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The effect of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) ethanol extracts on the sexual hormones levels and sexual dynastic cells of Syrian adult male mice

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  • Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran.
Article

The effect of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) ethanol extracts on the sexual hormones levels and sexual dynastic cells of Syrian adult male mice

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Abstract

Background: Hops (Humulus lupulus L.) has industrial and medical applications and is used in the treatment of several diseases. Infertility is a medical important issue that its treatment with chemical medicines has various side effects. Due to fewer side effects of herbal medicines, yet little research has been done on the hops. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of hops extract on sexual hormone levels and sexual dynastic cells in Syrian adult male mice. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 40 Syrian adult male mice that were divided into 5 groups of 8: two controls groups and three experimental groups receiving various doses of hops extract (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg). Administrations were done by gavage for 35 days. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were taken from the heart of animals and testosterone, estrogen and progesterone levels was measured. Also, after isolation of mouse testis, the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatid were counted. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests. Results: The results showed that hop caused a significant increase in estrogen and testosterone levels and spermatogonia and spermatocytes cells number; but has no effect on progesterone levels. Conclusion: Hops extract, possibly by having phytoestrogen compounds and by stimulating LH secretion, increases estrogen and testosterone levels, and spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatid cells number. Therefore, further investigation on hops can utilize to help infertile men.

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... Studies have shown hop extracts administration to reduce behavioral despair in the forced swim test (FST) in rodents (Zanoli and Zavatti, 2008;Preedy, 2011), as well as ameliorate depression scores in young adults (Kyrou et al., 2017). While hops supplementation induces pro-estrogenic effects associated with increased E expression (Kazeruni et al., 2014), effects on testosterone (T) secretion have been contradictory (Kazeruni et al., 2014;Karbalaei et al., 2019). However, effects of hops exposure on sociability during development or adulthood remain largely unknown. ...
... Studies have shown hop extracts administration to reduce behavioral despair in the forced swim test (FST) in rodents (Zanoli and Zavatti, 2008;Preedy, 2011), as well as ameliorate depression scores in young adults (Kyrou et al., 2017). While hops supplementation induces pro-estrogenic effects associated with increased E expression (Kazeruni et al., 2014), effects on testosterone (T) secretion have been contradictory (Kazeruni et al., 2014;Karbalaei et al., 2019). However, effects of hops exposure on sociability during development or adulthood remain largely unknown. ...
... Indeed, BPA co-exposure with a series of dietary and naturally occurring compounds has strongly affected its related toxic and genomic effects (Sonavane and Gassman, 2019). In this context, existing studies support BPA and hop extracts to mediate hormonal and behavioral responses using similar physiological pathways (Poimenova et al., 2010;Kazeruni et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2015;Donoso et al., 2020). To date, the effects of adolescent BPA-hops co-exposure have not been studied. ...
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... In another study, it has been shown that Hops extract, possibly by having phytoestrogen compounds and by stimulating LH secretion, increases estrogen and testosterone levels, and spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatid cells number. Therefore, further investigation on hops can utilize to help infertile men (52). ...
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... In another study, it has been shown that Hops extract, possibly by having phytoestrogen compounds and by stimulating LH secretion, increases estrogen and testosterone levels, and spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatid cells number. Therefore, further investigation on hops can utilize to help infertile men (52). ...
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Reproductive systems in humans not only serve the birth and survival of generations, but also regulate many of the psychological and behavioral characteristics of humans. Regarding the side effects of chemical drugs used in the treatment of reproductive system disorders; this study was conducted to investigate the effect of medicinal plants on the performance of this system. In this review, an extensive literature search was conducted using relevant articles published between 2000 and 2018, and indexed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Scientific Information Database, and Islamic world science citation center (ISC) were studied. The search terms used to retrieve the articles were as follows: Herbal medical extract ،Names of medicinal plants, Reproductive System. The use of medical plants has been commonplace in ancient civilizations, and hence since ancient times plants have long been an important source of medicine. Research on herbal medicine in recent years has shown that plants such as, Ginseng, Ginger and Aloe Vera have formerly been used to treat reproductive system disorders. In the present study, the effects of 30 plant types on the treatment of reproductive system have been investigated. According to the results of this study, many medicinal plants have beneficial effects due to flavonoid and antioxidant compounds in the treatment of reproductive system disorders, as some also have a negative effect on the system, so the use of medicinal plants in this regard should be made under the supervision of a specialist physician
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Background & Objectives: In traditional medicine, the different parts of hops with the scientific name Humulus lupulus (Hops) are used for the treatment of various diseases including reproductive disorders. In addition, having a healthy child with the desired sex is ideal for most couples. Therefore, the study aimed to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of hops flower plant on sex ratio of Syrian newborn mice. Materials & Methods: In the experimental study, 80 mice weighing approximately 35 to 30 gr in the control, sham and experimental groups of male and female Syrian mice were studied. Each control group consisted of 8 mice; the experimental groups of male and female each consisting of 40 mice that were divided into three different experimental of eight 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Experimental groups received doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg alcoholic extract of hops flowers every day for 35 days by gavage. On the last prescribing day, the male and female mice mate together from different groups and after the offspring birth, their sex ratio was evaluated by the chi square test. Results: The findings showed that consumption of alcoholic extract of hops flowers significantly increases the proportion of male infants than female infants. Conclusion: Hops flowers extract might increase the serum levels of minerals such as potassium which in turn might lead to increased male to female ratio in infants possibly through altering the PH of the vagina area.Medical Journal of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services Vol. 38, No. 6, Feb. – Mar. 2017, Pages: 12-17
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Background: Humulus lupulus (Hops) is well-known throughout the world as the raw material in the brewing industry. In addition, hops have been found to have estrogenic and antioxidant properties. The object of this study aimed to examine the effects of hops during gestation and lactation on the onset of puberty, estrus cycle, reproductive organ weights and fertility index in female mice. Methods: 10 pregnant mice were exposed to hops at doses of 0 (control), 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg/ day, by gavage, from gestational days 7 to postnatal day 7. Female offspring (n=10) were analyzed for vaginal opening day, estrus cycle regularity, weights of the uterus and ovaries, and fertility index. Statistical analysis was carried out using one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests (p<0.05). Results: Vaginal opening day was significantly advanced by 100 (p<0.01) and 150 (p<0.001) hops. Duration mean of estrus cycle increased in 50 (p<0.05), 100 (p<0.001) and 150 (p<0.001) hops and diestrus index increased in 100 (p<0.001) and 150 (p<0.001). Decreased ovary weight in 100 (p<0.01) and 150 (p<0.01) hops and increased uterus weight in 50 (p<0.05), 100 (p<0.01) and 150 (p<0.01) hops were observed. In addition, fertility index in 100 (p<0.05) and 150 (p<0.01) hops decreased compared with control. Conclusion: The present study results showed that perinatal exposure to hops advanced the puberty, disrupted estrus cycle and decreased fertility in female offspring.
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To evaluate the influence of Humulus lupulus extract on sexual behavior in female rats. Ovariectomized rats hormonally primed with estradiol benzoate (1.5 μg/rat) and progesterone (500 μg/rat) were acutely treated by oral gavage with Humulus lupulus extract dosed at 5, 10 and 25mg/kg and then tested for partner preference and sexual receptivity. The administration of Humulus lupulus extract at the highest dose significantly increased the preference for the stimulus male during the partner preference test and the number of proceptive behaviors during the receptivity test, without affecting the lordosis response. Humulus lupulus extract increased sexual motivation in hormone-primed female rats.
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The study was conducted to evaluate the significance of preoperative clinical parameters for detection of mature testicular sperm cells in nonobstructive azoospermic men. Sixty-five consecutive men with nonobstructive azoospermia underwent testicular sperm extraction procedures. Testicular samples were analyzed histologically with patterns classified as mature spermatogenesis (normal or partial), arrest of spermatogenesis, and Sertoli cell only. Testicular sperm cells were isolated for use in an IVF/ICSI program. Histologic patterns and detection rate of sperm cells were correlated to clinical characteristics. Mature sperm cells were found in all levels of serum FSH. The men were divided into 3 groups based on their clinical characteristics (serum FSH level and testicular size). The distribution of the different testicular histologic patterns, as well as detection rate of sperm cells, was similar in all groups. No correlation was found between serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, or testosterone and sperm presence. None of these parameters, nor the testicular size and consistency, can serve as predictive variables of the histological pattern or the presence of mature sperm cells in the testicular biopsies in cases of nonobstructive azoospermia. Until an effective predictive tool is available, a trial of sperm retrieval is recommended for all azoospermic men independent of their clinical characteristics.
Article
Recent cell culture experiments indicated that extracts of Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) may contain yet unidentified phytoestrogens. Estrogenic actions are mediated via estrogen receptors (ER). To investigate whether VAC compounds bind to the currently known isoforms ERalpha or ERss, ligand binding assays (LBA) were performed. Subtype specific ER-LBA revealed a binding of VAC to ERss only. To isolate the ERss-selective compounds, the extract was fractionated by bio-guidance. The flavonoid apigenin was isolated and identified as the most active ERss-selective phytoestrogen in VAC. Other isolated compounds were vitexin and penduletin. These data demonstrate that the phytoestrogens in VAC are ERss-selective.
Article
As the population ages, there is an ever-increasing need for therapeutic agents that can be used safely and efficaciously to manage symptoms related to postmenopausal estrogen deficiency. Endogenous estrogens, e.g., 17beta-estradiol, of exogenous mammalian origin, e.g., horses, have long been used to manage such symptoms. There are more than 20 different classes of phytochemicals that have demonstrated affinity for human estrogen receptors in vitro. Some studies on exogenous estrogenic substances of botanical origin (phytoestrogens), such as standardized formulations of plant extracts with in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activity from soy (Glycine max Merill.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), suggest clinical efficacy. Few clinical data for phytoestrogens other than isoflavonoids are available. In an exhaustive review of the literature through 2003, only two clinical trials were identified that were designed to evaluate the effect of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on symptoms related to menopause. Folkloric, chemical, and biological literature relating primarily to the use of hops for their estrogenic activity, and two human clinical trials, are reviewed.
Article
This study investigated the changes in the urinary hormone levels of female monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after single-dose and long-term treatments with Pueraria mirifica (PM). The monkeys were separated into 3 groups (n=3) and orally treated with 10, 100, or 1,000 mg of PM in each group. Two series of experiments were performed. In the first series of experiments, the monkeys were orally treated with a single dose of PM. The experimental schedule was divided into a one menstrual cycle pretreatment period and a two menstrual cycle post-treatment period. In the second series of experiments, the monkeys were orally treated daily with PM for 90 days. The experiment schedule was divided into a one menstrual cycle pretreatment period, a three menstrual cycle treatment period, and a two menstrual cycle post-treatment period. Urinary samples were collected daily and assayed for the FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels. The results showed that there were no changes in the FSH, LH, estradiol, and progesterone levels after treatment with a single dose of 10, 100, or 1,000 mg of PM or after daily treatment with 10 mg of PM for 90 days compared with the levels observed during the pretreatment period. Daily treatment with 100 mg and 1,000 mg of PM for 90 days only produced a clear reduction in the urinary FSH levels. This suggests that changes of urinary FSH levels can be considered an indicator for study of estrogenic effects on hormonal levels in female monkeys.
The effect of (Anethum graveolens) seed alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in male wistar rats
  • M Salamatmanesh
  • A Shiravi
  • Heydari Nasrabady
Salamatmanesh M, Shiravi A, Heydari Nasrabady M. The effect of (Anethum graveolens) seed alcoholic extract on spermatogenesis in male wistar rats. Journal of Animal Biology. 2009; 1(2); 23-30. [Persian]
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Ghaffari F, Pourghaznin T, Mazloom SR. Hardiness, stress and coping strategies in infertile couples. Fundam Ment Health. 2008; 10(2):122-32.
Berek & Novak's gynecology. 15 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
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Berek JS, Novak E. Berek & Novak's gynecology. 15 th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2011.
The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats
  • L Hatami
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Hatami L, Estakhr J. The Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Matricaria Recutita on the Hormonal Pituitary-Testis Axis and Testis Tissue Changes of Mature Male Rats. JFUMS. 2013; 3(1): 56-62.[Persian]
Effect of palm pollen aqueous extract on the sexratio of offspring in mice strain BALB/c
  • S Hosseini
  • D Mehrabani
  • F Razavi
  • M Rafieirad
Hosseini S, Mehrabani D, Razavi F, RafieiRad M. Effect of palm pollen aqueous extract on the sexratio of offspring in mice strain BALB/c. Yafte. 2013;15(2): 121-8.
Hop (humulus lupulus)-derived bitter acids as multipotent bioactive compounds
  • M Van Cleemput
  • K Cattoor
  • De Bosscher
  • K Haegemen
  • G De Keukeleire
  • D Heyerick
Van Cleemput M,Cattoor K, De Bosscher K, Haegemen G, De Keukeleire D, Heyerick A. Hop (humulus lupulus)-derived bitter acids as multipotent bioactive compounds. J Nat Prod. 2009; 72(6),: 1220-30.