on actual
consumption for exporting countries throughout most of the period.
Net exports: These were dened as volume of total exports minus im-
ports. Overall coverage of exports is more complete, as many countries
kept better records of coffee entering international trade. A few coun-
tries that produced and exported coffee also imported some in specic
periods. When they exported more than they imported, such countries
were listed as net exporters of the difference. Ofcial export gures may
understate actual amounts of coffee shipped from a country at a given
time for several reasons, including contraband, tax evasion, and insuf-
cient records, especially when it was exported from ports in neighboring
countries. Ethiopian and Yemenite coffee exports, for example, are very
difcult to segregate from others going through Aden; an indeterminate
amount of West Indian coffee was sold without going through ofcial
channels in colonial times, and there is little information about early trade
in coffee among African or Asian countries.
Net imports: This information basically reects total import volumes
minus reexports. While total and net imports are similar in many coun-
tries, several of the major importers also reexported large quantities of
coffee, so the difference there is quite signicant. Such is the case of the
Netherlands especially in the eighteenth century, Great Britain through-
out the nineteenth century, and the United States since the latter part of
that century. On the other hand, a number of countries that imported
coffee were also producers, and some imported variable amounts either
in alternate periods or at the same time that they exported some of their
own coffee. When such countries imported more than they exported, they
were included as net importers of the balance.
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424 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.12. Annual Central American, Mexican, and Hawaiian Coffee Exports,
18321960 (thousands of metric tons)
Costa
Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Mexico Hawaii
1832 0.02
1833 0.04
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841 0.65
1842 0.76
1843 1.15
1844 2.27
1845 3.03 0.00
1846 3.77 0.00
1847 0.01
1848 0.02
1849 0.01
1850 0.09
1851 0.01
1852 3.07 0.01 0.05
1853 3.63 0.13 0.02
1854 0.04 0.04
1855 3.25 0.02 0.04
1856 3.82 0 .00 0.03
1857 4.14 0.01 0.14
1858 2.78 0.04 0.03
1859 4.99 0.29 0.04
1860 4.14 0.06 0.23 0.02
1861 5.19 0.00 0.02
1862 4.96 0.42 0.07
1863 3.98 0.82 0.01 0.06
1864 5.18 0.22 0.04 0.00 0.02
1865 6.19 0.10 0.24 0.14
1866 8.34 0.42 0.04
1867 9.20 0.20 0.42 0.06
1868 9.38 0.14 0.04
1869 9.38 0.12 0.15
1870 11.56 2.67 3.44 0.19 0.24 0.19
1871 8.33 0.57 0.86 0.02
1872 11.59 0.93 0 .02
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Appendix 425
table a.12. (continued)
Costa
Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Mexico Hawaii
1873 9.20 6.76 1.33 0.12
1874 10.78 3.86 7.26 1.25 0.03
1875 4.84 3.99 7.35 2 .47 0.08
1876 11.18 9.31 3 .27 0.07
1877 8.36 9.43 2.96 0.06
1878 11.59 9.40 4.40 0.06
1879 10.70 11.32 1.60 4.79 0.03
1880 7.93 7.53 13.01 2.05 6.45 0 .05
1881 11.24 6.59 11.69 2.13 7.88 0.01
1882 7.41 8.10 14.02 3.32 0.00
1883 9.20 9.36 18.15 2.48 0.01
1884 16.63 9.06 16.68 3.28 0.00
1885 9.15 13.47 23.37 3.20 0.00
1886 9.04 3.64 23.79 3.29 0.00
1887 13.08 6.00 21.50 3.11 0.00
1888 10.31 6.60 16.46 4.00 0.00
1889 12.81 7.20 24.81 0.19 3.82 0 .02
1890 15.39 14.97 22.84 5.16 0.04
1891 14.14 14.53 23.56 4.15 0.00
1892 10.80 22.08 0.01
1893 11.44 15.90 26.87 0.02
1894 10.78 7.20 27.85 0.09
1895 11.09 5.99 31.39 0.05
1896 11.72 10.80 31.03 0.12
1897 13.87 9.00 34.25 0 .15
1898 19.49 6.00 37.47 4.71 0.33
1899 15.37 22.20 38.15 4.58 0.37
1900 16.06 18.00 33.11 0 .15
1901 16.57 19.84 30.67 5.88
1902 13.75 18.88 35.11
1903 17.33 26.35 26.26 8.36
1904 12.58 34.16 29.38 9.80
1905 18.05 28.04 36.78 9.12
1906 13.77 28.43 31.04 8.80 0.56
1907 14.47 25.55 49.99 8.48 14.16 0.65
1908 8.98 25.05 25.43 9.34 21.46 0.89
1909 12.03 28.73 39.99 8.42 26.69 1.23
1910 14.40 28.05 30.14 11.86 18.68 1.57
1911 12.64 29.36 35.13 7 .54 18.86
1912 12.24 26.49 32.80 0.32 6.08
1913 13.02 28.39 39.71 0.24 11.83 20.95
(continued)
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
426 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.12. (continued)
Costa
Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Mexico Hawaii
1914 17.72 34.18 37.71 0.54 10.21 2.03
1915 12.21 30.04 35.18 0.12 9.01 22.69 1.71
1916 16.84 35.26 39.68 0.24 10.31 2 5 .08 1.41
1917 12.27 35.75 41.00 0.36 8.31 23.57 1.16
1918 11.45 35.55 35.50 0.12 11.43 13.61 2.62
1919 13.96 32.59 40.67 0.84 15.07 17.40 1.65
1920 14.00 41.60 42.62 0.48 6.86 5.95 1.16
1921 13.34 27.92 42.42 0.12 13 .39 13.73 2 .26
1922 18.62 42.48 42.43 0.36 8 .75 24.91 1.67
1923 11.09 41.41 43.40 0.90 13.52 16.38 1.38
1924 18.21 48.18 40.28 0.84 17.75 15.89 1.63
1925 15.35 31 .62 43.94 0.78 10.67 23.65
1926 18.25 49.92 42.30 1.20 17.43 21.07
1927 16.15 35 .70 52.02 1.44 10.11 26.09
1928 18.84 52.37 43.54 2 .34 17.56 31.58
1929 19.70 46.80 43.90 1.60 13.20 29.90
1930 23.50 58.60 56.70 1.80 15.30 30.70
1931 23.00 54.60 36.10 1.10 15.80 27.30
1932 18.50 36.70 45.60 1.60 8.10 20.00
1933 27.80 56.20 35.20 1.90 13.70 41.30
1934 19.10 49.90 48.40 1.90 14.70 37.80
1935 24.20 50.10 40.40 1.10 18.50 31.60
1936 21.30 49.40 50.60 1.50 13.10 42.80
1937 26.50 67.60 47.00 2.50 15.80 35.10
1938 25.00 53.80 49.00 1.20 14.30 35.10
1939 20.20 55.80 43.80 1.90 17.40 39.10
1940 18.70 56.50 41.50 1.40 15.30 25.70
1941 21.50 41.80 43.40 0.90 12.70 27.90
1942 20.70 53.10 56.10 2.20 12.70 21.80
1943 24.20 56.40 49.80 2.00 12.00 34.40
1944 18.80 63.10 51.30 1 .90 13.10 35.70
1945 21.80 57.70 51.30 2.70 12.30 35 .70
1946 15.70 48.20 49.70 3.80 11.80 33.30
1947 19.90 62.60 55.80 2.60 10.00 32.90
1948 23.50 60.30 48.50 3.20 14.50 31.50
1949 16.60 74.60 54.80 6.20 6.80 49.00
1950 16.90 69.30 54.90 6.00 21.00 46.10
1951 18.60 65.90 50.90 8.20 16.10 51.50
1952 21.20 66.90 60.40 8.30 18.90 52.20
1953 27.90 65.90 56.60 11.20 18.80 74.10
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 427
table a.12. (continued)
Costa
Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Mexico Hawaii
1954 18.70 62.20 52.80 9.30 17.10 66.70
1955 28.30 71.80 58.40 8.90 22.80 83.50
1956 22.80 64.50 62.50 11.90 16.90 74.00
1957 29.50 83.20 61.80 10.40 22.00 88.80
1958 46.20 80.50 71.40 11.30 22.90 78.80
1959 43.30 83.00 83.10 15.30 16.30 74.40
1960 46.60 0.00 104.00 0.00 22.50 83.00
Sources:Costa Rica:183233,184346,185253, and 18551928: Williams (1994), table A-1;
184142: Obreg ´
on (1997); 192960: FAO (1961), Table III A. El Salvador :1864,1870,1875,
1881,1885,189091,1895,190128: Williams (1994), table A-1;1874/75: Ukers (1935); 1880:
Lauria (1999), table 2;1882/83 to 1884/85,1886/87 to 1889/90,1893/94 to 1894/95,1896/97
to 1900/1: Duque (1938), p. 2424;192960: FAO (1961), Table III A. Guatemala:1860,1866,
1876: Ukers (1935); 18731928: Williams (1994), table A-1;192960: FAO (1961), Table III A.
Nicaragua:186465,1867,187071: Vel ´
azquez Pereira (1992), data supplied by Elizabeth Dore;
187991: Radell (1964), table I; 189899,19013: Direcci ´
on General de Estad´
ıstica y Censos
(1961), p. 52, data provided by Elizabeth Dore; 190428: Williams (1994), table A-1;192960:
FAO (1961), Table III A. Honduras:1889: Rep ´
ublica de Honduras (1893), information supplied
by Robert Williams; 191228: Williams (1994), table A-1;192960: FAO (1961), Table III A.
Mexico:1852/53 to 1881/82: van Delden La ¨
erne (1885), p. 412 (we entered the data for 1852/53
as 1852, and so forth); 190711 : Graham (1912), p. 47;191328: Bynum (1930), table 21 (these
are net exports, as Mexico was also importing some coffee at that time); 192960: FAO (1961),
Table III A. Hawaii:18451900: Schmitt (1977), p. 55152 , data supplied by William G. Clarence-
Smith; 190610: Graham (1912), p.11;191424 from Bynum (1926), table 677.
The data on production, exports, and imports are provided in thou-
sands of metric tons of dry seed, except for the period before 1820 when
volumes were low and hence are given in tons. As far as possible, we
sought to use green coffee equivalents, but up to the nineteenth century in-
formation on some countries may actually be for parchment coffee, which
can weigh up to 20 percent more than peeled or greendry coffee seed.
While we have not included trade value series, the international price
series seemed indispensable. Eighteenth-century prices are in guilders due
to the major importance of the Dutch import and reexport trade. With
respect to the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, we focused on New
York prices in U.S. dollars, to facilitate comparisons. A deation index
was used to convert current into constant prices.
The tables have been organized to cover two main periods, with some
variations due to data coverage and the spatial organization of coffee
production, consumption, and trade: the longeighteenth century, ex-
tending from the late seventeenth to the early nineteenth centuries, and
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
428 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.13. Annual Caribbean Coffee Exports, 18231960 (thousands of
metric tons)
Dominican
Cuba Republic Guadeloupe Haiti Jamaica Martinique Puerto Rico
1823 12.55 1.30 16.49 9.22 0.64
1824 9.92 1.47 21.67 12.55 0.95
1825 12.05 1.17 18.04 9.64 0.80
1826 19.96 0.42 16.26 9.23 0.50
1827 22.52 0.98 24.31 11.68 1.01
1828 14.45 1.02 21.77 10.08 0.83
1829 19.53 1.19 19.56 10.09 0.97
1830 20.23 1.13 20.79 10.10 0.61
1831 23.97 0.91 19.87 6.38 0.38
1832 23.05 0.96 24.06 8.99 0.61
1833 28.87 0.66 15.47 9.01 0.52
1834 20.44 0.89 22.75 8.04 0.62
1835 15.93 0.54 23.67 4.80 0.30
1836 18.12 0.73 18.42 6.10 0.46
1837 24.00 0.48 15.10 4.55 0.28
1838 17.44 0.70 24.39 6.15 0.51
1839 21.94 0.44 18.55 4 .52 0 .24
1840 24.12 0.52 22.58 3.30 0.33
1841 13.89 0.34 16.70 2.92 0.15
1842 22.49 0.41 19.94 3.20 0.38
1843 18.36 0.34 3.34 0.13
1844 13.95 0.42 3.24 0.29
1845 6.29 0.29 19.05 2.28 0.09
1846 9.20 0.36 2.74 0 .08
1847 10.49 0.18 2.91 0.14
1848 7.81 0.17 2.58 0.09
1849 9.87 0.19 1.56 0.20
1850 5.85 0 .18 2.33 0 .07
1851 6.47 0.22 2.54 0.11
1852 8.32 0 .24 3.23 0.10 5.16
1853 4.98 0.25 2.29 0.12 5 .25
1854 5.75 0.16 2 .72 0.04 5.11
1855 5.33 0 .32 2.57 0.08 6.19
1856 5.28 0.20 17.24 1.51 0 .02 4.79
1857 2.15 0.32 3.22 0.06 5.05
1858 2.04 0.14 2.38 0.02 4.19
1859 3.19 0.48 2.45 0.03 6.02
1860 8.34 0.25 2.98 0.05 7 .22
1861 7.57 0.33 3.07 0.01
1862 0.22 2.54 0.01 5.71
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 429
table a.13. (continued)
Dominican
Cuba Republic Guadeloupe Haiti Jamaica Martinique Puerto Rico
1863 2.08 0.41 3.85 0.03 7.58
1864 0.22 2.46 0.01 7.29
1865 0.45 2.90 0.04 8.60
1866 0.14 25.29 3.55 0.01 6.77
1867 1.73 0.36 2.84 0.02 8.72
1868 1.20 0.33 3.97 0.07 7.28
1869 1.80 0.35 2 .14 0.04 7.14
1870 0.97 0.26 4.46 0.02 7.90
1871 0.26 0.28 2.50 0.01 9.44
1872 0.01 0.46 4.31 0.01 8.33
1873 0.03 0.38 3.27 0.00 11.72
1874 0.02 0.28 4.68 0.01 8.06
1875 0.09 0.28 3.24 0.00 11.87
1876 0.04 0.47 23.72 3.92 0.01 9.45
1877 0.02 0.40 4.32 0.01 7.19
1878 0.01 0.61 4.27 0.00 7.73
1879 0.02 0.29 4.91 0.00 13.85
1880 0.01 0.35 4 .62 0.01 9.90
1881 0.00 0.64 0.51 4.47 0.01 21.40
1882 0.06 0.55 3.37 0.01 13 .35
1883 0.01 0.43 4.29 0.00 16.83
1884 0.30 2.46 0.00 11.68
1885 0.00 0.45 4.10 0.00 21.37
1886 0.00 0.34 2.79 0.00 16.53
1887 0.36 37 .81 2.87 0.00 12.37
1888 0.67 0.47 25.91 5.03 0.00 23.01
1889 0.50 25.51 4 .30 0.00 17.11
1890 0.39 26.70 3.73 0.00 19.64
1891 0.42 30.77 3.84 0.00 18.66
1892 0.65 31.87 4.42 0.00 21.18
1893 0.48 26.29 4.94 0.00 22.02
1894 0.53 33.92 4.49 0.00 22.59
1895 0.48 21.44 4.83 0.00 18.00
1896 0.69 32.88 4.29 0.00 26.29
1897 0.67 30.35 3.38 0 .00 23.18
1898 0.68 27.73 4.34 0.00
1899 0.79 32.46 5.60 0.00
(continued)
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
430 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.13. (continued)
Dominican
Cuba Republic Guadeloupe Haiti Jamaica Martinique Puerto Rico
1900 1.79 0.52 26.16 4.25 0.00
1901 0.66 28.99 4.36 0.00
1902 0.73 21.53 5 .24 0.00
1903 0.75 21.97 5.48 0.00
1904 0.52 27.39 4.07 0.00
1905 29.05 2.62
1906 1.32 31.01 4.10 17.58
1907 1.55 28.73 2.79 15.99
1908 1.85 1.03 18.60 4.79 12.92
1909 0.70 35.74 3 .74 20.51
1910 2.06 4.44 15.39
1911 3.05
1912 4.55
1913 1.05 0.94 27.97 2.96 2.28
1914 1.83 0.65 39.57 4.05 2 .32
1915 2.47 0.62 17.61 3.23 1.46
1916 1.73 0.86 21.88 3.35 1 .80
1917 1.09 0.50 22.52 2.61 1 .71
1918 2.29 0.97 19.00 4.64 1.27
1919 2.21 0.38 48.50 3.74 1.49
1920 0.62 0.80 33.16 2.10 1.21
1921 0.94 0.77 22.19 3.28 1.06
1922 2.36 0.60 28.37 3.21 0.76
1923 1.40 0.53 35.56 3 .92 0.99
1924 2.23 0.76 29.17 2.64 1.08
1925 2.67 0.98 30.52 5.28 1.19
1926 4.31 0.59 35.40 3.37 0 .88
1927 4.09 0.82 28.47 4.15 0.36
1928 4.54 40.82 4.01 0.06
1929 5.50 28.60 2.98
1930 4.80 34.30 3.12
1931 5.10 26.30 4.16
1932 6.10 6.40 23.20 4.03
1933 3.30 11.80 41.70 4.46
1934 1.20 9.60 34.00 3.24
1935 1.80 8.90 19.00 3.44
1936 2.20 14.60 36.10 4.72
1937 6.70 11.00 24.80 3.44
1938 6.80 8.40 25.10 4.29
1939 8.50 14.10 29.30 3.79
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 431
table a.13. (continued)
Dominican
Cuba Republic Guadeloupe Haiti Jamaica Martinique Puerto Rico
1940 6.70 8.60 16.20 2.66
1941 4.40 12.10 22.60 2.08
1942 4.90 7.80 18.10 2.41
1943 5.90 10.60 25.80 1.90
1944 7.20 8.60 23.10 2.18
1945 2.30 17.70 30.00 2.55
1946 0.00 10.40 24.80 1.01
1947 0.00 9.10 22.40 1.60
1948 0.00 11.50 22.90 1.40
1949 0.70 14.40 33.20 1.23
1950 0.20 12.90 23.40 1.69
1951 0.00 14.20 25.00 1.34
1952 0.00 26.30 32.50 1.36
1953 0.00 20.10 22.30 1.56
1954 0.00 23.90 31.00 2.10
1955 4.10 24.40 19.60 2.66
1956 20.00 26.40 31.10 2.43
1957 11.40 21.70 19.40 1.54
1958 7.20 25.80 32.80 1.25
1959 3.00 21.90 21.90 1.34
1960 0.00 28.80 23.70
Sources:Cuba:180459:Ocina Internacional de las Rep ´
ublicas Americanas (1902), pp.
4344;186061,1863,186783,188586:P
´
erez de la Riva (1944); 193260: FAO (1961),
table III A (Cuba was a net importer in other years). Dominican Republic:1881,1888,1900,
1909: Ukers (1935); 19068,1910: Graham (1912), p. 10 (Santo Domingo); 191328: Bynum
(1930), table 19;192960: FAO (1961), table III A. Guadeloupe:18181904:L´
egier (1905), data
supplied by William G. Clarence-Smith; 1908: Ukers (1935); 191327: Bynum (1930), table 20.
Haiti:181842: Ardouin (185360), vol. 10, pp. 5354,238, information contributed by William
G. Clarence-Smith; 1856,1866,1876: Ukers (1935); 1887/88 to 1909/10: Graham (1912), p. 54;
1913/14 to 1928/29: Bynum (1930), table 16.Jamai ca :18231959: Rodriguez (1961) (from 1871
to 1908 the years were agricultural, coffee-harvest years; the year 19089was eliminated due to
the change to calendar years thereafter). Martinique:18181904:L´
egier (1905); Martinique was a
net importer of coffee from 1913 to 1923.Puerto Rico:185297: Bergad (1983); 190610: Graham
(1912); 191328: Bynum (1930), table 17 (years running from July 1to June 30 of the following
year).
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
432 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.14. Annual South American Coffee Exports, 18231960
(thousands of metric tons)
Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Surinam Venezuela
1823 13.56 3.42
1824 16.44 3.15
1825 13.44 2.10
1826 19.08 1.92
1827 25.80 1.56
1828 27.12 2.78
1829 27.54 1.48
1830 28.80 3.01
1831 32.94 1.49
1832 43.02 1.23
1833 67.23 1.57
1834 62.73 0.16 1 .10
1835 60.66 0.00 1.08
1836 58.86 0.24 1.64
1837 61.77 0.33 1 .33
1838 74.46 0.47 0.94
1839 81.48 1.18
1840 78.66 0.66 1.73
1841 78.06 0.00 0.97
1842 84.21 0.79
1843 89.55 1.14 1.31
1844 91.98 1.23 0.98
1845 97.44 1.44 0.85
1846 123.30 0.15
1847 141.81 0.35
1848 133.38 0.71
1849 106.77 0.31
1850 118.14 0.38
1851 144.66 0.15
1852 143.01 0.68
1853 136.80 0.28 10.33
1854 159.60 2.06 0.36 10.03
1855 181.29 2.13 0.23 11.67
1856 181.26 2.48 0.51 12 .25
1857 167.07 2.86 0 .12 9.98
1858 153.45 3.29 0.23 11.76
1859 157.77 3.88 0.26 13.20
1860 182.85 0.17 9.13
1861 179.73 0.16 0 .07 12.63
1862 136.68 0 .00 0.18 11.91
1863 124.20 0.24 0.14 9.32
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 433
table a.14. (continued)
Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Surinam Venezuela
1864 139.47 0.41 0.09 13.64
1865 152.43 4.67 0.12 9.51
1866 167.79 4.10 0.01 12.35
1867 201.54 6.20 0.01 14.68
1868 220.89 3.80 0.02 16.89
1869 207.51 0.81 0.01 18.46
1870 208.26 6.40
1871 236.61 8 .01
1872 226.71 7.36 34 .27
1873 188.13 10.36 31.08
1874 198.81 4.56 35.72
1875 217.80 3.46 0.00 32.85
1876 208.80 2.22 29.12
1877 221.88 4.61 28.70
1878 262.41 4.67 25.13
1879 225.66 4.10
1880 188.34 6.20 33.63
1881 232.23 3.80 42.80
1882 323.04 3.99 40.08
1883 360.09 6.40 38.71
1884 346.62 8.01 40.44
1885 350.22 7.36 39.06
1886 345.33 10.36 41.72
1887 283.89 4.45 43.10
1888 206.64 3.43 50.47
1889 335.16 2.22 43.17
1890 306.54 4.61 0.00 50.83
1891 322.38 4.66
1892 426.54 6.46 40.73
1893 318.42 6.65 57.57
1894 334.92 20.26 12.49
1895 403.20 21.50 52.22
1896 404.64 28.52 47.37
1897 567.78 27.56 51.54
1898 556.02 31.89 53.36
1899 586.26 23.23 48.20
1900 549.30 0.19 38.50
1901 885.60 42.27
1902 789.42 33.00
1903 775.62 56.96
1904 601.50 39.44
(continued)
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
434 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.14. (continued)
Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Surinam Venezuela
1905 649.26 30.06 42.81
1906 837.96 38.16 2.65 0.61 43.00
1907 940.80 34.08 1.14 0.84 40.91
1908 759.48 36.42 3 .77 0.73 0.14 46.93
1909 1,012.86 42.42 3.42 0.33 0 .18 42.63
1910 583.44 34.20 37.16
1911 675.48 37.98 55.25
1912 724.80 55.92 60.86
1913 796.08 61.26 3.69 0.53 0.21 62.81
1914 676.20 61.92 2.98 0.33 0.37 50 .82
1915 1,023.66 67.80 2.32 0.59 0.53 63.43
1916 782.34 72.66 3.23 0.11 0 .77 44.82
1917 636.36 62.82 2 .67 0.06 0.73 34.12
1918 445.98 68.94 3.49 0.04 0.00 82.38
1919 777.78 101.04 1.69 0.16 3.67 44.35
1920 691.50 86.64 1.59 0.98 37.35
1921 742.14 140.76 6.15 1.51 62 .16
1922 760.38 105.90 4.07 0.16 2.17 45.66
1923 867.96 123.66 5.60 2.91 56 .51
1924 853.56 132.96 5.79 0.09 2.23 52.26
1925 808.92 116.82 4.11 0 .31 1 .89 48.22
1926 825.06 147.24 6.07 0.44 2.07 43.04
1927 906.90 141.42 5.87 0.72 2.31 43.70
1928 832.86 159.60 9.15 0.98 3.46 60.41
1929 856.90 170.15 7 .30 0.80 64.40
1930 917.30 190.38 9.40 0.70 47.10
1931 1,071.10 182.02 8.30 2.10 56.00
1932 716.10 191.14 8.00 2.40 3.25 49.20
1933 927.60 199.61 7.00 1.90 34.10
1934 848.80 185.05 14.40 4.10 45.60
1935 919.70 226.13 12.50 2.20 53.60
1936 851.20 236.53 13 .80 3.10 61.60
1937 727.40 250.67 14.10 2.90 41.70
1938 1,026.80 256.42 13.70 2.50 35.90
1939 989.90 224.32 12.90 3.40 27.40
1940 722.70 269.03 14.60 1.50 28.80
1941 663.10 176.16 11.80 3.10 44.60
1942 436.80 260.78 6.10 0.40 35.60
1943 606.70 317.70 12.30 0.70 29.20
1944 813.30 297.89 14.50 2.00 20.10
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 435
table a.14. (continued)
Brazil Colombia Ecuador Peru Surinam Venezuela
1945 850.30 311.67 10.70 2.50 28.20
1946 930.30 339.70 7.60 0.90 40.50
1947 889.80 320.30 10.40 0.80 30.80
1948 1,049.50 335 .30 19.50 0.90 35.90
1949 1,162.10 324.60 10.30 0.90 22.00
1950 890.10 268.30 20.20 0.80 18.60
1951 981.50 287.60 16.60 2.20 18.90
1952 949.30 301.90 20.00 2.60 30.30
1953 933.50 397.90 18.30 4.70 44.10
1954 657.00 345.20 21.00 4.60 26.00
1955 821.70 352.00 23.10 6.80 30.80
1956 1,008.30 304.20 24.50 7.10 23.50
1957 859.20 289.40 29.00 11.10 28.20
1958 772.90 326.40 30.20 17.30 35.60
1959 1,046.20 384.80 23.80 19.90 28.20
1960 1,009.10 356.30 32.40 0.00 0.00
Sources:Brazil:18211928: Rodrigues da Cunha (1992), table 1.6;192960: FAO
(1961), table III A. Colombia:183499,192945: Samper (1948), table 22;1905
28: Junguito and Pizano (1991), table I-5, p. 22;194660: FAO (1961), table III A.
Ecuador :19069: Graham (1912), p. 10;191328: Bynum (1930), table 5;1929
60: FAO (1961), table III A. Peru:19069: Graham (1912), p. 10;191319,1922,
192428: Bynum (1930), tables 7and 8; Peru was a net importer in 192021 and
1923.Surinam:18231869: van Stipriaan (1993), pp. 42933, material contributed
by William G. Clarence-Smith; 1890,1900,19089,1932: Ukers (1935); 191328:
Bynum (1930), table 24.Ve nez ue la :185367: van Delden La¨
erne (1885), pp. 41415;
1868/69,1869/70,1872/73 to 1878/79,1880/81 to 1890/91,1892/93 to 1928/29:
Ardao (1984); 192960: FAO (1961), table III A.
the period from 1823 (or a later date, as appropriate) to 1960. Actual
timespan for different regions and countries reects the availability of
information for different parts of the world in each period as well as
changes in the locus of production and international trade.
In the early eighteenth century, as supply for the world market shifted
from the original Arabian export center toward southern and eastern
Asia, especially the Netherlands East Indies, production there grew rapidly
and was especially well documented. Once the main source of supply
shifted again after midcentury, toward the Caribbean plantations, data
refer basically to exports, but local consumption was minimal, so the
difference between production and exports was often negligible.
As continental Latin America, and especially Brazil, came to supply
most of the worlds coffee in the course of the nineteenth century, data on
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
436 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.15. Annual Asian Coffee Exports, 18231960 (thousands
of metric tons)
Portuguese
Ceylon India Indonesia Malaya Timor Yemen
1823 18.71
1824 16.26
1825 18.12
1826 22.95
1827 26.11
1828 26.86
1829 19.09
1830 18.77
1831 20.11
1832 21.59
1833 25.59
1834 31.78
1835 31.53
1836 5.62 32.55
1837 41.75
1838 37.24
1839 49.19
1840 70.72
1841 61.25
1842 63.51
1843 61.94
1844 74.56
1845 62.08
1846 56.16
1847 63.18
1848 49.10
1849 17.17 55.03
1850 16.41 50.74
1851 14.63 73.95
1852 20.73 3.57 64.01
1853 16.41 3.65 66.57
1854 22.05 3.36 67.15
1855 24.54 4 .18 84.75
1856 22.30 4 .62 81.59
1857 26.87 2.78 71.17
1858 28.25 5.30 78.86
1859 30.58 6 .51 67.37
1860 32.26 8.67 64.04
1861 31.14 9.75 73.14
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 437
table a.15. (continued)
Portuguese
Ceylon India Indonesia Malaya Timor Yemen
1862 30.53 9.55 70.20
1863 41.00 12.12 66.05
1864 33.33 14.69 74.87
1865 47.20 15.74 61.35
1866 45.06 8.00 71.51
1867 44.10 15.05 78.76
1868 51.16 21.68 65.30
1869 51.06 16.37 74.28
1870 51.51 15 .34 83 .11
1871 48.52 25.77 69.04
1872 36.98 19.10 70.05
1873 50.19 18.65 76.74
1874 35.56 15.89 12.72
1875 50.24 18.97 18.78
1876 35.00 15.45 17.49
1877 47.09 15.17 18.86
1878 31.85 17.39 16.64
1879 41.86 18.34 17.19
1880 33.22 18.80 85.54
1881 22.96 17.68 94.50
1882 23.57 18.07 87.28 1.37
1883 13.36 17.31 105.98 1.76
1884 15.80 16.68 100.07 1.19
1885 15.80 18.85 60.28 1.31
1886 11.18 18.82 73 .82 2.07
1887 9.04 13.91 51.72 1.05
1888 7.01 18.56 62.51 0.05 1.67
1889 4.42 12.18 73.39 0.12 1.27
1890 4.42 11.86 38.75 0.05 1.10
1891 4.47 15.84 55.99 0.06 1.14
1892 2.13 15.07 62.02 0.00 1.12
1893 2.79 14.16 38.81 0.19 0.77
1894 1.63 14.29 58.79 0.25 0.75
1895 3.56 14.78 56.38 0.27 1.19
1896 1.17 10.71 54.41 0.40 0.28
1897 0.97 11.43 65.24 0.78 0.02
1898 0.66 13.72 35.90 0.00 1.53
1899 0.97 14.29 54.92 0.00 1.90
(continued)
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
438 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.15. (continued)
Portuguese
Ceylon India Indonesia Malaya Timor Yemen
1900 0.56 12.52 51.04 2.65 0.64
1901 0.51 12.96 32.93 3.06 1.38
1902 0.56 13.67 52.37 3.56 1.08
1903 14.80 52.77 3.78 0.74
1904 16.75 35.00 3.30 0 .68
1905 18.30 34.27 1.92 0.65
1906 11.59 34.77 1.95 0.12
1907 12.41 25.40 1.16 1.13
1908 15.34 25.77 1.10 1.07
1909 11.82 20.12 0.82 0.81
1910 13.83 15 .83 0.68 0.65
1911 12.25 26.83 0.62
1912 13.56 38.38 0.60
1913 13.20 28.94 0.72
1914 18.13 32.26 0.50
1915 10.17 53.30 0.48
1916 8.10 33.70 0.36
1917 12.93 16.72 0.00
1918 8.35 7 .36 0.14
1919 16.69 124.17 0.09
1920 8.80 62.24
1921 13.64 43.69
1922 8.83 57.36
1923 10.17 36.61
1924 10.63 72.98
1925 13.16 69.73
1926 5.56 74.42
1927 14.21 84.80
1928 12.95 114.53
1929 5.20 81.81 3.80
1930 15.80 61.51 4 .10
1931 9.50 68.58 4.50
1932 8.70 113.80 4.90
1933 8.80 71.02 4.50
1934 8.60 81.87 4.20
1935 8.00 81.47 5.20
1936 13.60 95.21 4.50
1937 6.50 98.86 3.30
1938 7.10 68.96 4.50
1939 8.50 65.87 5.60
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 439
table a.15. (continued)
Portuguese
Ceylon India Indonesia Malaya Timor Yemen
1940 2.70 40.53 2.60
1941 4.30 50.00 3.20
1942 4.20 9.10
1943 3.10 14.20
1944 1.30 9.00
1945 1.50 0.00
1946 4.80 7.00
1947 2.30 6.30
1948 0.00 2.34 6.30
1949 3.40 5.17 8.70
1950 3.80 13.30 1.40 7.20
1951 1.00 23.61 0.80 7.90
1952 2.20 18.41 1.40 9.00
1953 2.80 32.90 1.40 8.00
1954 10.30 36.93 0 .90 7.20
1955 3.60 23.17 0.90 8.40
1956 7.50 57.37 1.10 7.50
1957 13.60 50.96 1.30 7.60
1958 15.00 27.22 1.70 2.80
1959 15.50 38.94 1.90 4.60
1960 0.00 42.19 1.20 4.10
Sources: Ceylon:1836: Ukers (1935); 18491902: Peebles (1982), supplied by William G.
Clarence-Smith. Export data after 1903 are not included here, as Ceylon became a net
importer. India:1852/53 to 1879/80: van Delden La¨
erne (1885), pp. 45657 (1852/53 became
1852, and so forth); 1880/81 to 1913/14:Statement of the Trade of British India,data
provided by William G. Clarence-Smith; 191428: Bynum (1930), table 26;192960: FAO
(1961), table III A. Indonesia:182379: Bulbeck et al. (1998), table 5.4(Java, Sumatra,
Menado, and Makasar; no data for some of the islands in certain years); 18801941,1948
52: Bulbeck et al. (1998), table 5.5A (change of sources for original tables may be related
to different magnitudes and possible variation of coverage); 195360: Bulbeck et al. (1998),
table 5.5B. Malaya:18881906: Bulbeck et al. (1998), table 5.5A; 190710 (Federated
Malay States; no data for Perak in 1919): Graham (1912), p. 10.Port uguese Tim or :1882
1916,191819: Bulbeck et al. (1998), table 5.5A; 195060: FAO (1961), table III A. Yem en :
192960: FAO (1961), table III A.
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
440 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.16. Annual African Coffee Exports, 18701960 (thousands of metric tons)
Congo
(Belgian, Ivory
Angola Cameroon Zaire) Ethiopia Coast Kenya Madagascar Tanganyika Uganda
1870 0.21
1871 0.25
1872 0.45
1873 0.36
1874 0.18
1875 0.15
1876 0.35
1877 0.24
1878 0.31
1879 0.74
1880 0.41
1881 0.34
1882 0.86
1883 1.47
1884 1.41
1885
1886
1887
1888 5.62
1889 6.93
1890 8.30
1891 7.45
1892 7.38
1893 9.81
1894 6.96
1895 11.07
1896 7.86
1897 7.36
1898 7.97
1899 8.52
1900 6.98
1901 5.40
1902 5.63
1903 5.38
1904 6.00 0.41
1905 4.94 0.64
1906 5.14 0.07 0.74 0.01
1907 4.01 0.07 0.63 0.01
1908 5.25 0.04 1.01 0.01
1909 4.47 0.01 0.01 0.91 0 .01
1910 6.14 0.01 0.03 1.00 0.09
1911 4.67 0.06 1.18
1912 4.13 0.10 1.58
1913 5.10 0.01 0.15 0.09 1.06
1914 4.46 0.00 0.28 0.26
1915 4.00 0.01 0.39 0.44
1916 3.20 0.03 0.30 0 .60
1917 4.19 0.03 0.83 0.05
1918 4.21 0.04 0.03 0.32
1919 6.15 0.14 0.11 3.58 1 .44
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 441
table a.16. (continued)
Congo
(Belgian, Ivory
Angola Cameroon Zaire) Ethiopia Coast Kenya Madagascar Tanganyika Uganda
1920 3.87 0.08 0.02 5.32 1 .22
1921 5.08 0.00 0.01 4.95 1.23
1922 10.30 0.24 0.06 3.90 1.50
1923 6.03 0.12 0.11 6 .95 2 .33
1924 8.83 0.17 0.09 7.92 2.96
1925 12.60 0.22 0.05 7.36 3.36
1926 9.34 0.20 0.12 7 .05 2.77
1927 10.01 0.24 0.25 10.49 5.03
1928 9.83 0.54 0 .24 10.58 4.03
1929 8.80 0.00 0.90 13.70 6.80 3.02 9.00 2.10
1930 11.80 0.00 1.50 14.10 15.80 6.67 11.70 2.50
1931 11.80 0.00 3.00 18.10 12.50 11.35 9 .40 3.60
1932 9.50 0.10 5.50 25 .20 14.00 13.58 11.50 4.40
1933 12.00 0.50 8.60 16.30 13.10 15.25 12.90 5.10
1934 12.00 0.80 12.50 22.50 9.50 14.34 15.00 7.80
1935 11.70 1.40 13.40 19.80 17.60 15.53 18.90 6.40
1936 21.90 2.00 17.40 14.60 20.70 25.00 11.20 11.60
1937 18.80 2.60 17.40 13.00 13.90 21.21 12.80 13.10
1938 18.90 4.30 22.50 5.40 17.40 41.20 14.70 14.20
1939 20.70 5.30 24.90 3.40 17.20 30.92 16.90 17.40
1940 15.80 4.20 19.50 1.50 8.70 20.16 15 .90 18.20
1941 14.20 0.10 26.00 1.50 12.60 22.35 13 .90 20.60
1942 19.50 6.60 27.90 10.80 12.50 1.14 15.10 17.50
1943 23.90 8.60 31.30 11.90 7.10 12.37 11.10 20.50
1944 23.80 5.10 21.70 13.30 6.20 45.34 15.80 19.50
1945 30.90 6.70 33.10 15.90 7.60 26.91 14.70 20.60
1946 46.50 5.90 27.10 15.10 8.50 22.33 10.10 31.90
1947 44.00 5.60 37.30 15.60 9.70 29.03 11.50 21.40
1948 53.40 7.30 30.50 15.30 14.20 19.94 12.60 38.40
1949 46.40 8.20 31.40 22.30 7.50 25.63 12.10 24.30
1950 37.60 7.70 33.20 18.70 10.20 41.56 15.10 32.40
1951 64.40 8.70 35.40 30.30 10.10 30.52 16.70 44.30
1952 47.70 9.20 30.90 21.60 17.20 41.31 18.90 40.10
1953 71.60 10.90 33.90 43.10 13.60 36.23 14.30 35.30
1954 45.80 11.40 34.40 31.20 10.80 41.49 19.70 36.90
1955 57.90 13.90 43.70 41.80 19.70 47.74 18.80 75.60
1956 84.00 17.80 51.10 30.90 27.10 52.49 22.00 62.60
1957 72.20 16.90 66.00 50.20 22.60 48.21 18.40 85.40
1958 77.30 26.50 69.40 39.00 25.40 44.00 22.60 80.00
1959 89.00 29.50 93.40 45.10 26.30 40.60 19.80 89.80
1960 87.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 28.20 43.62 25.50 118.70
Sources:Angola (Bananain 1870s): 187084: van Delden La¨
erne (1885), pp. 46061, only exports to Rotterdam; 1888
1913:Mesquita (1918), p. 46;191425: Bynum (1930), table 34;192628: Marques (1962), p. 174,Azevedo (1958), p. 256
(data from the latter two and from Mesquita provided by William G. Clarence-Smith); 192960:FAO(1961), table IIIA.
Cameroon:192960:FAO(1961), table IIIA. Congo (Belgian): 190610: Graham (1912), p. 11;191828: Bynum (1930),
table 41; net importer from 1913 to 1917.Ethiopia:192960:FAO(1961), table IIIA. Ivory Coast :191328: Bynum
(1930), table 38.Kenya:190919: Waters (1969), pp. 47 and 51;192028: Kamuya Maitha (1969), appendix A; 1929
60:FAO(1961), table IIIA. Madagascar:191318: Bynum (1930), table 38, and Bynum (1926), table 64;191960: data
provided by Gwyn Campbell, see Chapter 3.Ta n g a ny i k a :190413: Tetzlaff (1970), p. 133, data supplied by William G.
Clarence-Smith; 192960:FAO(1961), table IIIA. Uganda:190610: Graham (1912), p. 11;192960:FAO(1961),
table IIIA.
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
442 Mario Samper and Radin Fernando
table a.17. Annual Coffee Imports into the United States,
18231881 (thousands of metric tons)
(A) (B) (A) (B)
1823 16.78 1853 90.26 84.39
1824 17.69 1854 73.48 68.15
1825 20.41 1855 86.63 79.45
1826 16.78 1856 107.05 101.44
1827 22.68 1857 109.31 98.27
1828 24.95 1858 85.73 79.15
1829 23.14 1859 119.75 111.96
1830 23.14 17.40 1860 91.63 82.58
1831 37.19 1861 83.46 80.70
1832 41.73 1862 55.79 51.26
1833 45.36 1863 36.29 33.93
1834 36.29 1864 59.87 57.99
1835 46.72 1865 48.08 38.25
1836 42.64 1866 82.10 79.05
1837 39.92 1867 84.82 84.93
1838 39.92 1868 112.94 94.79
1839 48.53 1869 115.21 119.82
1840 43.09 39.14 1870 106.60 106.71
1841 52.16 1871 144.24 144.24
1842 51.26 1872 135.62 135.54
1843 42.19 1873 132.90 133.30
1844 73.03 1874 129.28 129.40
1845 48.99 1875 144.24 146.04
1846 60.33 1876 154.22 154.72
1847 71.21 1877 150.59 150.43
1848 68.49 1878 140.62 140.56
1849 74.84 1879 171.46 171.39
1850 65.77 58.87 1880 202.76 202.69
1851 69.40 1881 206.38 206.47
1852 88.00
Sources: (A) 182381: Rodrigues da Cunha (1992), table 1.7; (B): 1830,
1840,1850: Ukers (1935), p. 529;185365: van Delden La ¨
erne (1885),
p. 466;186681: Lock (1888), table M, p. 134.
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
table a.18. Coffee Imports Retained for Domestic Consumption in Europe and the United States, 18841899 (thousands
of metric tons)
United States Austria-Hungary France Germany Great Britain Italy Russia
1884 230.72 35.43 67.77 110.88 14.63 16.25 8.27
1885 244.61 36 .62 68.23 117.89 14.83 23.55 7 .71
1886 243.68 37.52 68 .18 127.91 14.33 10.83 7 .48
1887 227.17 31.83 63 .71 101.62 13.31 14.24 5.19
1888 185.32 34.43 67.86 114.42 13.87 14.00 6.35
1889 254.53 34.63 65.11 112 .99 11.04 13.50 5.86
1890 222.34 35.03 67.77 117.88 12.70 13.95 6.38
1891 231.81 35.53 70.00 125.35 13 .01 13 .79 5.72
1892 285.62 36.62 71.70 121.78 12.80 13.81 6.47
1893 250.11 35.93 68.90 121.94 12.04 12.59 6.83
1894 248.15 37.22 69.65 122.10 12.04 12.20 6.66
1895 291.77 37.92 72.16 122.14 12.45 11.97 6.55
1896 259.76 39.42 75.03 129.63 12.40 12.58 6.29
1897 328.66 41.01 77.31 136 .11 12 .40 12.96 7.59
1898 386.33 43 .51 79.24 152.95 12.52 13.36 8 .12
1899 363.68 41.81 81.25 155.81 13.21 14.16 8.34
Sources:Ocina Internacional de las Rep ´
ublicas Americanas (1902), p. 68.
443
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
table a.19. Annual Western Hemisphere Coffee Imports, 19131960
(thousands of metric tons)
United States Argentina Canada Chile Cuba Paraguay Uruguay
1913 389.60 14.79 7.60 5.03 11.38 0 .12 0.00
1914 450.19 14.01 6.89 3.47 8.02 0.06 0.00
1915 478.57 16.41 7.30 5.09 9.64 1.92
1916 511.68 14.91 8.62 4.91 8 .80 0.06 1.98
1917 573.59 17.00 8.14 5.63 12.51 0 .18 2.22
1918 490.01 22.03 6.89 6.95 11.80 0.12 2 .39
1919 566.23 17.00 9.28 3.35 10.54 0.18 1.86
1920 564.67 17.60 7.90 5.69 20.18 0.12 2.39
1921 591.26 18.50 9.82 1.74 13 .53 0.12 2.28
1922 550.36 21.08 9.76 4.91 8.74 0.12 2.22
1923 626.10 20.48 10.06 5.21 16.88 0.12 2.34
1924 626.22 25.33 10.00 4.25 9.76 0.12 2.39
1925 575.71 20.10 9.40 5.00 2.20
1926 513.51 23.30 10.90 4.00 2.30
1927 643.51 24.50 11.60 4.40 2.40
1928 656.31 24.50 12.30 5.60 2.30
1929 666.40 24.80 11.40 5.00 8.40 0.20 2.30
1930 712.40 25.40 13.00 5.20 5.50 0.30 2.50
1931 784.40 22.90 14.30 4.80 0.80 0.10 2.20
1932 673.60 17.60 14.70 3.30 0.10 2.30
1933 712.60 23.30 14.80 1.20 0.20 2.10
1934 685.90 18.40 14.70 2.50 0.10 1.80
1935 791.30 22.00 15.10 3.40 0.20 2.00
1936 785.50 22.30 18.40 3.10 0.20 2.30
1937 766.30 22.70 17.40 3.70 0.20 2.20
1938 897.00 27.70 19.60 3.40 0.20 2.80
1939 905.00 25.10 20.80 4.40 0.20 0.30 2.30
1940 926.50 25.30 18.70 5.70 3.30 0.30 3.00
1941 1,018.60 34.50 25.00 6.80 0.20 1.40
1942 777.70 22.80 20.30 10.20 0.20 2.90
1943 992.50 26.80 26.80 7.80 0.40 3.00
1944 1,178.60 35.00 43.60 8.20 0.60 3.90
1945 1,222.90 30.40 24.80 9.00 2.70 0.40 3.50
1946 1,237.30 35.30 38.40 11.40 6.90 0.70 3.90
1947 1,105.50 34.80 23.30 9.70 8.00 0.30 3.10
1948 1,239.40 45.50 39.70 2.40 1.00 0.50 3 .70
1949 1,311.60 22.70 44.50 15.50 0.50 3 .60
1950 1,101.20 28.80 37.60 6.60 5.70 0.10 3.30
1951 1,211.80 29.10 40.10 4.30 2.80 0.20 3.10
1952 1,207.60 23.50 44.30 3.80 3.40 0.10 2.60
1953 1,251.50 29.60 48.80 5.20 0.10 3.50
1954 1,012.00 33.70 43.30 5.50 0.10 3.30
1955 1,163.60 28.20 46.90 6.70 0.10 3.60
1956 1,257.80 27.60 49.80 4.70 0.10 3.50
1957 1,228.60 35.10 50.10 5.90 0.10 3.20
1958 1,178.40 39.70 53.70 5.50 3.00
1959 1,360.20 19.00 60.90 6.40 0.10 4.80
1960 1,322.10 25.80 59.70 5.50 0.10 3.00
Sources:191324:Bynum (1926), table 2;192528: International Institute of Agriculture (1947), pp. 370;
192960: FAO (1961), table IIA. Data for 1960 are FAO estimates in several cases.
444
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
Appendix 445
exports from the subcontinent became more abundant and reliable due
to the importance of this item in foreign trade. Information on produc-
tion proper is scant for most Latin American countries in the nineteenth
century, although there is some for specic regions of Brazil after midcen-
tury. Information on imports into Europe and the United States improves
in the latter half of this century.
From the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, as production
expanded into new areas and the international market underwent ma-
jor changes, data on coffee were gathered and published more systemati-
cally. Information on production up to 1929 probably combines estimates
based on exports with actual production gures, while subsequently the
distinction was explicit in statistics for most countries.
Detailed information on production, exports, and imports was entered
on spreadsheets for all individual countries where available. For purposes
of publication, we excluded those for which we had only isolated gures,
with the primary exception of Saint Domingue during the period in which
it was the main coffee producer and exporter (see Fig. A.1). We also left out
or regrouped those countries that produced or traded only small amounts,
for economy of space.
All spreadsheets and tables are available for researchers and institutions
on a cooperative basis, with the request that any correction be reported
directly and that additional information is sent to us, whether as spread-
sheets or photocopies, to expand and improve this collective database.
When there was more than one time series available for a given country
and period, we gave preference to original data and to secondary literature
that listed and assessed the original sources over publications that made
only general references to sources or did not cite them. We also preferred
specic, reliable sources for individual countries when there was reason to
believe that their quality was superior to that of the more general sources.
The most complete and consistent time series were used for each coun-
try. When there were overlaps and obvious discrepancies, the reliability
of the two series was checked if possible against other sources. If one
series followed another, before using them we sought to ensure that the
information was in fact comparable and that orders of magnitude in both
were reasonable.
Requests, additional information, and corrections may be addressed to Mario Samper,
ich96@racsa.co.cr, P.O.: Human Sciences Institute, Apartado 503-3000, Heredia, Costa
Rica. Subsequent versions of spreadsheets will be made available to contributing colleagues
on request.
CY139-20 0521818516 January 23,2003 14:46 Char Count= 0
table a.20. Annual European Coffee Imports, 19131960 (thousands of metric tons)
Scandinavian
Austria Belgium France Germany Great Britain Italy Netherlands countries Spain Switzerland
1913 59.40 42.33 115 .26 167.47 16.70 28.32 52.93 265.42 15.15 11.56
1914 72.81 116.40 18.44 28.02 14.13 60.59 13.71 1 0.84
1915 89.39 138.49 42.69 39.94 31.55 114.18 15.99 13.17
1916 45.21 152.92 58.14 48.98 21.91 129.03 16.41 19.76
1917 8.14 163.64 21.97 44.61 14.13 80.71 17.60 9.52
1918 136.15 6.59 51 .61 3.59 61.79 16.35 10.24
1919 208.66 22.09 36.40 41.91 100.41 19.16 10.18
1920 2.63 36.76 145.97 41.19 12.39 30.18 43.23 126.99 22.03 10.30
1921 5.27 37.96 153.46 103.88 47.90 31.49 183.27 21.85 14.31
1922 4.37 37.42 172.98 36.76 40.24 47.24 33.17 157.41 18.68 13.23
1923 6.05 40.65 175.49 38.68 14.97 48.08 31.07 132.80 24.37 12.81
1924 7.90 38.98 170.46 55.38 14.49 46.94 37.84 154.66 14.67
1925 6.80 39.60 168.10 90.40 22.50 42.20 40.30 195.40 19.40 10.90
1926 8.60 39.80 154.20 104.90 11.40 43.70 31.90 191.90 20.30 13.20
1927 8.30 41.20 159.00 123.90 20.60 45.70 34.20 224.40 24.00 13.30
1928 8.30 39.60 161.50 135 .10 16.80 47.70 35.60 235.21 21.50 12.50
1929 9.40 38.70 170.00 148.10 13.90 46.90 33.50 242.40 23.90 13.30
1930 9.00 47.10 178.00 154.00 19.00 45.30 36.00 254.30 26.50 13 .70
1931 9.80 56.60 193.90 155.50 17.80 43.80 40.20 257.30 22.20 15.30
1932 7.50 49.70 186.90 129.70 21.40 40.80 38.40 230.30 22.00 19.80
1933 5.10 39.70 196.40 129.70 16.00 39.90 48.80 234.40 26.10 11.60
1934 5.40 47.60 176.30 150.70 15.30 39.30 34.40 239.70 26.70 13.70
1935 5.30 48.80 188.50 147.60 12.50 40.40 32.70 233.20 23.80 18.60
1936 5.20 51.90 186.50 155.10 14.20 31.80 31.10 232.20 13.90 15.10
446
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1937 5.20 45.40 185.30 177.70 14.50 37.90 36.50 266.60 13.50
1938 8.10 46.50 186.30 197.40 14.20 36.00 45.50 293.10 17.30
1939 54.40 164.10 120.70 26.70 24.30 40.20 211.90 1.20 22.10
1940 27.40 137.90 22.90 56.30 16.40 11.90 107.50 6.10 14.20
1941 0.10 36.30 18.90 6.20 0.50 25.60 8.00 5.70
1942 25.10 12.50 22.50 0.20 0.10 35.30 14.10 10.40
1943 7.90 1.40 40.50 41.90 13.00 12.50
1944 0.40 1.40 38.20 39.60 17.40 6.80
1945 26.80 46.70 42.90 42.90 10.60 14.40
1946 62.80 66.50 33.30 15 .80 18.30 67.40 10.50 18.50
1947 88.70 81.30 44.80 30.20 20.20 95.20 18.20 14.90
1948 0.50 80.00 71.10 10.50 51.30 47.90 20.90 130.60 18.00 25.30
1949 4.10 69.60 87.50 26.30 51.80 56.40 24.00 158.50 7.30 18.30
1950 4.80 54.60 149.60 26.50 38.90 52.80 19.00 137.20 7.10 25.30
1951 5.10 49.40 150.80 40.80 42.60 53.30 16.00 152.70 5.20 19.80
1952 4.50 51.40 160.40 57.80 40.60 61.00 19.40 178.80 4.10 18.20
1953 4.40 50.90 163.60 80.90 25.30 66.70 28.30 201.20 4.90 19.10
1954 4.80 42.70 168.60 109.00 29.50 69.50 28.30 236.30 7.40 19.10
1955 5.70 45.10 184.20 125.40 30.80 72.40 31.20 259.80 9.10 17.90
1956 7.30 57.80 182.20 142.80 43.50 75.70 40.90 302.90 12.60 22.30
1957 8.10 47.10 181.50 165.40 43.70 77.70 38.40 325.20 12.30 21.90
1958 9.00 48.30 189.00 175.30 41.80 81.40 42.80 341.30 12.50 23.00
1959 9.80 53.70 196.50 208.00 51.40 84.10 50.30 393.80 17.90 26.80
1960 12.20 61.10 197.10 214.60 55.20 99.20 53.60 422.60 17.60 29.80
Sources:191324: Bynum (1926), table 2;192528: International Institute of Agriculture (1947), pp. 362 63;192960: FAO (1961), table IIA. Data
for 1960 are FAO estimates in several cases.
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table a.21. Annual African, Asian, and Australian Coffee Imports, 19131960 (thousands of metric tons)
Ceylon Union of
Algeria Australia British Malaya (Sri Lanka) Egypt Japan Sudan South Africa
1913 7.90 1.44 0.72 6.29 0.12 12.15
1914 7.36 1.38 0 .66 5.93 0.12 11.62
1915 7.30 1.38 0 .72 8.50 0.12 14.31
1916 7.60 1.50 0.72 7.54 0.12 12.63
1917 8.02 1.08 0.84 7.13 0.24 13.17
1918 6.89 1.26 0.84 6.95 0.24 20.96
1919 9.16 0.90 0.66 7.07 0.30 7.07
1920 7.42 0.90 0.84 10.24 0.30 12.57
1921 8.44 1.38 1.02 9 .40 0.36 13 .23
1922 8.08 1.32 1.02 9 .82 0.48 13.47
1923 9.58 1.44 1.02 10.18 0.54 14.91
1924 8.80 1.02 11.02 0.84 13.89
1925 9.30 1.70 8.60 1.20 7.80 0.80 4.20 13.20
1926 8.20 1.40 8.40 1.10 9.50 1.10 3.20 12.60
1927 9.60 1.60 8.40 1.40 10.00 1.30 3.70 13.40
1928 10.70 1.50 6.40 1.30 8.10 1.30 3.80 12.10
1929 12.00 1.70 6.10 1.50 9.50 1.80 4.00 12.90
1930 12.60 1.50 6.10 1.30 9.60 1.90 6.20 13.10
1931 13.80 1.30 5.40 1.90 7.50 2.30 4.20 14.30
1932 13.70 1.40 5.30 1.00 7.30 2.80 4.20 11.20
1933 14.00 1.90 6.20 1.40 8.50 2.40 4.90 12.90
1934 13.20 1.50 6.30 1 .30 6.60 2.90 6.30 12 .20
1935 14.20 2.10 8.00 1.60 7.90 3.40 7.60 14.20
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1936 15.40 1.80 7.90 1.10 7.20 5.70 7.80 14.10
1937 14.60 1.90 8.40 1.50 7.70 8.60 6.30 13.60
1938 15.70 1.90 9.90 1.30 9.00 4.50 8.20 16.80
1939 13.30 2.60 10.60 1.60 6.30 1.40 6.60 17.20
1940 15.50 3.50 11.70 1.30 7.00 3.40 7.70 15.20
1941 6.50 4.20 11.10 1.20 7.80 1.50 9.50 24.00
1942 5