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The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders - Neurophonetics

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Abstract

Neurophonetics studies neural bases of speech production and perception. Speech production starts with a proposition that is transformed into a verbal message by a series of pragmatic and language-specific rules and constraints, to be finally articulated with the help of motor control mechanisms and auditory feedback loop and monitoring processes. Speech perception involves auditory encoding of phonological features as a step in lexical access and comprehension of the message within the perception–memory–action loop. Just as the boundary between the more general fields of phonetics and linguistics is blurry, the area where neurophonetics and neurolinguistics meet is gray and some overlap is to be expected. There seems to be general agreement that neurophonetics covers acoustic, phonetic, and phonological aspects of speech processing to the level of lexical access. Neurophonetic research has found application in areas such as speech acquisition, clinical phonetics, and bilingualism. This entry provides an overview of the methodology used in neurophonetics, then explores the neural bases of speech processing, and finally addresses issues related to bilingualism and neurogenic speech disorders.

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... The goal of it is to test a hypothesis to establish cause and affect relationships [Ary et al., 2010]. Some advantages of experimental research are [Mildner, 2019]: It controls the independent variables. It is a straightforward determination of causal relationships, the possibility of verifying results through repeatability/replicability, and the opportunity to create conditions that are not easily observed in natural settings or would take too long. ...
... It is a straightforward determination of causal relationships, the possibility of verifying results through repeatability/replicability, and the opportunity to create conditions that are not easily observed in natural settings or would take too long. Some disadvantages of experimental research are [Mildner, 2019]: It is unnatural; difficult to apply the results to real-life situations, and ethical considerations. It cannot be applied to all types of research problems, and results may appear significant because of experimenter error or the inability to control for all extraneous variables. ...
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Objective To avoid the rising spread of childhood obesity and preserve resources within planetary boundaries, healthy and sustainable eating habits and the consumption of adequate amounts of fruits and vegetables should be encouraged. Children’s food preference was found to be an important determinant for food choice and consumption. The aim of this study was to explore children’s food preferences using drawing as a projective technique in terms of healthy and sustainable eating and compare food preference patterns in Denmark and Lithuania. Method In total 484 children, aged between 8-13 years old, participated in the study (147 in Denmark and 337 in Lithuania). Participants were asked to fill the food preference questionnaire and answer questions about their daily intake of fruits, vegetables, and snacks and draw their favorite meal afterward. Sociodemographic questions about children’s age, gender, parents’ employment, and family composition were also included in the questionnaire. Results Fruits, vegetables, highly-processed and animal-based foods were not included in a large part of children’s most preferred meal composition. Favorite meals’ composition varied among children in both countries and included different products from separate food groups. Vegetables were more likely to be present in the children’s favorite meals together with meat products. Girls in both countries had more expressed vegetable preferences than boys. Boys in Lithuania had a relatively more expressed preference for highly-processed foods, while Danish girls had a more expressed preference for animal-based products. Conclusions Children’s preferences for foods such as meat and animal-based products expressed in children’s drawings, might be considered as relatively positive in terms of sustainable eating. However, children’s preferences and intake of fruits and vegetables should still be encouraged among young consumers. Cultural and gender differences in children’s food preferences should be considered while creating interventions and marketing strategies for promoting healthy and sustainable eating among young consumers.
Neurophonetics aims at the elucidation of the brain mechanisms underlying speech communication in our species. Clinical observations in patients with speech impairments following cerebral disorders provided the initial vantage point of this research area and indicated distinct functional-neuroanatomic systems to support human speaking and listening. Subsequent approaches-considering speech production a motor skill-investigated vocal tract movements associated with spoken language by means of kinematic and electromyographic techniques-allowing, among other things, for the evaluation of computational models suggesting elementary phonological gestures or a mental syllabary as basic units of speech motor control. As concerns speech perception, the working characteristics of auditory processing were first investigated based upon psychoacoustic techniques such as dichotic listening and categorical perception designs. More recently, functional hemodynamic neuroimaging and electrophysiological methods opened the door to the delineation of multiple stages of central auditory processing related to signal detection, classification, sensory memory processes, and, finally, lexical access. Beyond the control mechanisms in a stricter sense, both speech articulation and auditory processing represent examples of 'grounded cognition'. For example, both domains cannot be restricted to text-to-speech translation processes, but are intimately interwoven with neuropsychological aspects of speech prosody, including the vocal expression of affects and the actual performance of speech acts, transforming propositional messages to 'real' utterances. Furthermore, during language acquisition, the periphery of language-i.e., hearing and speaking behavior-plays a dominant role for the construction of a language-specific mental lexicon as well as language-specific action plans for the production of a speech message.
Book
This is a book about speech and language. it is primarily intended for those interested in speech and its neurophysiological bases: phoneticians, linguists, educators, speech therapists, psychologists and neuroscientists. Although speech and language are its central topics, it provides information about related topics as well (e.g. structure and functioning of the central nervous system, research methods in neuroscience, theories and models of speech production and perception, learning and memory). Data on clinical population are given in parallel with studies of healthy subjects because such comparisons can give a better understanding of intact and disordered speech and language functions. There is a review of literature (more than 600 sources) and research results covering areas such as neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, development of the nervous system, sex differences, history of neurolinguistics, behavioral, neuroimaging and other research methods in neuroscience, linguistics and psychology, theories and models of the nervous system function including speech and language processing, kinds of memory and learning and their neural substrates, critical periods, various aspects of normal speech and language processes (e.g. phonetics, phonology, syntax, semantics, reading), bilingualism, speech and language disorders, and many others. A comprehensive glossary provides additional information.
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Language processing is supported by different regions located in separate parts of the brain. A crucial condition for these regions to function as a network is the information transfer between them. This is guaranteed by dorsal and ventral pathways connecting prefrontal and temporal language-relevant regions. Based on functional brain imaging studies, these pathways' language functions can be assigned indirectly. Dorsally, one pathway connecting the temporal cortex (TC) and premotor cortex supports speech repetition, another one connecting the TC and posterior Broca's area supports complex syntactic processes. Ventrally, the uncinate fascile and the inferior fronto-occipital fascile subserve semantic and basic syntactic processes. Thus, the available evidence points towards a neural language network with at least two dorsal and two ventral pathways.
See also Anatomy of the Hearing Mechanism and Central Audiology Nervous System; Anatomy of the Human Neurological System; Neurogenic Communication Disorders; Neurolinguistics; Speech Perception, Theories of; Speech Production
See also Anatomy of the Hearing Mechanism and Central Audiology Nervous System; Anatomy of the Human Neurological System; Neurogenic Communication Disorders; Neurolinguistics; Speech Perception, Theories of; Speech Production, Theories of Vesna Mildner http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483380810.n412
The neural bases of communication: Evidence from neuroimaging
  • J R Binder
Binder, J. R. (2008). The neural bases of communication: Evidence from neuroimaging. Retrieved July 20, 2017, from www.asha.org