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FoodPatternsEquivalentsIntakes By Americans 0304 1516

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Abstract

Compares the USDA Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes of Americans from 2003-04 to 2015-16 sing the NHANES dietary survey data
Highlights
Food Surveys Research Group
Dietary Data Brief No.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Research Service
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
Food Surveys Research Group
www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg
20
Americans reduced their added
sugars intake over a 12-year
period. The estimated mean
intakes of added sugars, per
person per day, substantially
decreased by 4.8 tsp. eq. (or,
20.2 grams) from 21 tsp. eq. in
2003-2004 to 16.2 tsp. eq. in
2015-2016.
Other notable changes in the
mean intakes between 2003-
2004 and 2015-2016 were:
a 12.7-gram reduction in
solid fats intake, from 47.6
grams in 2003-2004 to
34.9 grams 2015-2016.
avery small, but
significant increase in the
whole grains intake from
0.6 to 0.9 oz. eq.
No changes were noted in the
fruit; vegetables; dairy; and
total meat, poultry, and
seafood intakes between
2003-2004 and 2015-2016.
November 2018
Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes by Americans:
What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016
The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) encourage Americans
to increase their fruit, vegetables, and whole grains intakes and limit added
sugars and solid fats intakes [1]. This report highlights the salient changes in the
U.S. population’s intake of selected USDA Food Patterns groups, including
added sugars and solid fats, using What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-
2004 and 2015-2016 dietary data [2-4].
The estimated mean intake of added sugars substantially decreased by 4.8
teaspoon equivalents (tsp. eq.) or 20.2 grams from 2003-2004 to 2015-2016, for
all individuals ages 2 years and over. Substantial reductions from 2003-2004
were noted among each of the age groups studied: children ages 2-5, 6-11, and
12-19; and adults ages 20+ years (Figure 1). Although Americans continue to
reduce their added sugars intake, the mean amounts consumed remain high across
all age groups.
Did the added sugars intakes change from 2003-2004 to 2015-
2016?
Figure 1. Estimated mean intakes of added sugars per day, by age, 2003-2004 and
2015-2016
Shanthy A Bowman, PhD; John C Clemens, MS; James E Friday, BS;
Natalia Schroeder, PhD, RD; Miyuki Shimizu, MS; RD;
Randy P LaComb, MS; and Alanna J Moshfegh, MS, RD
+One teaspoon equivalent =4.2 grams of sugar
*Significantly different from 2003-2004 (p<0.01)
DATA SOURCE: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1, individuals 2+ years
21.0
15.4
23.3
26.5
20.2
16.2
10.5
16.6 18.3
16.2
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
All 2-5 6-11 12-19 20+
2015-2016
2003-2004
Teaspoon Equivalents +
Age (years)
*
*
*
*
*
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No. 20 November 2018
Both solid fats and oils are included in total fat. The 2015-2020 DGA recommend choosing oils over
solid fats, when making food choices [1]. Solid fats are fats that are inherently present in meat,
poultry, eggs, dairy, and tropical oils. In addition, fully or partially hydrogenated oils and fats are
defined as solid fats [1]. Solid fats are high in saturated fats and are abundant in the diets of
Americans and may contribute to excess caloric intakes [1]. Oils consist of fats inherently present in
seafood and foods of vegetable origin, except tropical oils and cocoa butter.
Solid Fats: Overall, for all individuals ages 2 years and over, the estimated mean intake of solid fats
substantially decreased by 12.7 grams, from 47.6 to 34.9 grams (data not shown in Figure 2).
Similarly, substantial reductions were noted across all of the age groups: children ages 2-5, 6-11, and
12-19; and adults ages 20+ years (Figure 2).
Oils: The estimated mean intake of oils for all individuals, ages 2 years and over, significantly
increased by 7.9 grams, from 19.2 to 27.1 grams (data not shown in Figure 2). Similarly, significant
increases were noted across all of the age groups: children ages 2-5, 6-11, and 12-19; and adults ages
20+ years (Figure 2).
Did the solid fats and oils intakes change from 2003-2004 to 2015-2016?
Figure 2. Estimated mean intakes of solid fats and oils per day, by age, 2003-2004 and 2015-2016
-2-
*Significantly different from 2003-2004 (p<0.01)
Means rounded to integers.
DATA SOURCE: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1, individuals 2+ years
*
*
41
49 51
47
26
35 36 35
11
17
21 20
17
23
26 28
0
10
20
30
40
50
Grams
Age (years)
2015-2016
2003-2004
Solid Fats
2015-2016
2003-2004
Oils
*
*
***
*
2-5 6-11 12-19 20+
Solid Fats OilsSolid Fats OilsSolid Fats OilsSolid F ats Oils
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No. 20 November 2018
The calories obtained from added sugars and solid fats often come with low nutritional benefits and
make foods and beverages calorie-dense. The Dietary Guidelines encourage Americans to limit
intakes of added sugars and solid fats and consume nutrient-dense foods and beverages that contain
little or no added sugars and solid fats [1].
The estimated mean intakes of calories from added sugars and solid fats decreased significantly from
2003-2004 to 2015-2016. The differences in the percentage of total calories from added sugars were 2
to 5 percent, and the differences in the percentage of total calories from solid fats were 4 to 5 percent,
across all age groups (Figure 3).
The combined percentage of calories from added sugars and solid fats decreased from 35 percent in
2003-2004 to 28 percent in 2015-2016, a difference of 7 percent, for all individuals ages 2 years and
over (Figure 3). These differences were 8 percent in children ages 2-5, 9 percent each in 6-11, and 12-
19, and 6 percent in adults.
Did the calories obtained from added sugars and solid fats change from 2003-
2004 to 2015-2016?
Figure 3. Estimated mean intakes of calories from solid fats and added sugars as percent+of total
calories per day, b y age, 2003-2004 and 2015-2016
-3-
*Significantly different from 2003-2004 (p<0.01)
+ Percentages rounded to integers. Total percentages of calories from solid fats and added sugars are shown above the respective bar charts.
DATA SOURCE: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1, individuals 2+ years
16 15 18 20
15
19 21
21 19
19
13*12*14*15*13*
15*16*16*15*
15*
0
10
20
30
40
*
28
Percent +
Age (years)
All 2-5 6-11 12-19 20+
35 36
*
28
39
*
30
39
*
30
34
*
28
2003-2004
Added Sugars
Solid Fats
Added Sugars
Solid Fats
2015-2016
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No.
Age Group
(years) Grain Group
WWEIA, NHANES
2003-2004 2015-2016
2-5 Total Grains (oz. eq.) 5.3 4.9
Whole Grains (oz. eq.) 0.4 0.7*
Refined Grains (oz. eq.) 4.8 4.2*
6-11 Total Grains (oz. eq.) 7.2 7.2
Whole Grains (oz. eq.) 0.6 1.0*
Refined Grains (oz. eq.) 6.6 6.2
12-19 Total Grains (oz. eq.) 7.8 7.3
Whole Grains (oz. eq.) 0.4 0.9*
Refined Grains (oz. eq.) 7.4 6.5*
20+ Total Grains (oz. eq.) 6.9 6.3*
Whole Grains (oz. eq.) 0.6 0.9*
Refined Grains (oz. eq.) 6.2 5.4*
All Total Grains (oz. eq.) 6.9 6.4*
Whole Grains (oz. eq.) 0.6 0.9*
Refined Grains (oz. eq.) 6.3 5.5*
20 November 2018
There were no differences in the total grains intakes from 2003-2004 to 2015-2016 among children.
The estimated mean intakes of whole grains increased for all age groups analyzed. However, these
increases were very small, especially considering the Dietary Guidelines recommendation that half the
total grains consumed be whole grains [1].
Did the grain intakes change from 2003-2004 to 2015-2016?
Table 1. Estimated mean intakes of total grains, refined grains, and whole grains per day, by age,
2003-2004 and 2015-2016
-4-
*Significantly different from 2003-2004 (p<0.01)
oz. eq. = ounce equivalents
Means rounded to the first decimal.
DATA SOURCE: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1, individuals 2+ years
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No.
Age Group
(years) Food Patterns Group
WWEIA, NHANES
2003-2004 2015-2016
2-5 Total Vegetables (cup eq.) 0.8 0.7
Total Fruit (cup eq.) 1.5 1.2
Total Dairy (cup eq.) 2.4 1.9*
Total Meat, Poultry, & Seafood (oz. eq.) 2.5 2.3
6-11 Total Vegetables (cup eq.) 1.0 0.9
Total Fruit (cup eq.) 1.0 0.9
Total Dairy (cup eq.) 2.4 2.0
Total Meat, Poultry, & Seafood (oz. eq.) 3.2 3.2
12-19 Total Vegetables (cup eq.) 1.3 1.0*
Total Fruit (cup eq.) 1.0 0.9
Total Dairy (cup eq.) 2.2 1.9
Total Meat, Poultry, & Seafood (oz. eq.) 4.3 3.9
20+ Total Vegetables (cup eq.) 1.6 1.6
Total Fruit (cup eq.) 1.0 0.9
Total Dairy (cup eq.) 1.6 1.5
Total Meat, Poultry, & Seafood (oz. eq.) 4.8 4.8
All Total Vegetables (cup eq.) 1.5 1.4
Total Fruit (cup eq.) 1.0 0.9
Total Dairy (cup eq.) 1.8 1.6
Total Meat, Poultry, & Seafood (oz. eq.) 4.5 4.5
20 November 2018
The estimated mean intake of total dairy decreased for 2-5 year old, and the total vegetables decreased
for 12-19 year old children. No differences were noted in the mean intakes of total fruit; and total
meat, poultry, and seafood, for all age groups studied. Overall, the estimated mean intakes of total
vegetables and total fruit were below the 2015-2020 DGA recommendations.
Did the vegetables; fruit; dairy; and meat, poultry, and seafood intakes change
from 2003-2004 to 2015-2016?
Table 2. Estimated mean intakes of total vegetables; total fruit; total dairy; and total meat, poultry, and
seafood per day, by age, 2003-2004 and 2015-2016
-5-
*Significantly different from 2003-2004 (p<0.01)
cup eq. = cup equivalents, oz. eq.= ounce equivalents
DATA SOURCE: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1, individuals 2+ years
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No. 20 November 2018
From 2003-2004 to 2015-2016:
Americans reduced their added sugars intake. An increase in the availability of beverages and
snacks that are relatively low in caloric sweeteners or contain sugar substitutes in the American food
supply may be a reason for Americans choosing reduced, low, or no sugar options.
Americans reduced their solid fats intake and increased their oils intake. These changes could partly
be due to the replacement of hydrogenated oils with unhydrogenated vegetable oils in snacks, fried
products and margarine; availability of low fat dairy products; and the increased availability of lean
meat options.
Although Americans increased their whole grains consumption, the estimated mean intakes are far
below the Dietary Guidelines recommendation.
Mean intakes of vegetables, fruit, and dairy continued to be low when compared to the Dietary
Guidelines recommendations.
What are the implications of the study?
-6-
FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No. 20 November 2018
USDA Food Patterns include the five food groups, vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy, and protein foods;
and oils, solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic drinks.
Added sugars are defined as syrups and other caloric sweeteners such as sugars that are added to foods as
ingredients during food preparation, processing, or at the table. Added sugars do not include naturally
occurring sugars such as lactose present in milk and fructose present in fruit and 100% fruit juice.
Oils include all unhydrogenated vegetable oils, except tropical oils such as palm oil, palm kernel oil, and
coconut oil; and fats that are naturally present in nuts, seeds, avocado, olives, and seafood.
Solid fats include fats that are naturally present in dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter, cream,
cream cheese, and sour cream; fats naturally present in meat, poultry, and eggs; lard; fully or partially
hydrogenated fats and shortenings; cocoa butter; coconut oil; palm oil; and other tropical oils.
Units of measurements:Details on the units of measurements such as ounce, cup, and gram equivalents
for specific foods, see reference #3.
Nutrient dense means that the nutrients and other beneficial substances in a food have not been “diluted”
by the addition of calories from added sugars, solid fats, or refined starches to food, or by the solid fats
naturally present in the food [1].
Definitions Used in the Food Patterns Equivalents Databases
(1) What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-2016, day 1 dietary data were used to
estimate Food Patterns equivalents intakes. Study sample included 8272 and 7918 individuals, aged 2
years and over (excluding breast-fed children) with complete and reliable intake records, in the 2003-2004
and 2015-2016 surveys, respectively. Sample weights were applied in the analyses to produce nationally
representative estimates, (2) Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2015-2016, and (3) MyPyramid
Equivalents Database 2.0 for USDA Survey Foods 2003-2004.
Data sources
1. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020
Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 8th Edition. December 2015. Available at:
http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/. Accessed date November 20, 2018.
2. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research
Center, Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville, Maryland, Food Patterns Equivalents Databases
and Datasets. Available at: https://www.ars.usda.gov/fsrg. Accessed date November 20, 2018.
3. Bowman SA, Clemens JC, Shimizu M, Friday JE, and Moshfegh AJ. 2018. Food Patterns Equivalents
Database 2015-2016: Methodology and User Guide [Online]. Food Surveys Research Group,
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Beltsville, Maryland. September 2018. Available at: https://www.ars.usda.gov/fsrg
Accessed date November 20, 2018.
4. Bowman SA, Friday JE, Moshfegh A. 2008. MyPyramid Equivalents Database, 2.0 for USDA Survey
Foods, 2003-2004 [Online] Food Surveys Research Group. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research
Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD. Available at:
https://www.ars.usda.gov/fsrg. Accessed date November 20, 2018.
References
-7-
www.ars.usda.gov/nea/bhnrc/fsrg
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FSRG Dietary Data Brief -- No.
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
Agricultural Research Service
Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center
Food Surveys Research Group
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Copyright information
20 November 2018
Bowman SA, Clemens JC, Friday JE, Schroeder N, Shimizu M, LaComb RP, and Moshfegh AJ. Food
Patterns Equivalents Intakes by Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-
2016. Food Surveys Research Group. Dietary Data Brief No. 20, November 2018.
Suggested citation
Shanthy A. Bowman, John C. Clemens, James E. Friday, Natalia Schroeder, Miyuki Shimizu, Randy P.
LaComb, and Alanna J. Moshfegh are with Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition
Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD.
About the authors
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Full-text available
Article
Provides information on the methodology used to develop USDA Food Patterns Equivalents for the NHANES 2015-2016 dietary data
Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes by Americans: What We Eat in America
  • S A Bowman
  • J C Clemens
  • J E Friday
  • N Schroeder
  • M Shimizu
  • R P Lacomb
  • A J Moshfegh
Bowman SA, Clemens JC, Friday JE, Schroeder N, Shimizu M, LaComb RP, and Moshfegh AJ. Food Patterns Equivalents Intakes by Americans: What We Eat in America, NHANES 2003-2004 and 2015-
Moshfegh are with Food Surveys Research Group
  • Alanna J Lacomb
LaComb, and Alanna J. Moshfegh are with Food Surveys Research Group, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD.