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Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi – Their Life and Function in Ecosystem

  • Research Institute of Plant Production in Piestany, Slovakia

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi living in the soil closely collaborate with plants in their root zone and play very important role in their evolution. Their symbiosis stimulates plant growth and resistance to different environmental stresses. Plant root system, extended by mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, has better capability to reach the water and dissolved nutrients from a much larger volume of soil. This could solve the problem of imminent depletion of phosphate stock, affect plant fertilisation, and contribute to sustainable production of foods, feeds, biofuel, and raw materials. Expanded plant root systems reduce erosion of soil, improve soil quality, and extend the diversity of soil microflora. On the other hand, symbiosis with plants affects species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increased plant diversity supports diversity of fungi. This review summarizes the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to beneficial potential of their symbiosis with plants, and their function in the ecosystem.
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1University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Slovakia
2National Agricultural and Food Centre ‒ Research Institute of Plant Production, Slovakia
mycorrhizal fungi their life and function in ecosystem. Agriculture (Polnohospodárstvo), vol. 65, 2019, no. 1,
pp. 3–15.
Mgr. Michaela Piliarová, PhD., Mgr. Daniel Mihálik, PhD., Prof. RNDr. Ján Kraic, PhD., Department of Biotechnology,
Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Ss. Cyril and Methodius in Trnava, Nám. J. Herdu 2, 917 01 Trnava, Slovakia
Mgr. Katarína Ondreičková, PhD. (*Corresponding author), Mgr. Martina Hudcovicová, PhD., Mgr. Daniel Mihálik, PhD.,
Prof. RNDr. Ján Kraic, PhD., National Agricultural and Food Centre, Research Institute of Plant Production, Bratislavská
cesta 122, 921 68 Piešťany, Slovakia. E-mail:
Key words: arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, mycorrhizosphere, plant, symbiosis
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi living in the soil closely collaborate with plants in their root zone and play very important
role in their evolution. Their symbiosis stimulates plant growth and resistance to different environmental stresses. Plant
root system, extended by mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, has better capability to reach the water and dissolved
nutrients from a much larger volume of soil. This could solve the problem of imminent depletion of phosphate stock, affect
plant fertilisation, and contribute to sustainable production of foods, feeds, biofuel, and raw materials. Expanded plant root
systems reduce erosion of soil, improve soil quality, and extend the diversity of soil microora. On the other hand, symbiosis
with plants affects species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increased plant diversity supports diversity of fungi.
This review summarizes the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to benecial potential of their symbiosis
with plants, and their function in the ecosystem.
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
DOI: 10.2478/agri-2019-0001
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are present
on the Earth about 600 million years (Redecker et al.
2000) and probably due to ancient symbiosis with
plants they lost the ability to exist independently and
its life cycle must be completed only in the presence
of the host plant (Requena et al. 2007). About 80%
of terrestrial plant species form the mycorrhizal
symbiosis with AMF (Wang & Qiu 2006) and the
arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is the most wide-
spread type of mycorrhizal symbiosis without host
plant specicity (Klironomos 2000). On the other
hand, Husband et al. (2002) have indicated that at
least some fungi taxa are host specialists. The term
“arbuscular” was derived from characteristic struc-
tures called arbuscules (lat. arbuscula = small tree,
shrub) occurring in the cortical cells of many plant
roots. These structures, together with storage vesi-
cles, are considered diagnostic for arbuscular my-
corrhizal (AM) symbiosis and these fungi belong to
the phylum Glomeromycota (Table 1) (Schüßler et
al. 2001). AMF are obligate symbionts dependent
on the host plant and colonization of plant roots oc-
curred through spores, hyphae, or infected root frag-
ments (Klironomos & Hart 2002). Fungal mycelium
of AMF affects the plant by extending of root sys-
tems, allowing to improve the utilization of water
and minerals from the soil (Smith & Read 1997).
Plants colonized by AMF have better resistance to
© 2019 Authors. This is an open access article licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonComercial-NoDerivs License
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
environmental stresses, such as drought, cold, pollu-
tion (Juniper & Abbott 2006), and better overcome
attacks of bacterial and fungal pathogens (Selvaraj
& Chellappan 2006). Mycorrhizal symbiosis main-
tains and promotes plant growth, signicantly re-
duces the need for synthetic fertilisers, improves
quality of soil, increases soil microoral diversity,
and reduces soil erosion (Azaizeh et al. 1995).
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis
The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is a com-
plex of morphological, physiological, and biochem-
ical changes which are formed gradually in several
developmental stages in both symbiotic partners.
The life cycle of AMF starts with germination of
fungal spores in the soil under favourable environ-
mental conditions, spontaneously without the pres-
ence of the host plant (Gianinazzi-Pearson 1996;
Requena et al. 2007). Fungal colonies expand sev-
eral centimetres and characteristic growth structures
are formed (Giovannetti et al. 1994). This asymbi-
otic phase turns into presymbiotic one characterised
by extensive hyphal branching caused by presence
of the host plant (Giovannetti et al. 1993). This is
crucial stage in the AMF life cycle based on the
chemotaxic abilities of AMF that allow the growth
of the hyphae to the roots of host plant and repre-
T a b l e 1
Classication of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi according to Schüßler & Walker (2010) and Redecker et al. (2013)
Phylum Class
Glomeromycota Glomeromycetes
Orders Families Genera
Glomerales Glomeraceae
Funneliformis (former Glomus Group Aa, Glomus mosseae)
Rhizophagus (former Glomus Group Ab, Glomus intraradices)
Sclerocystis (based in former Glomus Group Aa)
Claroideoglomeraceae Clairoideoglomus (former Glomus Group B, Glomus claroideum)
Intraomatospora (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Paradentiscutata (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Acaulosporaceae Acaulospora (including the former Kuklospora)
Pacisporaceae Pacispora
Corymbiglomus (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Diversispora (former Glomus Group C)
Otospora (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Tricispora (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Sacculosporaceae Sacculospora (insufcient evidence, but no formal action was taken)
Paraglomerales Paraglomeraceae Paraglomus
Geosiphonaceae Geosiphon
Ambisporaceae Ambispora
Archaeosporaceae Archaeospora (including the former Intraspora)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
sent a signicant mechanism functional to host root
location, appressorium formation and symbiosis
establishment (Sbrana & Giovannetti 2005). The
symbiosis phase begins by fungal hyphae connec-
tion with the plant roots through appressorium and
fungi penetrate into the cortex (Giovannetti et al.
1993) to form morphologically distinct specialized
structures – inter- and intracellular hyphae, vesicles,
and arbuscules (Figure 1). The arbuscules represent
the place of active bi-directional transfer of nutri-
ents between plant and fungus (Requena et al. 2007)
and play a major role in arbuscular mycorhizal sym-
biosis. The hyphae penetrate outside of the roots,
into the soil, create extra-radical mycelium, and
complete life cycle by the formation of new asex-
ual spores in extra-radical mycelium (Requena &
Breuninger 2004). Under this symbiosis, the AMF
stimulate growth and reproduction of plants through
better access to nutrients (P and N) and increased
absorption of water from the soil by the extra-rad-
ical and intra-radical mycelium (Bago et al. 2001).
Conversely, the plant provides carbon in the form of
saccharides produced by photosynthesis (Pfeffer et
al. 1999) transferred to the fungi via active or pas-
sive mechanisms (Doidy et al. 2012) by intra-radi-
cal fungal structures. Once AM fungi colonize the
plants, they persist with the root systems and can be
moved into other soil (Mishra et al. 2018).
Rhizosphere affected by mycorrhizas described
by the term ,,mycorrhizosphere” has unique char-
acteristics (Li et al. 1991). Mycorrhizal fungi take
over the role of root hairs and expand root system
of plants leading to increasing of the plant absorp-
tion area, improved absorption capacity of roots,
and better utilization of hardly available nutrients.
The mycorrhizosphere consists of roots, hyphae of
the AMF, associated microorganisms, and the soil
around them (Figure 2) (Mohammadi et al. 2011).
Mycorrhiza also inuences the colonization of roots
by other microorganisms; increases resistance of
roots to soil pathogens (Pozo et al. 2002); affects the
relationship between soil, plant, and water; promotes
adaptation of plants to adverse conditions such as
drought and soil salinity (Giri et al. 2003); and has
an important role in maintaining the overall soil sta-
bility (Azaizeh et al. 1995). AMF also detoxify the
plant environment containing higher concentration
of heavy metals (Hildebrandt et al. 1999) and induce
the production of several phytohormones. Danne-
berg et al. (1993) observed in the roots and shoots
of plants colonized by AMF increased amounts of
several substances, such as abscisic acid, auxins,
gibberellins, and substances similar to cytokinins.
Simultaneously, in the plant tissues an increased ac-
Figure 1. Typical intracellular structures (A arbuscules and V vesicle) of arbuscular mycorrhiza produced by Glomus
species (left). A mature arbuscule (right up) and vesicles (right down) of Glomus (Brundrett 2008, photos © Mark Brundrett
with permission)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
tivity of some enzymes (peroxidases, phosphatases,
alkaline phosphatases), enhanced photosynthesis
activity, concentration of chlorophyll, and increased
levels of reducing saccharides, lipids, fatty acids,
amino acids, and proteins were observed (Selvaraj
& Chellappan 2006).
Mineral nutrition
The extensive AMF mycelium obtains from
soil nutrients such as phosphorus, nitrogen, zinc,
copper, iron, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and
others (Clark & Zeto 2000). In some cases, the nu-
trients can control the development or start the sym-
biosis (Ryan & Angus 2003). AMF can also cause
a change in absorption of more nutrients at the same
time but the effect on individual nutrients may be
different. Sometimes, there may be increased and in
other cases decreased intake of individual nutrients
(Azaizeh et al. 1995; Mohammad et al. 2003).
Phosphorus. Phosphorus is one of the key bio-
genic macroelements necessary for growth and me-
tabolism of plants (Zou et al. 1992). Phosphorus
has an important role in the transfer of energy by
the establishment of energy-rich esters of phospho-
ric acid, and is a basic element of macromolecules,
such as nucleotides, nucleic acids, and phospho-
lipids (Marschner 1995). A large part of inorganic
phosphate applied to the soil as fertilisers is rapidly
converted to the unavailable form of low solubili-
ty. The soluble phosphate is then released from the
insoluble form by various reactions involving the
participation of other rhizosphere microorganisms
(Khan et al. 2007). The phosphate ions are extreme-
ly immobile in the soil due to the formation of in-
soluble complexes with the prevailing soil cations,
such as Fe3+, Al3+, and Ca2+. Consequently, the phos-
phate ions diffuse in soil very slowly but in the sur-
rounding soil occupied by the roots (depletion zone)
phosphate is exhausted very quickly. Then the rate
of uptake is not dened by plant physiology but by
slow diffusion of phosphate ions in the soil (Hel-
gason & Fitter 2005). The presence of phosphate
in the rhizosphere, respectively in the mycorrhizo-
sphere, is the major factor contributing to the cre-
ation of mycorrhiza association. AMF increase in-
take of relatively immobile phosphate ions for their
host plant due to the ability of fungal extra-radical
growth (George et al. 1995). The depletion zone is
around the host plant root, where plant roots are able
to pump the necessary nutrients. AMF extra-radical
mycelium grows beyond the depletion zone and ac-
quires phosphate unavailable directly for the plant
(Smith et al. 2003). Phosphate is then transported in
Figure 2. The area of soil occupied by plant roots only (rhizosphere, left) and by plant roots colonized by mycorrhizal fungi
(mycorrhizosphere, right) (Mohammadi et al. 2011)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
the form of polyphosphates from soil through AMF
into intra-radical mycelium (Bucher 2007), already
present in the roots of the host plant (Figure 3). The
phosphate intake into plants is via plant phosphate
transporters, which are produced during the de-
velopment of AM symbiosis (Pumplin & Harrison
2009). Due to the fact that plant obtains most of the
phosphorus through fungal symbiosis, it is possi-
ble to assume that the plant phosphate transporters,
which partially regulate the phosphate intake, have
a great importance to productivity and plant growth
in most ecosystems (Smith et al. 2003). Increased
absorption of phosphorus is generally considered as
the most important contribution that AMF provided
for the host plant. Simultaneously, the phosphorus
level in the plants is often a major factor in regulat-
ing the relationship between plants and AMF. How-
ever, there are plants that do not respond to coloni-
zation of AMF due to high concentration of phos-
phorus in the soil and the colonization of plants by
AMF is suppressed (Kahiluoto et al. 2001). Cheng
et al. (2013) in their study conrmed that higher
content of phosphorus in the soil is associated with
lower mycorrhizal root colonization rates and lower
AMF diversity.
Nitrogen. AMF can efciently mediate transfer
large amounts of nitrogen from the soil into the roots
of host plants (Jackson et al. 2008). AMF extra-rad-
ical hyphae receive from the soil great amounts of
nitrogen in the form of ammonium cations (NH4+),
nitrates (NO3-) or amino acids and subsequently
transfer to the plants (Johansen et al. 1992; Bago
et al. 1996; Hawkins et al. 2000). Inorganic nitro-
gen is transmitted from the extra-radical mycelium
to the fungal intra-radical structures in the form of
amino acids which are transported to the plant in the
form of the ammonium cations (Govindarajulu et al.
2005). AM symbiosis is involved in the process of
mineralization of nitrogen in the soil, controls the
recycling of plant residues in the production of bio-
mass, and affects the structure of soil microorgan-
isms (Atul-Nayyar et al. 2008; Leigh et al. 2009).
AMF and abiotic factors of environment
The abiotic factors affecting the composition and
effectiveness of AMF community in soil are: pH, or-
Figure 3. The scheme of phosphate direct uptake from a depletion zone through the root hair cells directly into the root and
also using AMF transporters located in the extra-radical hyphae. Phosphate is transferred via the hyphae to the roots, where
cortical cells are involved in the absorption of phosphate (Smith et al. 2010)
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
ganic matter, phosphorus availability, heavy metals,
agricultural practice, and others. Changes in these
factors can lead to differences in symbiotic efcien-
cy and demonstrate the functional diversity among
the different AMF. Mycorrhizal symbiosis can im-
prove the physiological effectiveness of plants ex-
posed to stress.
Soil salinity. AMF presented in the environment
with increased soil salinity inuence on the forma-
tion and function of mycorrhizal symbiosis (Kumar
et al. 2010). The increased soil salinity negatively
affects the plant growth through reducing nutri-
ents uptake and increasing osmotic stress of plants
(Abdel-Ghani 2009). Some studies suggest that
AM fungi increase the plant’s ability to cope with
increased salinity (Yano-Melo et al. 2003; Rabie &
Almadini 2005; Al-Karaki 2006; Cho et al. 2006;
Sannazzaro et al. 2006). This can be achieved by
increasing the intake of nutrients such as P, N, Zn,
Cu, and Fe (Cantrell & Linderman 2001; Asghari et
al. 2005; Al-Karaki 2006), inhibiting high uptake of
Na and Cl and their transport to plant shoots (Daei
et al. 2009), improving water uptake (Ruiz-Lozano
& Azcon 2000), accumulating of proline and poly-
amines (Evelin et al. 2009; Ibrahim et al. 2011), or
increasing any of enzymatic antioxidant defence
system (Wu et al. 2010). Other arbuscular mycor-
rhizal mechanisms can include osmotic adaptation
assisted in maintaining the leaf turgor pressure, in-
uence the photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal
conductance, and water use efciency (Juniper &
Abbott 1993).
Plant-water relationship. AMF have an impact
on the plant-water relationship, thereby increasing
the host plant resistance to drought. Plants colonized
by AMF are able to absorb more water from the soil
in comparison with not colonized plants (Khalva-
ti et al. 2005) and the amount of received water is
dependent on the fungal species (Marulanda et al.
2003). Furthermore, AMF affect the efcient use
of water and root conductivity (Auge 2001). An in-
creased tolerance to water stress relates to the fact
that endophytes have an impact on the increased
conductivity of the leaves, transpiration, and in-
take of phosphorus and potassium. Potassium plays
a key role in plants exposed to water stress when the
free cations are responsible for the activity of leaf
stomata. The specic physiological (CO2 xation,
transpiration, water use efciency) and nutritional
(P and K) mechanisms of the AMF are involved in
the symbiosis to contribute to the alleviation of the
drought stress (Ruiz-Lozano et al. 1995).
Climatic changes. The most commonly consid-
ered global and regional climatic changes affecting
mycorrhiza are elevated atmospheric CO2, increased
tropospheric ozone, ultraviolet radiation, tempera-
ture, and drought (Mohan et al. 2014). However, it
is not just one factor that has implications on the
AM association but the inuence of several factors
must be taken into account. For example, AM colo-
nization of grass roots decreased with warming and
in combination with elevated CO2 decreased even
more (Olsrud et al. 2010). Treseder (2004) con-
rmed that increased atmospheric CO2 contributes
to improved activity of mycorrhizal associations
and has a benecial effect on the mycorrhizal abun-
dance. Other studies have shown that increased at-
mospheric CO2 can affects differently on AMF and it
is important to consider what plant species create an
association with AMF. Garcia et al. (2008) founded
that the increased atmospheric CO2 not affected the
length of hyphae and root colonization in a desert
environment. Similarly, in a warm temperate forest
the increased CO2 have no effect on AMF (Garcia et
al. 2008). On the other hand, in the chaparral eco-
system the amount of AM hyphae and the gloma-
lin protein increased with increasing of CO2 (Allen
et al. 2005) and also in a sandstone grassland the
length of the AM hyphae and root colonization were
increased (Rillig et al. 1999). Most studies exam-
ined the combined effect of temperature on the AMF
and host plant. Generally, internal colonization in-
creases with temperature between 10°C and 30°C
(Wang et al. 2002) but temperature below 15°C may
decrease the colonization (Zhang et al. 1995). At
temperatures above 15°C the AMF provide to the
plants increased amount of phosphorus in compar-
ison with the non-mycorrhizal plants (Wang et al.
2002; Karasawa et al. 2012).
Heavy metals. Nowadays, soil contamination
with heavy metal is a global problem caused main-
ly by anthropogenic activities such as mining, ag-
riculture, smelting, electroplating, and other human
activities (Gomez-Sagasti et al. 2012). Heavy met-
als are heavily degraded in the soil, accumulate in
the soil, and affect the microbial biomass, activity,
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
and diversity (Alguacil et al. 2011; Margesin et al.
2011). Community of AMF is sensitive to the pres-
ence of metals in the soil. The long term application
of sludge with increased amount of heavy metals in
the soil can signicantly reduce the total number of
spores and diversity of AMF (Del Val et al. 1999).
However, symbiosis of AMF with plants could be
a potential biological solution to increase plant re-
sistance to heavy metals and to improve fertility of
contaminated soil (Vivas et al. 2005). The immo-
bilization of metals through the fungal biomass is
one of the possible mechanisms. The benecial use
of AM fungi is through improved nutrient acquisi-
tion and increased growth by arresting metal uptake
in different mycorrhizal structures (Kaur & Garg
2017). Also, plant roots colonized by AMF can form
and strengthen a root barrier against the transfer of
heavy metal and reduce their transmission (Andrade
& Silveira 2008). This effect is ascribed to the ab-
sorption of metal by chitin in the cell walls of the
hyphae, which has a signicant ability to bind met-
als (Joner et al. 2000). Glomalin, a glycoprotein pro-
duced abundantly on hyphae and spores of AMF in
soil and in roots, has also a chelating effect, thereby
decreases the availability of metals to plants (Gon-
zalez-Chávez et al. 2004). Another possible mecha-
nisms are the dilution of concentrations of metals in
plant tissues as a result of plant growth promoting
by AMF (Andrade & Silveira 2008) and increased
exclusion of metals by precipitation or chelation in
the rhizosphere (Kaldorf et al. 1999).
Soil pH. The soil pH is an important factor af-
fecting the AMF community in the soil. The differ-
ent AMF have various claims and sensitivity to the
pH (Hayman & Tavares 1985). Soil acidity affects
the number of AMF spores in the soil (Mohammad
et al. 2003) and species composition (Porter et al.
1987; Sharma et al. 2009). Changes of soil pH may
affect the availability of nutrients for the plant, e.g.
inorganic P is more easily available in the soil with
pH ≈ 6.5. Lower pH decreases the solubility of Fe
and in high pH solubility of Ca phosphates decreas-
es (Marschner 1995).
AMF and biotic factors of environment
Plants. There were found 530 AMF species
at a given locality (Douds & Millner 1999) and 8
various AMF species were found colonizing a sin-
gle 5 centimetres root segment in eld experiments
(Tommerup 1988). Increasing of plant diversity
could increase the AMF species diversity and also
affects the production of spores. Some plant species
may support individual AMF species, which may
lead to increasing in species richness. Moreover,
root exudates of different plant species can affect
the germination and growth of AMF species (Douds
et al. 1996). It appears that AMF have benet from
increased plant diversity due to number of possible
host-fungal pairings and elevated density of plant
roots available for colonization, AMF growth and
sporulation (Burrows & Peger 2002). De León
et al. (2018) observed that roots of soybean plants
were colonized by diverse communities of AM fun-
gi and composition of AMF community in roots was
primarily driven by host plant identity.
Plant pathogens. Plants in their natural environ-
ment interact with a large number of harmful her-
bivorous insects and pathogenic microorganisms.
AMF directly do not ensure the protection of plants
against phytopathogens, but they induce the ability
of plants to respond more quickly to the pathogen
attack (Whipps 2004). In some cases, the apparent
plant resistance to pathogens and diseases may be
the result of improved nutrition (Karagiannidis et al.
2002). Probably one of the most important cases is
the elimination of pathogens from the area where the
colonization of root cells by AMF occurs. The ad-
vantage is when the AMF colonize the plant before
pathogen (Slezack et al. 1999). Another factor may
be related with changes in the root exudates compo-
sition (Filion et al. 1999), which can cause changes
in the rhizosphere microbial community structures
(Hassan Dar et al. 1997). Also changes in the root
structure of host plant or biochemical changes as-
sociated with protective mechanisms of plant may
cause the putative plant resistance to pathogens
(Gianinazzi-Pearson 1996; Vigo et al. 2000).
Other soil microorganisms. Bacterial communi-
ties and individual species support the germination
of AMF spores and may increase the rate and extent
of fungal colonization of plant roots (Johansson et al.
2004). Once the arbuscular symbiosis is developed,
AMF hyphae affect the surrounding soil leading to
the development of different microbial communities
(Linderman 1988). AMF communicate with bene-
cial rhizosphere microorganisms in the mycorrhizo-
sphere, including bacteria involved in the nitrogen
xation and rhizobacteria (Biró et al. 2000). In the
concept called mycorrhiza helper bacteria (MHB)
the bacteria directly assist in the formation of my-
corrhiza and positively affect symbiosis. MHB
mechanisms stimulate spore germination, growth
of AMF mycelium, improve the soil conditions and
chemistry via alteration of phytohormones level
(Frey-Klett et al. 2007). AMF and Pseudomonas u-
orescens (rhizosphere bacteria) have gained consid-
erable attention among soil microorganisms due to
their positive effect on plant growth (Smith & Smith
2011). Gamalero et al. (2004) studied the effect of
the interaction between the AMF and P. uorescens
on root morphology and the resulted effect was syn-
ergistic or neutral, respectively. Similar study was
carried by Cosme & Wurst (2013). Their results in-
dicated that the positive interactions between AMF
and P. uorescens on the root morphology were de-
pended on the nutrient status in the rhizosphere and
the root hormonal balance. Their result also indicate
that the P. uorescens belongs to MHB, even if it
is not isolated from the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal
plant (Glenn et al. 1985). This means, that the MHB
mechanisms are independent of the rhizobacteria or-
igin (Frey-Klett et al. 2007).
AMF and agriculture
Fertilising, plowing, biocides, and other agricul-
tural practices may have a negative impact on the
AMF community (Jansa et al. 2002) and soils can be
depleted about the AMF diversity (Helgason et al.
1998). Changes in the composition of the AMF can
be caused by various factors, such as the disruption
of AMF hyphal networks, changes in the soil nutri-
ent content, and in the microbial activity (Jansa et al.
2003). Application of fertilisers containing phospho-
rus may leads to less dependence of plants in AMF
colonization, reduced colonization of roots by AMF,
or less spore density of AMF in soils (Kahiluoto
et al. 2001). Also, fertilisers with a high content of
nitrogen may have negative effects on the coloniza-
tion and diversity of AMF (Egerton-Warburton et al.
2007). The soil tillage may signicantly disrupt the
mycorrhizal network, delay or reduce root coloniza-
tion and the soil volume usable for AMF. Simulta-
neously, it may reduce intake of necessary nutrients
by plants, plant growth and production (Evans &
Miller 1990). In some cases, the effects on growth
and nutrient intake are temporary and the effect of
tillage on the AMF community also may depends on
the soil type (Kabir 2005). Säle et al. (2015) demon-
strated that AMF communities were affected by
land use, farming and tillage system, and fertilisa-
tion. Other studies showed that community structure
and diversity of AMF in soils differs between tilled,
reduced, and no-tilled soils (Jansa et al. 2002; Köhl
et al. 2014; Maurer et al. 2014; Wetzel et al. 2014).
Some fungicides signicantly inhibited the abil-
ity of AMF to colonize plants, phosphorus uptake
(Schweiger & Jakobsen 1998), and affect sporula-
tion. Indirect effect of herbicides is due to elimina-
tion of weeds, the potential hosts of AMF (Ryan et
al. 1994). Some biocides may have a negative, neu-
tral (herbicides) or positive (nematicides) effect on
the AMF community (Pattinson et al. 1997).
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are microorgan-
isms with very important and valuable functions
in growing systems of agricultural crops. Mycelia
of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi assist in uptake
of nutrients from soil to the plants, such as phos-
phorus, nitrogen, zinc, copper, and other elements.
Mycorrhizal symbiosis can improve the physiolog-
ical response of plants to abiotic and biotic stresses,
increase biomass yield, and retain productivity of
plants. Also, they are useful in decreasing of pol-
lutants in the biosphere, including heavy metals,
organic compounds, and radionuclides. However,
conventional agricultural practices such as fertilis-
ing, tillage, and application of chemical pesticides
acting as biocides, may have a negative impact on
their communities. This can results to depletion of
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from agricultural soils,
especially from the genetic diversity point of view,
followed by reduction of intake of necessary nutri-
ents by plants and decreasing of plant growth and
crop productivity. However, the potential of AMF
have to be exploited for the sustainability of agricul-
tural production. Utilization of mycorrhizal symbio-
sis can reduce external inputs into agriculture, while
the crop productivity can remains or may be even
higher. Ecological impacts of particular importance
Agriculture (Poľnohospodárstvo), 65, 2019 (1): 315
are associated with the bellow-ground ecosystem
affected also by AMF and AMF-plant interactions.
To meet the challenge of exploitation of arbuscular
mycorrhizal symbiosis in agricultural practice can
contribute studies of qualitative and quantitative
analysis of AMF diversity in soil.
Acknowledgements. This work was supported
by the Slovak Research and Development Agency
under the contract No. APVV-17-0150 and by the
Operational Programme Research and Development
co-nanced from the European Regional Develop-
ment Fund under the project ITMS 26210120039
“Systems biology for protection, reproduction and
use of plant resources of Slovakia”.
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... They form distinctive oval structures called vesicles and branched called arbuscular. Hyphae and arbuscular structures function in exchanging nutrients between plants and their hosts, while the vesicle structure serves as a storage place for food reserves (Piliarová et al. 2019;Sukmawati et al. 2021). AMF is characterized by hyphae that develop around the roots but do not cover the root surface or a mantle. ...
... The different types and densities of AMF spores in the two regions were strongly influenced by environmental factors, especially climate and soil (Alimi et al. 2021;Meng et al. 2021;Nacoon et al. 2021;Piliarová et al. 2019). Piliarová et al. (2019) and Nacoon et al. (2021) stated that the presence of AMF is strongly influenced by the type of host plant, spore type, and environmental factors such as soil. ...
... The different types and densities of AMF spores in the two regions were strongly influenced by environmental factors, especially climate and soil (Alimi et al. 2021;Meng et al. 2021;Nacoon et al. 2021;Piliarová et al. 2019). Piliarová et al. (2019) and Nacoon et al. (2021) stated that the presence of AMF is strongly influenced by the type of host plant, spore type, and environmental factors such as soil. Soil is the most influential factor in the different types and spore density (Table 2). ...
Mahulette AS, Alfian A, Kilkoda KA, Lawalata IJ, Marasabessy DA, Tanasale VL, Makaruku MH. 2021. Isolation and identification of indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) of forest clove rhizosphere from Maluku, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 22: 3613-3619. Forest clove is classified as wild-type and endemic to the Maluku (Moluccas) Islands, Indonesia. The different condition of growing areas causes various types of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) associated with forest clove. The study aimed to identify and obtain indigenous AMF inoculums from the forest clove rhizosphere from two distribution areas in Maluku. The results of AMF identification found two types of spores from the genus Glomus in the rhizosphere of forest cloves from Ambon Island with a spore density of 35/50 g of soil. In comparison, three spores were found in Seram Island, two from the genus Scutellospora and one from the Acaulospora. With an overall spore density of 5/50 g of soil. After culture trapping, there was a change in type and an increase in spore density in soil samples from the rhizosphere of the two forest clove distribution areas. Soil samples from Ambon after trapping culture obtained two new types of spores from the genus Acaulospora with a total spore number of 57/50 g soil while in soil samples from Seram found three new types of spores from the genus Glomus with a total spore count of 104/50 g of soil.
... AMF, an important group of plant symbionts, rely on host plants to obtain carbon supply. Meanwhile, AMF can stimulate the growth and reproduction of crops through enhanced absorption of nutrients (P and N) and water uptake from the soil by the mycelium (Piliarova et al. 2019). These processes can promote the secretion of various organic compounds (e.g., glomalin-related protein) by AMF, which contributes to the soil carbon content. ...
... Previous studies have indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between AMF and plants become the bridge for nutrient fluxes. Meanwhile, various compounds (e.g., glomalin) were exuded from AMF during symbiosis, playing a pivotal role in soil carbon/nitrogen storage (Piliarova et al. 2019). Moreover, AMF was also positively correlated to the stabilization of soil aggregates in wheat/maize and faba bean/maize intercropping systems (Song et al. 2007). ...
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Background and aims It is demonstrated that intercropping improves soil fertility, but its effect on deep soil is still unclear. The major objective of this study was to determine the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and soil aggregates and their interrelationship across soil depths in intercropping systems. Methods A three-year positioning experiment based on a two-factor experimental design at two N application levels (N0 and N2) and different cropping systems (maize/soybean intercropping and corresponding monocultures) was started in 2017. Soil samples were collected from 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm for analyzing soil aggregates and from 0–15 cm, 15–30 cm, 30–5 cm, and 45–60 cm for determining the AMF composition. Results It was observed that intercropping improved the macro-aggregate (> 5 mm) content at 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm depths for maize soil and only 0–15 cm depth for soybean soil without N treatment. The application of N decreased the macro-aggregate content in the intercropping soil at 0–15 cm and 15–30 cm depths. Moreover, intercropping significantly improved the AMF diversity of maize and soybean soils across soil depths, while the application of N reduced the AMF diversity of soil across depths. Conclusions The structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the intercropping system influenced the stability of soil aggregates and promoted the formation of large aggregates by altering soil nutrients and the diversity of AMF. The results further revealed the reasons behind soil fertility improvement by adopting crop diversification.
... A decrease in the Zn uptake is observed significantly to 8% when soil Zn concentration is high. Increasing the concentration of soil Zn decreases the uptake of Zn through MPU while there is an increment of Zn uptake at low soil Zn concentration [4] Figure 1 [5][6][7]. [5][6][7]. ...
... Increasing the concentration of soil Zn decreases the uptake of Zn through MPU while there is an increment of Zn uptake at low soil Zn concentration [4] Figure 1 [5][6][7]. [5][6][7]. ...
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An application of mycorrhiza has a role in achieving the goal of food security. The establishment of the mycorrhiza in soil and their pre-adaptation steps affect food for the growing billions. Nowadays, the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the agricultural field as biofertilizer is on the rise. Zinc (Zn) is one of the important elements for crop growth and development and possesses negative interaction with excess applied phosphorous (P). An estimation of 50% of the world's cereal growing soils is considered to be low in plant-available Zn. More than 33% of the world population is affected by Zn deficiency. The two different pathways for the uptake of P and Zn from the soil are mycorrhizal pathway uptake (MPU) and direct pathway uptake (DPU). The contribution of Zn by MPU and DPU varied in small quantities (i.e., in μg). In this regard, 24% of the Zn has transferred through the MPU pathway. This type of result has important implications in plants grown with low Zn concentration and high phosphorous application. Under high soil Zn concentration, there is little influence of MPU over DPU. MPU is active when soil Zn supply is low. An important repercussion for crop growing in Zn deficient soil. The relative contribution by the MPU was reduced in huge amounts while the activity of DPU increased with increasing soil Zn supply. Furthermore, a comparative study between mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants cannot tell us about the activity and interplay between MPU and DPU. An independent study is required to draw valid conclusions. Therefore, it can be concluded that the interplay between DPU and MPU of Zn and P is highly complex and due attention has to be paid for future research. Furthermore, the balanced use of MPU for the soil Zn and P is highly recommended.
... La planta micorrizada tiene ventaja sobre las no micorrizada porque el micelio externo del hongo se extiende a mayor distancia que los pelos radicales. Además, los hongos imparten otros beneficios a la planta como: mejorar la agregación del suelo, incrementan la fotosíntesis, aumentan la actividad microbiológica del suelo, amplían la fijación de nitrógeno por las bacterias simbióticas, brindan mayor resistencia a plagas y estrés ambiental, estimulan la actividad de sustancias reguladoras de crecimiento, haciendo que la planta tolere a la sequía (Piliarová et al., 2019). ...
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The survival of Swietenia mahagoni obtained in nursery with the application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and different organic substrates was evaluated. Plants produced on two levels of substrates: cocoa husk, coconut fiber and composted pine sawdust in 6:2:2 and 2:6:2 ratios, and four levels of mycorrhizal strains: Glomus cubense, Rhizoglomus irregulare, Funneliformis mosseae and non-mycorrhizal, were used for a total of eight treatments. Plants in the field were distributed under a randomized block experimental design, with four replications per treatment; the planting frame used was 2 x 2 m. The plantation was done after 30 days and the survival was assessed monthly until 12 months. During this time, the morphological variables: height and diameter were registered, and the height to diameter ratio and the relative growth rate were calculated. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier estimator and proportional hazards regression was performed to determine the risk of mortality as a function of morphological variables. At 12 months after planting, an average survival rate of 86.30 % was obtained, with higher percentage for plants inoculated with Glomus cubense and Rhizoglomus irregularestrains in the substrate composed of 20 % cocoa husk + 60 % coconut fiber + 20 % sawdust. Diameter was the morphological variable most related to the risk of mortality in the planting sites.
... Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can promote plant growth directly and indirectly. It can directly promote the growth of the root system through the modulation of the phytohormones of the host, which leads to its indirect growth promotion through the increased availability of some immobile nutrients through the increased root zone [38][39][40]. Besides immobile nutrient, mycorrhiza can also help accumulate nitrogen from its different forms like nitrate (NO3 − ), ammonium (NH 4 + ) and amino acids using their extraradical hyphae [41]. ...
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Sweet potato is an increasingly significant crop and its effective and sustainable cultivation has become important in temperate countries. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effects of a mycorrhizal inoculum, Symbivit, and whether it could establish a symbiotic relationship with the seedlings of two sweet potato varieties (orange and purple). The effectiveness of the mycorrhizal inoculation with a sterilized substrate on the mycorrhizal parameters (F%, M%, m%, a%, A%) and physical parameters “[length of roots and shoots (cm), the fresh weight of shoots and roots (g) as well as the length of stem (cm)]” on the sweet potato seedlings has also been studied. Results show that the sterilization treatment with Symbivit in both varieties increased the frequency of mycorrhiza in the root system. For the intensity of the mycorrhizal colonization in the root fragments and the arbuscular abundance, there was a difference between the mycorrhizal inoculum and the sterilization treatment among the varieties. Overall, the preliminary results provided remarkable information about mycorrhizal inoculation, substrate sterilization on mycorrhizal development, as well as changes in the physical parameters between sweet potato seedlings. Our results could serve as a practical strategy for further research into adding significance to the effect of the beneficial soil microbes on sweet potatoes.
... A system under long-term selection pressure of limited nitrogen and other resources provides a good model for investigating the interaction between plants and AMF (Piliarová et al. 2019). Studies on the simultaneous restriction of nitrogen and phosphorus in Medicago truncatula at both the molecular and physiological levels indicated the significant induction of reduced form of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) in the roots of mycorrhizal plants. ...
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Main conclusion Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi regulated the distribution of nitrogen in the leaves, thereby facilitating the adaptation of the endangered plant Torreya jackii to a low-nitrogen environment. AbstractRhizophagus irregularis was inoculated into sterilized soil to investigate its impact on the distribution ratio of leaf nitrogen in cell wall proteins, cell membrane proteins, water-soluble proteins, and photosynthetic systems which includes the carboxylation system (PC), energy metabolism (PB), and light-harvesting system in the endangered species Torreya jackii. The results showed that R. irregularis reduced the specific leaf weight and the distribution ratio of nitrogen in cell wall proteins in the leaves of T. jackii, whereas it enhanced the distribution ratio of nitrogen in cell membrane proteins and water-soluble proteins. R. irregularis enabled more nitrogen uptake for growth by decreasing the distribution of nitrogen to the structural substances. At low-nitrogen levels, inoculation with R. irregularis improved the plant height (18.78 ~ 36.04%), shoot dry weight (50.53 ~ 64.33%), total dry weight (42.86 ~ 52.82%), maximal net photosynthetic rate (Pmax) (16.83 ~ 20.11%), photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) (40.01 ~ 43.14%), PC (33.56 ~ 38.59%) and PB (29.08 ~ 34.02%). However, it did not substantially affect the leaf nitrogen content per unit area or the leaf nitrogen content per unit mass. Moreover, Pmax exhibited a significant positive correlation with PC and PB, and all three parameters showed a significant positive correlation with the PNUE, thereby revealing that R. irregularis increased the photosynthetic capacity and PNUE of T. jackii through boosting PC and PB.
... The presence of AMF are observed in a wide area of the landscape from grassland to tropical rain forest in different parts of the globe (Sharma et al. 2015). The study aforementioned focused on the diversity of AMF in different parts of the world and original crop plant species (Piliarová et al. 2019). Several articles published to date presented the role of AMF in sustainable agriculture due to its activity toward reducing chemical fertilizer and sustaining plant productivity (Bona et al. 2017). ...
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Arbuscular mycorrhizae fungi (AMF) are a big player of the ecosystem which shows a major concern over plant nutrition by providing access to the soil-derived nutrients. Naturally, an intimate association between plant roots and AMF is observed. AMF are involved in improvement on the soil water regime and nutrient uptake both in the biotic and abiotic stress situations such as drought, temperature extreme, heavy metals, salinity, pathogen and metal pollution. This kind of symbiotic relationship between plant roots and fungal hyphae is observed to be 80% of the terrestrial plant species worldwide. In plant AMF association fungal hyphae are benefitted by obtaining sugar from the host plants root and host plants root are ameliorated by improved uptake of water and nutrients from soil surface. AMF have a dual role to manage the Zn nutrition in soil. For example below a critical Zn concentration, Zn uptake is enhanced by AMF application and above the critical level, Zn translocation to plant shoots is restricted. Synergistic association between Zn and AMF is important for sustainable yield and quality. It is observed that grain Zn content in the field is increased with applying AMF. AMF help in the plant growth, development and reproduction, as the Zn is essential for pollen tube formation. By AMF application there is an increment in the content of lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin A and antioxidant activities than non AMF plants in tomato. In traditional driven agriculture, inherent soil fertility is the major source of P with an occasional supply of manure for the crops. But after modernization in agriculture results in overexploitation of the P and results in low crop yield and farm income. Rock phosphate is the major source of the phosphatic fertilizer and is non-renewable which could be exhausted in the next 50–100 years. Moreover, the stimulation of secondary metabolites synthesis results in the improvement of crop quality by sustainable use of phosphatic fertilizers. So P application techniques which can also ameliorate AMF are widely promising. This is how AMF play a pivotal role in developing present era farming practices towards sustainable agriculture. Phytoremediation of heavy metals from different soil types has potential benefit of using AMF in soil. Mycorrhizae disrupt the uptake of the different heavy metals from the rhizosphere and movement from the root to the aerial parts. The major role of AMF in plant growth and development during stressful environments is to translocate important immovable nutrients like Cu, Zn and P and reducing metal toxicity in the host plant.
... 8,9 Among these microorganisms are the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are a type of mycorrhizal that represent one of the most abundant symbiotic relationships in the biosphere. 10 AMF play an important role in the nutrient uptake and resistance to several biotic and abiotic stress factors from a wide variety of plants. 11 For this reason, AMF have become increasingly important as a tool to reduce the amount of agrochemicals, which are the cause of serious problems in the soil, air, water systems, and human health. ...
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are beneficial symbiotic organisms that play an important role in the water absorption and nutrient assimilation for a wide variety of plants. In this work, the use of polyethylene oxide (PEO) nanofibers was studied as a delivery system for AMF through the coated nanofibers of common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L var. José Beta). Thus, the effect of PEO nanofibers on the infective capacity of AMF and the indicator parameters of plant growth promotion (height plant, root length, number of leaves, number of flower buds, number of pods, fresh weight, and dry weight) was examined. Likewise, the mycorrhizal colonization rate and the indicator parameters of plant growth promotion between a conventional inoculation strategy and inoculation by nanofiber-coated seeds were compared. The results show that PEO nanofibers did not have any negative effect on the infective capacity of AMF or the indicator parameters of plant growth promotion. On the other hand, the inoculated bean plants showed a significant increase of 200, 140, and 143% in the number of flower buds, fresh weight, and dry weight, respectively. Moreover, no significant differences were observed in the mycorrhizal colonization rate between the two inoculation strategies used, even though the inoculant dose was 97% lower for the nanofiber-coated seeds. Therefore, nanofibers could represent a promising alternative as a seed-coating material and for the development of easy-to-apply and economically viable technologies for the application of AMF inoculants in the fields of agriculture, horticulture, forestry, ecological remediation, and related areas.
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Mycorrhizae are typical structures found in a plant's root system found symbiotic mutualism between fungi (myces) and roots (rhiza). Mycorrhizae have an essential role for plants because they can increase water and nutrient uptake, especially phosphorus absorption. The purpose of this study was to determine the mycorrhizal genera on the roots of parring bamboo plants (Gigantochloa atter) in Sabantang Hamlet, Toddopulia Village, Tanralili District, Maros Regency because there is no scientific information regarding this issue. This research was conducted with the wet filter method or sieving. The isolation of spores from the rhizosphere of Gigantochloa atter samples was carried out by referring to the pouring method and wet sieving using a stratified filter set. Staining techniques were used to observe the colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal structures in the roots of the sample plants. The results showed that 27 spores were found, consisting of 15 spores of the Glomus genera, three spores of the Gigaspora genera, and nine Acaulospora genera. Observation of the root structure has not shown the presence of vesicular and arbuscular. However, only hyphae and spore structures were found because the mycorrhizal hyphae in Gigantochloa atter have not yet reached the infection stage to form arbuscular or vesicular structures
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El interés de Piper auritum Kunth (acuyo) para la agroindustria farmacéutica y/o agropecuaria se derivan de la presencia de distintos componentes fitoquímicos y sustancias aromáticas en sus raíces y hojas. Por ello, en el presente estudio se valoró el efecto de sustancias orgánicas y la inoculación con hongos micorrizógenos arbusculares (HMA) sobre la producción de aceite esencial (AE) en esta Piperaceae propagada bajo condiciones de malla sombra en Xalapa, Veracruz, México. Se utilizó un diseño experimental en bloques al azar con cinco tratamientos y 15 repeticiones: T1 Testigo absoluto (T), T2 Suelo nativo con HMA (SN+HMA), T3 Suelo sanitizado con HMA (SS+HMA), T4 SS+Biol (SS+B) y T5 SS+Fertilizante orgánico natural (SS+FON), con disposición total de 75 unidades experimentales. Se evaluó área foliar a los 74 y 113 días después del trasplante (DDT) y producción de aceite esencial a los 392 DDT. Tras comprobar los supuestos de normalidad y homogeneidad de varianzas de los datos obtenidos en este bioensayo y verificar su fiabilidad estadística, los resultados de estas dos variables se analizaron mediante un ANOVA y contraste de la diferencia significativa mínima (DSM) de Fisher, con un nivel de significancia del 5% (α= 0.05), mientras que el porcentaje de colonización micorrízica y número de esporas se utilizó́ la Prueba t para muestras independientes (distribución t de Student) con un nivel de significancia del 5 % (α= 0.05). Aunque a los 74 DDT el área foliar de las plantas había incrementado más en SS+FON (192.79 %), finalmente en SN+HMA y SS+HMA se extrajo más AE mediante hidrodestilación (0.986 % y 0.579 %) en comparación con SS+B (0.352 %), SS+FON (0.244 %) y T (0.171 %, 392 DDT). Por otro lado, la presencia de esporas ni la colonización micorrizógena-arbuscular influyeron sobre el porcentaje de AE producido por esta Piperaceae en las condiciones de manejo prevalecientes durante el bioensayo. No obstante, la agregación de este tipo fertilizantes biológicos pudiere ser una alternativa elegible para fomentar la producción de AE en P. auritum bajo condiciones de umbría controlada. /The interest of Piper auritum Kunth (acuyo) for the pharmaceutical and/or agricultural agroindustry derives from the presence of different phytochemical components and aromatic substances in its roots and leaves. Therefore, in the present study, the effect of organic substances and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the production of essential oil (EA) in this Piperaceae propagated under shade mesh conditions in Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico was assessed. An experimental design in randomized blocks with five treatments and 15 repetitions was used: T1: Absolute control (T), T2: Native soil with HMA (SN+HMA), T3: Soil sanitized with HMA (SS+HMA), T4: SS+Biol (SS+B) and T5: SS+Natural organic fertilizer (SS+FON), with a total disposal of 75 experimental units. Leaf area was evaluated at 74 and 113 days after transplantation (DDT) and AE production at 392 DDT. After verifying the assumptions of normality and homogeneity of variances of the data obtained in this bioassay and verifying their statistical reliability, the results of both variables were analyzed using an ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference (DSM) contrast, with the significance level of 5% (α= 0.05), while in the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization and number of spores the t-test was used for independent samples (Student's t distribution) with a level significance of 5% (α= 0.05). Although at 74 DDT the leaf area of P. auritum plants had increased more in SS+FON (192.79 %), finally in SN+HMA and SS+HMA more essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.986 % and 0.579 %) compared to SS+B (0.352 %), SS+FON (0.244 %) and T (0.171 %, 392 DDT). On the other hand, the presence of spores and mycorrhizal-arbuscular colonization do not influence the percentage of AE produced by this Piperaceae under the prevailing management conditions during the bioassay. However, the addition of this type of biological fertilizers could be an eligible alternative to promote the production of AE in P. auritum under controlled shady conditions.
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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are considered to be enormously important in contemporary agriculture and horticulture for their ability to improve crop disease and fertility management in commercial field and greenhouse crop production. Recently, commercial greenhouse producers have begun using AM inoculum to increase yields and provide sustainable growing conditions in organic and hydroponic production systems. However, strong evidence in support of their effectiveness in hydroponic production is still lacking. Future research is expected to address benefits of the use of AM fungi in hydroponic greenhouse crops, such as defense against pathogen, herbivore attack and the effective management of photo-assimilates by plants, which are essential for fruit production. In order to increase our understanding of the usefulness of AM fungi in hydroponic greenhouses, large-scale trial and a cost-benefit evaluation of the process are needed. This article discusses the use of AM fungi for improving organic and hydroponic greenhouse crop production and disease control, considering that AM fungi inoculations in soil-based greenhouses and fields have proven to be very effective.
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Soils polluted with heavy metals result into various environmental and ecological tribulations like alterations in microbial community, deterioration of soil, and induction of metals into the human food chain. Noxious heavy metals, for instance, cadmium (Cd) and essential micronutrients like zinc (Zn) have identical chemical properties and are normally taken up by plants via similar carrier proteins as those of indispensable micronutrients. Cohesive interactions between plants and microbes and their co-existence or struggle for survival play a fundamental role in acclimatizing to metal-polluted environments. In this context, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are regarded as a prospective biotechnological approach for increasing tolerance of plants to heavy metal-polluted soils. However, the vital molecular factors responsible for regulating metal homeostasis/balance in these microbes have been poorly understood. Moreover, combined studies assessing the effect of AM fungal inoculation in alleviating Cd and/or Zn toxicity in plants and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. This review presents the updated information on cross talk between Cd–Zn–AM in plants grown on agricultural and metal-contaminated soils.
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Citrus is a salt-sensitive plant. In the present study, the salt stress ameliorating the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi through antioxidant defense systems was reported. Three-month-old trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings colonized by Glomus mosseae or G. versiforme were irrigated with 0 and 100 mmol NaCl solutions. After 49 days of salinity, mycorrhizal structures were obviously restrained by salt stress. Mycorrhizal inoculation especially G. mosseae significantly alleviated the growth reduction of salinity. There were notably lower malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents in the leaves of mycorrhizal seedlings than in non-mycorrhizal ones. Mycorrhizal seedlings recorded notably greater activity of catalase and contents of ascorbate, soluble protein and glutathione under salinity or non-salinity conditions. The seedlings colonized by G. mosseae showed significantly higher antioxidant defense systems response to salinity than by G. versiforme. Our data demonstrate that mycorrhizal (especially G. mosseae) citrus seedlings exhibited greater efficient antioxidant defense systems, which provide better protection against salt damage.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a key plant-microbe interaction in sustainable ecosystems. Increasing land use intensity poses a threat to AM fungal communities, yet little is known of the impact of agricultural land use on AM fungal communities in many regions and cultivation types. The last few decades have witnessed increased cultivation of soybean worldwide with Argentina becoming one of the major producers. We compared the diversity and taxon composition of AM fungal communities in soybean fields in central Argentina with that in a natural Espinal forest under similar environmental conditions. We sequenced AM fungal DNA from root and soil samples collected from pairs of soybean fields and pristine forest ecosystems. We found that although AM fungal diversity tended to be lower in samples collected from the soybean field, the total number of AM fungal taxa was similar in both agricultural and forest ecosystems. Roots of soybean plants were colonized by diverse communities of AM fungi. AM fungal community composition in roots was primarily driven by host plant identity, but land use type (soybean field versus Espinal forest) was also an important determinant of community composition. The intensity of anthropogenic land use correlated with the proportion of easily-cultured AM fungal taxa, probably due to their efficient colonization strategies and better ability to recover from disturbance. Thus, soybean cultivation has affected AM fungal communities in terms of both diversity and functional attributes , although the diverse AM fungal communities are still present, probably due to the relatively low level of fertilizer application. Please, find full text in:
The roots of most plants are colonized by symbiotic fungi to form mycorrhiza, which play a critical role in the capture of nutrients from the soil and therefore in plant nutrition. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis is recognized as the definitive work in this area. Since the last edition was published there have been major advances in the field, particularly in the area of molecular biology, and the new edition has been fully revised and updated to incorporate these exciting new developments. . Over 50% new material . Includes expanded color plate section . Covers all aspects of mycorrhiza . Presents new taxonomy . Discusses the impact of proteomics and genomics on research in this area.
An understanding of the mineral nutrition of plants is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant sciences. The Second Edition of this book retains the aim of the first in presenting the principles of mineral nutrition in the light of current advances. This volume retains the structure of the first edition, being divided into two parts: Nutritional Physiology and Soil-Plant Relationships. In Part I, more emphasis has been placed on root-shoot interactions, stress physiology, water relations, and functions of micronutrients. In view of the worldwide increasing interest in plant-soil interactions, Part II has been considerably altered and extended, particularly on the effects of external and interal factors on root growth and chapter 15 on the root-soil interface. The second edition will be invaluable to both advanced students and researchers.
Mycorrhiza, from the Greek terms myco (=fungus) and rhiza (=root), is the predominant root symbiosis. More than 90% of land plants form mycorrhiza with soil fungi belonging to three different phyla (Smith and Read 1997). A few plant families (e.g. Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Proteaceae) as well as some genera (e.g. Lupinus) have been described as non-mycorrhizal. It is speculated that the mycorrhizal character has possibly arisen several times during evolution (Trappe 1987), but the mechanisms of mycorrhiza exclusion have not yet been identified. From the different types of mycorrhiza existing in nature arbuscular mycorrhizas are the oldest and most widespread symbiosis (Remy et al. 1994). Recent fossil studies and molecular data have tracked the presence of this symbiosis all the way to the Ordovician era, i.e. to be at least 460 million years old (Redecker et al. 2000b). The fungi forming this mutualistic symbiosis have been recently recognized as belonging to an independent phylum, the Glomeromycota (Schüßler et al. 2001b) with a monophyletic origin. The permanence of this mutualistic association during evolution reflects its importance in nature. The reciprocal benefit, achieved by the nutrient exchange between both partners in intimate contact, is possibly the reason for this durability. However, the benefits of the symbiosis to the maintenance of natural ecosystems cannot be only estimated in terms of improved plant nutrition.
Since 1994, a comparison of no-till and conventional tillage systems has been underway on the Oberacker long-term field trial site at the Inforama Rütti education and extension centre in Zollikofen, Berne canton. The present paper investigates the influence of the two cropping systems and various field crops, including catch crop mixtures, on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM fungi). For this, fungal spores were isolated and morphologically classified. Around two-thirds of the 39 species identified were present in both cropping systems. All crops were found to have greater biodiversity and greater diversity according to the Shannon-Weaver index in the no-till system (15–21 species and H = 2.12–2.86, respectively) than in the conventional tillage system (10–17 species and H = 1.77–2.56, respectively). Winter cereals tended to harbour a lower number of species than did a catch crop mixture which was grown. The characteristic species for the long-term no-till system is Septoglomus constrictum, whilst Funneliformis caledonius is the characteristic species for the plots under conventional tillage. Encouraging specific mycorrhizal fungal communities could make a substantial contribution towards an efficient and effective no-till system. © 2014, AMTRA - Association pour la Mise en Valeur des Travaux de la Recherche Agronomique. All right reserved.