ArticlePDF Available


This entry explores the need for a critical examination of class in media representations and the use of critical media literacy as a tool to analyze and create alternative representations about class. Since critiques of socioeconomic structures and systems in the United States are so rarely explored in commercial US media, while media often celebrate the myth of a classless society where everyone is in the middle class, it is imperative that educators guide students to question representations of class in media and the intersectionality of class in all aspects of life and society.
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 1k
k k
Representation of Class
University of California, Los Angeles, USA
Media, power, and ideology
Amid the struggles for bourgeois democracy in Europe during the 1848 revolutions,
Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (1978) developed a critical approach to ideology.
According to Marx and Engels, ideologies arise out of “dominant material relations
therefore, the ideas of its dominance” (Durham & Kellner, 2005, p. 44). For Marx, the
emerging dominant class was the bourgeoisie and its dominant ideas legitimated a
capitalist market system with its ideas of free self-regulating markets, competition, and
individualism, ideas that remain dominant in capitalist societies today.
Ideologies have social dimensions and are not simply individual perspectives that
compete on a level playing eld (Ferguson, 2004; Kelly & Brandes, 2001; Orlowski,
2006). Durham and Kellner (2005) explain that studying ideology encourages “readers
to perceive that all cultural texts have distinct biases, interests, and embedded values,
reproducing the point of view of their producers and oen the values of the dominant
social groups” (p. xiv). By examining their ideological assumptions, students can
learn to question what they consider “normal” or “common sense.” Stuart Hall (2003)
explains that dominant ideologies shape our notions of what seems “normal” and
“tend to disappear from view into the taken for granted ‘naturalised’ world of common
sense” (p. 90). “Common sense” is only so because ideas and texts have been produced
and disseminated through a dominant frame of thought expressed in powerful
master-narratives, oen conveyed through media, schools, government, religion, and
Building upon Marx, from the 1930s through the 1960s, researchers at the Frankfurt
Institute for Social Research (the Frankfurt School, i.e., Adorno, Benjamin, Habermas,
Horkheimer, and Marcuse) saw the rise of popular culture through media as a process
involving ideological message transmission vis-à-vis the culture industries, whereby
lm, radio, newspapers, and other organs of communication and culture transmit the
dominant ideas of their society. ey used critical social theory to analyze how popu-
lar culture and the new tools of communication technology perpetuated ideology and
social control. e Frankfurt group immigrated to New York in 1934 as refugees from
fascism in Germany, where they experienced how the Nazis used lm, radio, and other
media to transmit their totalitarian ideology (Kellner, 1989, 1995). Additionally, the
German theorists studied Soviet Communism, examining how the Soviet state used
the media to transmit dominant communist ideologies. While in the United States,
e International Encyclopedia of Media Literacy. Renee Hobbs and Paul Mihailidis (General Editors),
Gianna Cappello, Maria Ranieri, and Benjamin evenin (Associate Editors).
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Published 2019 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 2k
k k
they concluded that US popular culture and media transmitted dominant American
and capitalist ideologies.
Frankfurt School theorists assumed that the audience is passive in its reception of
England, who advanced a more complex understanding of the active role audiences
play in negotiating meanings. is group at the Centre for Contemporary Cultural
Studies at the University of Birmingham (the Birmingham School created in 1964, i.e.,
Williams, Hoggart, and Hall) began to emphasize the role of the audience as active,
rather than passive, in media reception (or consumption). Moreover, as women and
scholars of color, including McRobbie and Gilroy, joined the group in the 1980s, they
urged that the concept of ideology be expanded to include representations of gender,
race, and sexuality because media representations included sexist, racist, and heterosex-
ist (homophobic) images and narratives that reproduce ideologies of patriarchal, racist,
and heterosexist domination (Kellner 1995, 2010). e Birmingham scholars also rec-
ognized that individuals experience and interpret media from their own class, gender,
racial, and other positions, and can potentially resist and oppose classist, sexist, and
racist ideologies. While the image of the media audience as consumer became pervasive
following the rise of audience theory studies, scholars have since heavily criticized the
eld for discounting the heterogeneous ways in which viewers/listeners/users read, con-
sume, or integrate media meaning into their lives (Buckingham, 1993, 1996; Gauntlett
& Hill, 1999).
Representations of class
less society whereeveryoneisinthemiddle class. And yet a dominant ideology proclaims
that with hard work (and education) anyone can move up the socioeconomic ladder
and achieve their dreams and highest aspirations. To be sure, many people through
education in the United States have been able to advance themselves, but not everyone.
e gaps between dierent classes and the tremendous inequality between the rich and
poor make it extremely dicult, if not impossible, for many to leave poverty and to gain
wealth and a more privileged class status.
Whereas European societies have traditionally been organized around class and its
conguration, constraints, and social relations are visible and well known to all in the
society, in the United States, class is hard to see. Indeed, class is almost invisible unless
if you know where to look and what to look for. Social class is heavily coded, with spe-
cic words and images connoting many notions and oen triggering decit thinking
within the poor and working class, and belief in class supremacy in the upper classes.
Many words have class connotations, like welfare, white trash, homeless, and beggar,
whichholdnegativeconnotations.ereismuchdecit thinking (Valencia, 1997) about
blamed for being poor in terms of decits of education, job training, and opportunities
to better themselves which are a product of social organization and not inherent and
inherited traits of human nature.
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 3k
k k
In England, spoken accent haslongbeenamarkerforclass,asinthemovieMy Fair
Lady, and good teeth can mark class in images and discourses in the United States.
For example, a December 1, 1997, issue of Newsweek magazine manipulated a photo on
their cover to make a woman’s teeth look better. e Newsweek cover photo shows Bobbi
McCaughey, mother of septuplets with straight teeth. e same week, Time magazine
ran a similar photo without manipulating the mother’s teeth. e Photoshopping of the
mother’s teeth seems to suggest that Newsweek did not want a woman on their cover
who looked poor, and provided a normative image of the “proper” American that subtly
inscribes class markers.
Critical media literacy makes one aware of how images in media construct mark-
ers, hierarchies, and relations of class in contemporary US society. Class intersects with
gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality, religion, and other markers of identity, and the con-
cept of intersectionality (Crenshaw, 1991) indicates how these identity markers intersect
and are co-constructed. For instance, every media narrative that portrays class also has
the dimension of gender, race, and sexuality, so a critical media literacy that critiques
racism, sexism, and homophobia also critiques classism. at is, media images por-
tray positive, negative, or sometimes ambiguous images and messages about certain
social classes, for example, perhaps, denigrating working classes and celebrating the
rich or middle class. Yet just as criticizing biased representations of class is an impor-
tant dimension of critical media literacy (hereaer CML), so too is explicating and
validating media texts that present positive images of the working class, women, peo-
ple of color, LGBTQIA individuals, and others who are oen represented negatively in
mainstream media. As the concept of intersectionality suggests, these representations
oen overlap and intersect, thus oering complex and productive examinations in the
On the whole, dominant media such as lm and television oen celebrate the rich
and powerful while presenting negative representations of poor and working people.
Traditionally, US television has focused oen on middle- and upper-class families, and
professionals like doctors, lawyers, or corporate executives, while tending to ignore
working-class life and poor people. Having studied TV portrayals of class on US prime
time sitcoms for over four decades, Butsch (2003) reports persistent patterns of under-
representation of working-class occupations and negative stereotypes of working-class
men. Butsch asserts that these representations work well to “justify class relations of
modern capitalism” (p. 575). To be sure, some TV series, such as e Honeymooners,
All in the Family,Sanford and Son,Roseanne,Shameless, Superstore,andOne Day at
ways, as do some contemporary Hollywood lms. While the growth of cable networks
and the Internet has depicted more diversity, the majority of representations still val-
orize the wealthy at the expense of the working class and poor. Although the entire
media landscape should never be overly simplied as monolithic and one-dimensional
in its portrayal of social class issues, it continues to favor a model of economic success
grounded in dogged individualism detached from larger social structures or commu-
nities of subjugation, mutual support, and struggle.
In the contemporary moment, the 2011 Occupy Movement foregrounded the class
divide between the 1% and the 99%, and class division and inequality has entered public
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 4k
k k
discourse. In addition, Bernie Sanders’s 2016 campaign for president created a powerful
social movement focusing on the gap between rich and poor, the haves and have-nots,
and the need for dramatic political change and action to address class and other forms
of inequality in the United States.
Courses in CML can analyze a variety of ways in which the media represent, for
example, gentrication as a positive thing, and poverty as a negative condition. CML
can discuss how capitalism constructs class and divides societies into working classes
and property-owning classes, with a vast middle class in-between. CML guides us to
engage a political system that oen operates in the interests of the wealthier classes,
any but the most minimal social welfare programs.
CML also should engage class, the environment, and health and environmental
justice, showing how living and working conditions aect poor people far more than
wealthier groups, making environmental justice an issue of class. Naomi Klein (2014)
writes about environmental justice in her book is Changes Everything: Capitalism
vs the Climate, bringing together discussion of class, environment, capitalism, and
economic and environmental crisis and oppression.
In short, a CML approach to teaching questions the connections between power and
information, class and education. In a capitalist society, this requires posing questions
that challenge social class and unpack the economic structures that are oen taken for
granted. Critical pedagogues such as Apple (2004), Freire (2010), Giroux (2004), and
hooks (2010) address inequities of class in education. While a dominant ideology holds
that class is disappearing in contemporary US society, in fact class distinctions are grow-
ing. Hence, while ideologues of contemporary society claim that great inequalities of
class have been overcome, this is simply false, as scholars such as Atkinson (2010) and
Piketty (2014) have maintained.
In When Hope is Subversive, Giroux (2004) argues, “Market values replace social
values. Power has become disconnected from issues of equity, social justice, and civic
responsibility” (p. 62). In the struggle for democracy amidst educational and political
crises, Giroux (2004) suggests that hope must be maintained. e inverse of dispos-
ability is “secular immortality” (Hirschman, 1990), which abounds in popular maga-
zines, and depicts how the narrative of the entrepreneurial moguls “built something
from nothing” (p. 35). According to Hirschman (1990), “secular immortality” occurs
when “those whose lives and possessions are celebrated and ultimately immortalized in
our culture are those believed to have worked industriously, channeled their personal
resources in eective and productive ways, and constructed some form of notable mate-
rial monument to symbolize those eorts” (p. 39). To illustrate this point, Hirschman
identies Lee Iacocca, Donald Trump, and Ross Perot as three icons of wealth who
embody the Horatio Alger myth. Indeed, for many decades the Horatio Alger myth
of rising from rags to riches has been replayed in literature and diverse media, com-
prising a key element of dominant American ideology. is trope tends to promote a
decit perspective of the poor and homeless as people who fail due to their own laziness
or ineptitude, regardless of the institutions and systems that create the unequal playing
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 5k
k k
e challenge to critically understand media texts, as well as the power to create and dis-
seminate alternative messages and ultimately engage in text production, is the essence
of CML. Commercial media in the United States too oen tell stories that celebrate
lifestyles of overconsumption and wealth while neglecting narratives of the working
class and poor. When media address issues of class, they typically denigrate the poor as
dangerous or lazy, ignoring the social structures and institutions that perpetuate social
and economic disparity. Class divisions and structural inequalities have long been pow-
erful systems organizing society and controlling peoples lives. Since enormous transna-
tional corporations control so much of the information and entertainment, the stories
they tell about class need to be deconstructed, analyzed, challenged, and reconstructed.
audiences about our understandings of socioeconomics that CML must address issues
of class and the ways it intersects with all aspects of our lives.
SEE ALSO: Awareness;CriticalPedagogy;CriticaleoryAppliedtoMediaLiteracy;
ieml0045 Educommunication; Learning about Materialism and Consumer Culture; Media Liter-
acy and Social Activism; Political Economy
Apple, M. (2004). Ideology and curriculum (3rded.).NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Atkinson, W. (2010). Class, individualization and late modernity: In search of the reexive worker.
New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.
Buckingham, D. (1993). Children talking television: e making of television literacy.London,
England: e Falmer Press.
Buckingham, D. (1996). Moving images: Understanding children’s emotional responses to
television. Manchester, England: Manchester University Press.
Butsch, R. (2003). Ralph, Fred, Archie, and Homer: Why television keeps re-creating the white
male working-class buoon. In G. Dines and J.M. Humez (Eds.), Gender, race, and class in
media: A text-reader (2nd ed., pp. 575–585). ousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.
Crenshaw, K. (1991). Mapping the margins: Intersectionality, identity, politics, and violence
against women of color. Stanford Law Review, 43(6), 1241–1299. doi: 10.2307/1229039
Durham, M.G., & Kellner, D. (Eds.). (2005). Media and cultural studies: Keyworks.Oxford,
England: Blackwell.
Ferguson, R. (2004). e media in question.NewYork,NY:OxfordUniversityPress.
Freire, P. (2010). Pedagogy of the oppressed (M.B. Ramos, Trans.). New York, NY: e Continuum
International Publishing Group Inc. (Original work published 1970).
Gauntlett, D., & Hill, A. (1999). TV living: Television, culture and everyday life. London, England:
Giroux, H. (2004). When hope is subversive. Tikkun, 19(6), 38–39. doi: 10.1215/08879982-
Hall, S. (2003). e whites of their eyes: Racist ideologies and the media. In G. Dines & J.M.
Humez (Eds.), Gender, race, and class in media (2nd ed., pp. 89–93). ousand Oaks, CA:
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 6k
k k
Hirschman, E.C. (1990). Secular immortality and the American ideology of auence. Journal of
Consumer Research, 17(1), 31–42. doi: 10.1086/208534
hooks, b. (2010). Teaching critical thinking: Practical wisdom.NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Kellner, D. (1989). Critical theory, Marxism, and modernity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Uni-
versity Press.
Kellner, D. (1995). Media culture: Cultural studies, identity and politics between the modern and
the postmodern.NewYork,NY:Routledge.
Kellner, D. (2010). Cinema wars: Hollywood lm and politics in the Bush/Cheney era.Oxford,
England: Blackwell.
Kelly, D.M., & Brandes, G.M. (2001). Shiing out of “neutral”: Beginning teachers’ struggles with
teaching for social justice. Canadian Journal of Education, 26(4), 347–454. Retrieved from
Klein, N. (2014). is changes everything: Capitalism vs. the climate.NewYork,NY:Simon&
Marx, K., & Engels, F. (1978). e Marx-Engels reader.NewYork,NY:Norton.
Orlowski, P. (2006). Educating in an era of Orwellian spin: Critical media literacy in the class-
room. Canadian Journal of Education, 29(1), 176–198. doi: 10.2307/20054152
Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the twenty-rst century (A. Goldhammer, Trans.). Cambridge, MA:
Belknap Press.
Valencia, R.R. (Ed.). (1997). e evolution of decit thinking: Educational thought and practice.
London, England: e Falmer Press.
Further reading
Funk, S., Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2016). Critical media literacy as transformative pedagogy. In
M.N. Yildiz & J. Keengwe (Eds.), Handbook of research on media literacy in the digital age
(pp. 1–30). Hershey, PA: IGI Global.
Kellner, D., & Share, J. (2009). Critical media education and radical democracy. In M.W. Apple,
W. Au, & L.A. Gandin (Eds.), e Routledge international handbook of critical education
(pp. 281–295). New York, NY: Routledge.
Share, J. (2015). Media literacy is elementary: Teaching youth to critically read and create media
(2nd ed.). New York, NY: Peter Lang.
Je Share has worked as a photojournalist, elementary school teacher, and curriculum
designer and trainer. He is currently a faculty advisor in the Teacher Education Pro-
gram at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). In 2015, Share published
the second edition of MediaLiteracyisElementary:TeachingYouthtoCriticallyRead
and Create Media.
Douglas Kellner is George Kneller Chair in the Philosophy of Education at Univer-
sity of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and is author of many books on social theory,
politics, history, and culture. Most recently Kellner has published American Nightmare
(2016) and American Horror Show (2017) about Donald Trump.
Trim Size: 170mm x 244mm Hobbs-Mihailidis ieml0199.tex V2 - 11/14/2018 10:09 P.M. Page 7k
k k
Please note that the abstract and keywords will not be included in the printed book,
but are required for the online presentation of this book which will be published on
Wiley’s own online publishing platform.
add them now.
e abstract should be a short paragraph of between 50 and 150 words in length and
is entry explores the need for a critical examination of class in media representa-
tions and the use of critical media literacy as a tool to analyze and create alternative
representations about class. Since critiques of socioeconomic structures and systems
in the United States are so rarely explored in commercial US media, while media oen
ative that educators guide students to question representations of class in media and the
intersectionality of class in all aspects of life and society.
class; critical media literacy; cultural studies; ideology; media education; politics of rep-
resentation; race; socioeconomic status
... The author recommends a critical approach to the analysis of class, gender, and race representation, for an extensive exploration of politics of representation (Kellner 2020). Class identity is understood as the link between individuals' attitudes, beliefs, interests, and their socioeconomic position, while race identity is constructed within groups which share a common heritage (Kellner and Share 2019). Gender identity is constructed based on male/ female biological and socio-cultural categories of differentiations, which are often internalized as concepts of self on an individual level (Luo and Zhang 2020;Kellner and Share 2019;Erigha 2015). ...
... Class identity is understood as the link between individuals' attitudes, beliefs, interests, and their socioeconomic position, while race identity is constructed within groups which share a common heritage (Kellner and Share 2019). Gender identity is constructed based on male/ female biological and socio-cultural categories of differentiations, which are often internalized as concepts of self on an individual level (Luo and Zhang 2020;Kellner and Share 2019;Erigha 2015). ...
... Since the research is preoccupied with aspects of identity representation present in the deployment of the Joker myth, the relevant sub-codes for semiotic analysis are: class, gender, race (Luo and Zhang 2020;Kellner and Share 2019;Erigha 2015), and mental illness (Chandler 2007;Camp et al. 2010), wherever present. In terms of class, the sub-codes of interest for meme analysis are appearance, commodity, and text/language. ...
Full-text available
This study is a critical mixed-methods investigation of the Joker’s ubiquity within international media discourse. The research comparatively examines the myth’s presence within The Guardian and The New York Times’ news reporting (1999–2020), and determines intermedia agenda-setting processes. Using a corpus linguistics approach, the paper also analyses news media’s deployment of the Joker as a figure of speech, with the purpose of identifying prom­inent news values. The results indicate a high prevalence of consonance, eliteness, proximity, negativity, and superlativeness. Moreover, the study investigates the role that user-generated media plays in perpetuating or countering dominant hegemonies, by semiotically analysing internet memes that use the myth within the r/meme subreddit community. Overall, the study finds that the Joker is a popular resource for the mediated construction of a derogatory stereotype, associated with sexist, racist and ableist myths, often in connection to political elites (Donald Trump, Boris Johnson, Barack Obama), and serves as a tool for mockery, shame, and dramatization of events.
Full-text available
This chapter provides a theoretical framework of critical media literacy (CML) pedagogy and examples of practical implementation in K-12 and teacher education. It begins with a brief discussion of literature indicating the need for educators to use a critical approach to media. The historical trajectory of CML and key concepts are then reviewed. Following this, the myths of “neutrality” and “normalcy” in education and media are challenged. The chapter takes a critical look at information and communication technologies and popular culture, reviewing how they often reinforce and occasionally challenge dominant ideologies. Next, this critical perspective is used to explore how CML interrogates the ways media tend to position viewers, users, and audiences to read and negotiate meanings about race, class, gender, and the multiple identity markers that privilege dominant groups. The subjective and ubiquitous nature of media is highlighted to underscore the transformative potential of CML to use media tools for promoting critical thinking and social justice in the classroom.
This chapter reviews the core process of critical thinking-hunting assumptions-and explains how this process differs according to the context of what is being taught and the different intellectual traditions that inform teachers' backgrounds. It outlines a basic protocol of critical thinking as a learning process that focuses on uncovering and checking assumptions, exploring alternative perspectives, and taking informed actions as a result. Three different categories of assumptions-paradigmatic, prescriptive, and causal-are defined, and the teaching methods and approaches that most help students to think critically are explored. The chapter examines in detail the fact that critical thinking is best experienced as a social learning process, and how important it is for teachers to model the process for students.
The most important book yet from the author of the international bestseller The Shock Doctrine, a brilliant explanation of why the climate crisis challenges us to abandon the core “free market” ideology of our time, restructure the global economy, and remake our political systems.In short, either we embrace radical change ourselves or radical changes will be visited upon our physical world. The status quo is no longer an option. In This Changes Everything Naomi Klein argues that climate change isn’t just another issue to be neatly filed between taxes and health care. It’s an alarm that calls us to fix an economic system that is already failing us in many ways. Klein meticulously builds the case for how massively reducing our greenhouse emissions is our best chance to simultaneously reduce gaping inequalities, re-imagine our broken democracies, and rebuild our gutted local economies. She exposes the ideological desperation of the climate-change deniers, the messianic delusions of the would-be geoengineers, and the tragic defeatism of too many mainstream green initiatives. And she demonstrates precisely why the market has not—and cannot—fix the climate crisis but will instead make things worse, with ever more extreme and ecologically damaging extraction methods, accompanied by rampant disaster capitalism. Klein argues that the changes to our relationship with nature and one another that are required to respond to the climate crisis humanely should not be viewed as grim penance, but rather as a kind of gift—a catalyst to transform broken economic and cultural priorities and to heal long-festering historical wounds. And she documents the inspiring movements that have already begun this process: communities that are not just refusing to be sites of further fossil fuel extraction but are building the next, regeneration-based economies right now. Can we pull off these changes in time? Nothing is certain. Nothing except that climate change changes everything. And for a very brief time, the nature of that change is still up to us.
Cinema Wars explores the intersection of film, politics, and US culture and society through a bold critical analysis of the films, TV shows, and documentaries produced in the early 2000s Offers a thought-provoking depiction of Hollywood film as a contested terrain between conservative and liberal forces Films and documentaries discussed include: Black Hawk Down, TheDark Knight, Star Wars, Syriana,WALL-E, Fahrenheit 9/11 and other Michael Moore documentaries, amongst others Explores how some films in this era supported the Bush-Cheney regime, while others criticized the administration, openly or otherwise Investigates Hollywood's treatment of a range of hot topics, from terrorism and environmental crisis to the Iraq war and the culture wars of the 2000s Shows how Hollywood film in the 2000s brought to life a vibrant array of social protest and helped create cultural conditions to elect Barack Obama.