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Abstract

Mediterranean SST report is an initiative of the Mediterranean Center for Environmental Studies (CEAM) Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics department to periodically review and update sea surface temperature climatology and trend in the Mediterranean basin. This newsletter will be issued on a seasonal basis and is intended to disseminate the state of the art about Mediterranean SST but also as information for stakeholders and media interested in climate change. It is also intended to be a meeting point for the scientific community involved in the study of Mediterranean SST.
Mediterranean SST report
Winter 2019
Issue #1
05-2019
The Mediterranean area has been dened as a hot-spot for climate change. From a climac point of
view, the Mediterranean Sea and its interacons with the atmosphere play a fundamental role in the
environmental condions in this area. It is, therefore, crucial to study the behaviour of the Mediter-
ranean Sea in the past and to monitor its current situaon to understand possible future scenarios in
the region.
Mediterranean SST report is an iniave of the Mediterranean Center for Environmental Stud-
ies (CEAM) Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics department to periodically review and update sea
surface temperature climatology and trend in the Mediterranean basin. This newsleer will be is-
sued on a seasonal basis and is intended to disseminate the state of the art about Mediterranean
SST but also as informaon for stakeholders and media interested in climate change. It is also our in-
tenon to oer this newsleer as a
meeng point for the scienc com-
munity involved in the study of Medi-
terranean SST.
This newsleer is parally funded by
research project VERSUS (CGL2015-
67466-R), from the Spanish R&D&I
naonal plan.
SST daily updated informaon can be
found at our webportal SST-CEAMed
at hp://www.ceam.es/SST.
Me d i terra n ean SST repo rt w ill b e issue d in a season a l basi s (4 m e s a year) . If y o u a r e i n tere s t ed i n rec e i ving
up c o ming iss u e s please c onta c t Fran c isco Pa s t or at p a co@ce a m .es . Pl ease, fee l fr e e to di s t rib u t e to an y one
wh o migh t be int e r e ste d .
All graphics and analysis are based on daily SST data from GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface
Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2) from NOAA Naonal Centers for Environmental Informaon available at PO-
DAAC site (hps://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/dataset/AVHRR_OI-NCEI-L4-GLOB-v2.0).
Trend summary (1982-2019)
Gl obal t rend 1.2˚C
Gl obal d aily trend 8.9·10-5˚C/day
December 0.8 ˚C
Mon thly anomalies January 0.8 ˚C
February 0.8 ˚C
SUMMARY
Global mean Mediterranean SST on December rst two weeks was higher than average climac
values and then remained at average values during the rest of December unl mid-January. For
the rest of January and February, SST values were above climac mean values with the highest
peak around the start of the second week of February.
At a longer extent, a consistent warming trend has been found for the analyzed period (January
1982–February 2019) me series of daily averaged Mediterranean deseasonalized sea surface
temperature that accounted for a global increase of 1.2˚C.
Mediterranean SST report - Winter 2019
Da t a sourc e : GHRS S T L e vel 4 A V H RR_OI G lobal B l ended S e a Surfa c e Tempe ratur e Ana lys is (GDS v e rsio n 2 ) from NCEI
av a ilabl e at PODA A C si t e h ps: / / poda a c .jpl . nasa. g ov/d ata s e t/AV HRR _ O I -NCEI -L4-G L OB-v2. 0
SS T l ong term t rend is e valua ted from J a nuary
19 82 up t o the m ost recen t data available, F eb-
ru ary 201 9. A SST t empo ral ser ies is comput ed
from mean d aily d ata from the who le Mediterra -
nean b asin; daily SST series is decomp osed in its
se asona l and trend comp onents . Hence , a linear
re gress ion i s c alcul ated f or t he desea sonalized
se ries (tren d compo nent). Global SST var iaon is
the n com puted from the linear tren d. The es -
ma ted glob al trend is about 1.C for the stu dy
period, shown in gure 1.
Fi gure 2 shows yearl y SST ser ies, compu ted from
daily data. The black li ne sh o ws th e 198 2 -2019
an n ual me an for Medit erran ean SST , the r ed lin e
co rresp onds to y ear 201 8 and gre en line to
20 19. Decem ber 2018 show h igher than c limac
me an durin g its rst half and then d ecreases un-
l abo ut mean valu es. SST in 2019 st arted wit h
va lues close t o the c lima c mea n unl mid -
Ja nuary, in c reasing ov er mean value s un l Fe b-
ru ary.
Figure 1. Time evoluon for deseasonalized mean Mediterranean SST
Figure 2. Yearly me series for mean Mediterranean SST
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Global SST anomalies
Th e warming tren d for the whole 1982 -2019 perio d can be c l early s een in the SST d aily anoma l y,
sh own i n gu re 3. Most of the p osiv e SST anoma lies (rel ave t o 1982 -2011 refer ence perio d) occu r
a er 2000 with a peak on 2016. In the c ase of
SS T mon t hly anomal i es, l ong t erm p o sive trend
is a lso foun d f rom 1982 t o 2019. As for daily val-
ues, most of the p osi ve a nomalies h ave been
re corde d aer 20 00 for b oth glo bal and desea-
so naliz ed SST .
Mediterranean SST report - Winter 2019
Da t a sourc e : GHRS S T L e vel 4 A V H RR_OI G lobal B l ended S e a Surfa c e Tempe ratur e Ana lys is (GDS v e rsio n 2 ) from NCEI
av a ilabl e at PODA A C si t e h ps: / / poda a c .jpl . nasa. g ov/d ata s e t/AV HRR _ O I -NCEI -L4-G L OB-v2. 0
Figure 3. Mean SST daily anomaly
Figure 4. Mean SST monthly anomaly
SST monthly analysis December 2018
Th e avera ge mont hly SST of Dece mber 20 18 indicates the progress ive establishment of the SST winter
re gime; a dec reasi ng north to so u th gradi ent star ts to be appre ciat ed for the who l e Medite rranean
basin. The coldest SS T value s are fou nd in the Blac k sea. Regarding th e Medite rrane an sea, the col der
SS T is found in the Adr iac sea and in the G enoa Gulf -Ligur ian s ea areas.
A re marka ble posive anom aly area across th e weste rnmost coasts of the Medi terra nean basin, en-
co mpass ing the whole Frenc h and mos t of Spani sh coa s ts, is s hown ingu re 5. As per global S ST
an omaly va lues, Dec ember 201 8 holds the ei ghth posion in the his toric al serie s (1982 -2018) whi le
the SST trend compon ent stand s for the high est thir d value, just ae r the high est ones record ed in
20 15 and 2014 (see boom tabl e).
December SST 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2008
SST anomaly 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.3 1.2 0.9 0.8 -0.1 0.5 0.2
SST trend anomaly 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.2
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
Figure 5. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on December 2018
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SST monthly analysis January 2019
Dur ing Janua ry, the mean mont h ly SST shows a typica l winter regi me. Highe r SST val ues are in the
So utheas tern Med iterr anean basin while lowes t v alues are found i n t he north ernmo st part of the
Ad riac and, a t a l e sser extent , around It aly a nd the north ern ha lf of the We stern basin . Special me n-
o n has to be made to the coldes t valu es in t he Bla ck Sea. A posi ve anoma ly persis ts between the
Ba leari c Isla nds an d the ea stern Spanish coa st. Ne gave value s are around s outhern Ita ly. January
20 19 SST monthl y anom aly is in the 14th posion of t he me series (1982 -2018) but deseas onali zed
SS T shares th e second highest value with 2015.
Mediterranean SST report - Winter 2019
Da t a sourc e : GHRS S T L e vel 4 A V H RR_OI G lobal B l ended S e a Surfa c e Tempe ratur e Ana lys is (GDS v e rsio n 2 ) from NCEI
av a ilabl e at PODA A C si t e h ps: / / poda a c .jpl . nasa. g ov/d ata s e t/AV HRR _ O I -NCEI -L4-G L OB-v2. 0
January SST 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2009
SST anomaly 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.7 0.6 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.3
SST trend anomaly 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.2
Figure 6. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on January 2019
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
SST monthly analysis February 2019
Fe bruary shows t he coldest annu al valu es in the M edite rrane an basi n. Lowe st SST value s are foun d in
the norther n part of the Adria c. Weste rn Medite rrane an basin shows lower value s than the E aster n
on e, with the high est val ues to its e astern areas. A posi ve SST anom aly per sists, as i t was pre sent in
the whole w inter season , b etwee n t h e Balear ic Islan ds and the east ern Span ish coas t . T he rest of t he
basin sh ows n o rel evant value s for SST anomaly, with a small hot” spot to the Ea st of Crete . SST
mo nthly anomal y for Febru ary 2019 holds the 5th posio n o f t he me series (198 2 -2019); i n t h e case
of desea sonal ized S ST, F ebruary 201 9 sha res th e high est value in the me s eries with 2015 a nd 201 6.
February SST 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2009
SST anomaly 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.7 0.2 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.4 0.2
SST trend anomaly 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.2
Figure 7. Mean monthly SST (le) and mean monthly SST anomaly (right) on February 2019
Minimum values in blue/maximum values in red
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Mediterranean SST community
Th is space is i ntende d t o p romote knowledge and excha n ge of inform aon amon g t he Medite rrane an
SS T commu nity. I n each bulle n, a research g roup wi ll make a s hort prese ntaon of the resea rch the y
ar e involved , sta, publicao n s,
Fundacn CEAM
Meteorology and Pollutant Dynamics Area
Th e Me diterranean Ce nter for Environme ntal Stud ies (CEA M) is a re search pu blic
ce ntre devot ed to stud y env ironm ental issues in the Medit erra nean regio n, with
sp ecial focu s on ea stern Spain , the Valen cia r egion .
Th e goal of the Meteor ology and Pollut ant Dyn amics area of CEAM is to improv e our unders tandin g
of the meteo rological processe s deter mining clima te and atmos p heric pollu on in the Medi terran ean
re gion. In th is cont ext, sea surface temper ature is consid ered to play an import ant role in both cli -
ma te and meteo rolog y in the Me diterr anean basin .
E orts i n chara cterising Me diterranean SST cl imatol ogy an d its in uence in hea vy prec ipita on events
in the V alencia region ha ve be en mad e in the last ye ars.
SST rel ated p ublicaons
Se a Surfa ce Temp eratu re in the Medite rrane an: Tre nds and Spaa l Paerns (19 82 –2016). Pas tor,
F. , Valie nte, J.A . & Palau , J.L. Pu re Appl. Geophy s. (2017). hps://do i.org/10.1007/s00024 -017-
1739-z
Pa stor, F., V alien t e, J. A., and Es trela , M. J ., 201 5. S ea sur f ace t e mperatu re and torrenal r ains i n
the V alenc ia regio n: model ling t he role o f recha rge area s . Natur al Haza rds and E arth Sys tem
Sc ience s, 15: 1677-1693.
Pa stor, F., 2012. Ciclog énesis inten sas en la cuenca occide ntal del Medite rráneo y tempe ratura
su percial del mar: Modelizacn y evaluación de las áreas de recar ga . PhD thesis . Depart ament
d'Astron omia i Mete orolo gia. Facultad de Físic a. Un i versitat d e Barc elona .
Pa stor, F ., Est rela, M . J., P arrocha, D., and Mil lán, M. M., 2001. Torren al rains on t h e Spani sh
Med iterr anean C oast: M odeli ng the eects of the sea su rface t emper ature .
Jo urnal of A pplie d Mete orolo gy , 40: 1180-1195.
Fr ancis co Pastor
paco@ce am.es
Mediterranean SST report - Winter 2019
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Mediterranean SST report - Winter 2019
Mediterr anean SST repor t is an iniave of the M editer ranea n Center for Envir onment al
St u dies (CEAM) Mete orology and P ollut ant D ynami cs depar tment as part of t h e resea rch
project VERSUS CGL201 5 -67466-R ( MICIN N/FEDE R), funde d b y t he Spanish R &D&I nao n -
al plan of S panis h Ministry of Sci ence, Innova on and Unive rsies and Eur opean Region al
Developm ent Fu nd.
More in forma on ab out Mediter ranea n sea sur face tempe rature (dai ly up dates) at our
SS T CEA Med we b port al www .ceam.es/SS T
Ci taon: M edite rrane an Sea Surface Temp erat u re rep ort (W inter 2019) . Mete orolo gy and
Po llutan t Dyna mics Area. Funda ción CEAM. 2019.
Dat a source : N aona l Centers for Envi ronmen tal Info rmao n. 2016. GHRS ST Level 4
AV HRR_O I Globa l Blend ed Sea Surface Tempe rature Analysis (GDS versio n 2) from NCEI.
Ve r. 2.0. PO. DAAC, CA, USA. Data set acce ssed 2019 -03-31 at hp ://dx.doi.o rg/10 .5067/
GH AAO-4BC0 2.
Al l the maps and grap hs in th is docume nt have been create d by the CEAM Meteorolog y
an d P ollut ant Dynamics departm ent from th e N CEI data and graph s. T his repor t is l i-
ce nsed un d er an Aribu on -NonCom merci a l-NoDer ivav es 4.0 Inter naona l ( CC BY-NC-
ND 4.0) C reave Commo ns license ( h ps:/ /crea vecom mons. org/license s/by -nc-nd/4. 0/
le galco de).
Contact informaon
Web portal www.ceam.es/SST
Twier @CEAM_Meteo
Mail paco@ceam.es
Th e CEAM Found a on is sup p o rted by Ge n erali t at Va l encia n a
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