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The main aim of this study was to compare the historical profile of forest fires and to elaborate a risk zoning map for the regions of Londrina, Brazil, and Pisa, Italy in the period from 2005 to 2014. The records of fire occurrences were correlated with days of rain and temperature in the study areas. The results showed that 1,435 and 629 fires were recorded in the analyzed period, affecting areas of 3,220.4 and 1,550.8 ha in the regions of Londrina and Pisa, respectively. Data were then spaced in a risk zoning map. Fire occurrences and precipitation presented inverse correlation of 0.76 and 0.81 for Londrina and Pisa, respectively. Temperature showed direct correlation of 0.82 with fire occurrences for Pisa, and inverse correlation of 0.56 for Londrina. The analyzed data may serve as subside for planning fire prevention and combat activities.
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Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
ISSN 2179-8087 (online)
Original Article
Creative Commons License. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.
Comparison of Forest Fire Proles in Londrina,
Brazil and Pisa, Italy
João Francisco Labres dos Santos1 , Alexandre França Tetto1 ,
Andrea Bertacchi2 , Antonio Carlos Batista1 , Ronaldo Viana Soares1
1Universidade Federal do Paraná – UFPR, Curitiba/PR, Brasil
2Universitadegli Studi di Pisa Dipartimentodi Scienze Agrarie Alimentari e Agro-ambientali, Pisa/TO, Itália
The main aim of this study was to compare the historical profile of forest fires and to elaborate a
risk zoning map for the regions of Londrina, Brazil, and Pisa, Italy in the period from 2005 to 2014.
The records of fire occurrences were correlated with days of rain and temperature in the study
areas. The results showed that 1,435 and 629 fires were recorded in the analyzed period, affecting
areas of 3,220.4 and 1,550.8 ha in the regions of Londrina and Pisa, respectively. Data were then
spaced in a risk zoning map. Fire occurrences and precipitation presented inverse correlation
of 0.76 and 0.81 for Londrina and Pisa, respectively. Temperature showed direct correlation of
0.82 with fire occurrences for Pisa, and inverse correlation of 0.56 for Londrina. The analyzed
data may serve as subside for planning fire prevention and combat activities.
Keywords: precipitation, temperature, fire risk zoning, risk.
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Forest fires dramatically transform ecosystems.
Several factors are related to the occurrence of fires
and climate elements are among them, which have
a decisive influence on start and propagation of
fire (Fimia, 2009). Understanding the historical
behavior of precipitation associated with historical
information on various aspects regarding the origin
and behavior of fires are important for developing
forest fire control plans. This offers opportunities
to visualize different prevention scenarios (Cabán,
According to Myers (2006), every single ecosystem
on Earth potentially has a fire regime, a history
that has in some way affected the structure and
composition of species. Seasonal changes in weather
conditions also influence the moisture content of
live and dead fuel materials (Lara, 2009). Therefore,
precipitation distribution is critical for the start,
duration and end of most hazardous fire seasons
(Soares & Batista, 2007).
According to Nunesetal. (2009), precipitation is
a limiting factor in both re ignition and propagation,
and there is strong correlation between the occurrence
of large res and prolonged drought periods. In a
recent study, Liu & Wimberly (2015) reported that
precipitation has greater inuence on the occurrence
of res compared to temperature and humidity.
Sampaioetal. (2006) found that the region of Londrina
presents precipitation near zero in the months of July
and August. Similar behavior was reported by Stefanini
(2008) for the region of Pisa.
Due to the importance of understanding statistical
information regarding re occurrences over time for
the elaboration of prevention and re control plans and
in order to help compare proles, the hypothesis that
precipitation has preponderant inuence in dierent
regions of the planet was tested.
e aim of this study was to compare the proles
of forest res and the inuence of precipitation on
re occurrences in Londrina, mid-northern region
of the state of Paraná, Brazil, and in the province of
Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, as well as to develop a risk zoning
map for both regions.
2.1. Study area characterization
Two areas were selected to perform this study:
a) Four cities of the Metropolitan Region of Londrina,
state of Paraná, Brazil, as follows: Londrina,
Arapongas, Cambé and Rolândia, totaling an
area of 2,989.18 km2, located between coordinates
23°01’ and 23°56’ south latitude and 50°52’ and
51°35’ west longitude (Instituto Brasileiro de
Geograa e Estatísti ca – IBGE, 2015). According to
the Köppen classication, the region presents Cfa
climate characterized as temperate with year-round
rainfall and hot summer, with temperatures above
22°C in the warmer months and mean temperature
in the coldest months higher than or equal to
-3°C (Soaresetal., 2015), as shown in Figure1B.
Originally covered by Semi-deciduous Seasonal
Forest, this area is conditioned to a period of low
rainfall, causing the upper canopy of trees to lose
their leaves (Roderjanet al., 2002). According
to Hardestyet al. (2005), this is a re-sensitive
b) The province of Pisa, Tuscany, Italy, with
2,444.72 km2 located at coordinates 43°43’ north
latitude and 10°25’ east longitude (Istituto Nazionale
di Statistica- ISTAT, 2015), is in Csa climate
region according to the Köppen classication,
seasoned with hot and dry summers, maximum
temperatures above 22°C, and temperatures
below -3°C in the colder months (Kotteketal.,
2006) (Figure1A). e vegetation of the region is
basically composed of coniferous and broadleaf
forests, in which the latter are divided into two
large systems: deciduous broadleaf trees, which
lose their leaves in winter and are not very drought
resistant; and perennial xerophilic sclerophytes,
which maintain their leaves in winter. Another
form of vegetation very common but mainly
present on the coast is “macchia mediterranea”,
generally formed by perennial shrubs, which are
resistant to dry climate (Regione Toscana, 1998).
It is a re-dependent ecosystem (Hardestyetal.,
2.2. Methodological process
Fire database was provided by the Fire Department
of the state of Paraná (Comando do Corpo de
Bombeiros- CCB), through the SysBM-CCB, and by
the Servizio Antincendi Boschivi (AIB) of the Province
Comparison of Forest Fire...Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
Figure 1. Study areas and climographs of Londrina (A) and Pisa (B) in the period from 2005 to 2014. Sources: IBGE
(2015) and ISTAT (2015); Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET, 2015) and Servizio Agrometeorologico Regione
Toscana (ARSIA, 2015, prepared by the authors (2017).
of Pisa, Italy. Temperature and precipitation data were
provided by the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia
(INMET) and Servizio Agrometeorologico Regione
Toscana (ARSIA). Alldata refer to the period from
01/01/2005 to 12/31/2014, totaling 10 years of
observation. Data processing was performed with
the help of Microsoft Excel 2016 and the Statgraphics
Centurion XV software.
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Comparison of proles followed some methodological
elements recommended by Rodríguez (1999) and
Tettoetal. (2012). Temporal analysis was carried out
considering the following variables: re occurrence and
burnt area related to year and month, and further relating
them to rainy days and temperature for the period. Rainy
days with rainfall that accumulated precipitation above
2.4mm were considered (Soares, 1972).
e zoning map was developed according to
methodology applied by Bovio & Camia (1997), in
which 10 square kilometer areas are delimited in cities
and the obtained historical data are standardized and
distributed into Basic Units (BUs). Each basic unit
represents a city of the analyzed regions. To better
spatialize and interpret occurrences in the chosen
period, six variables were determined based on the
frequency of res and the aected area, namely: number
of res/BU/10 km
/year; number of res > 30 ha;
percentage of years with re (%); mean burned area by
one re occurrence (ha); median of the burned area by
one re (ha); maximum burned area by one re (ha).
Subsequently, BUs were distributed into classes
through cluster analysis using the Ward (1963) method.
Determining the number of classes for each region
was based on the fusion coecient of the Euclidean
distances of each sample, respecting the limit of ve
risk levels (null, low, medium, high and very high)
(Bovio & Camia, 1997) with the aid of the Statgraphics
Centurion XV soware. Based on analyzed variables,
spacing was performed using the ARCGIS 10.3 soware
Evaluating variable cause was not possible for
none of the regions, since it is not included in the
Fire Department System of Paraná, as remen do not
have attributes for such, as established in Article 45
of the State of Paraná Constitution (Paraná, 2006).
esituation is similar in the province of Pisa, in which
the Nuclei Investigativi Provinciali di Polizia Ambientale
e Forestale (NICAF) of the Corpo Forestale dello Stato are
responsible for the investigation (Corpo Forestale dello
Stato, 2015), while the Servizio Antincendi Boschivi is
responsible for monitoring, prevention and forecasting,
according to article 3 of law 353 from November 21,
2000 (Italia, 2000).
3.1. Number of re occurrences and aected
From 2005 to 2014, 1,435 re occurrences were
observed in Londrina, which aected 3,220.4 hectares.
During the same period, 629 re occurrences were
observed in Pisa, which aected 1,550.8 hectares
e average frequency of re records in Londrina
and Pisa was 143.5 and 62.9 res per year, respectively.
e highest values were observed from 2005 to 2008
and between 2010 and 2012 in Londrina, and 2011
and 2012 in Pisa. e lack of a well-dened public
policy for awareness in the use of controlled res in
agriculture contributes to the high number of occurrences
Figure 2. Composition of forest re risk zoning (FFRZ). Source: prepared by the authors (2017).
Comparison of Forest Fire...Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
in Londrina (Vosgerauetal., 2006). eburning of
vegetable waste for agriculture purposes follows specic
norms in Tuscany, which carries out trainings and
campaigns for the population, especially for farmers
who use this practice. is along with determined
risk zones based on the history of the region allow
rationalizing resources for prevention, and are factors
that contribute to reduce number of re occurrences
(Regione Toscana, 2014).
The annual mean burned areas in Londrina
and Pisa were 322.0 and 155.1 ha, respectively, with
emphasis on years 2006 in Londrina and 2009 in Pisa
for burned hectares. e mean of the burned areas
for Londrina and Pisa were 1.67 and 2.05 hectares
per re, respectively, highlighting the years 2006 for
Londrina and 2009 for Pisa, with the highest number
of hectares burned per occurrence. ese values are
higher than those found by Rodríguezetal. (2013)
for Brazil and Cuba.
It was observed that August presented an average
of 2.8 rainy days for Londrina (Figure3A) and 2.7 days
for Pisa (Figure 3C). Average temperatures showed
dierent behavior, with months of June and July being
the coldest for Londrina, and June to August as the
hottest months for Pisa, which is explained by their
location in dierent hemispheres.
is precipitation behavior caused an increase
in the number of re occurrences and aected areas.
ForLondrina, 47.52% of forest res occurred during
the period from July to September, and 90.93% of areas
were also aected in this period (Figure3B). In Pisa,
67.57% of forest res with 83.09% of areas aected
occurred in the same period (Figure3D).
In this study, greater correlation was observed
between number of re occurrences and rainy days
(r = -0.76 for Londrina and r = -0.81 for Pisa). For the
region of Londrina, smaller inverse correlation of 56%
was observed between number of re occurrences and
temperature. On the other hand, direct correlation of
82% was found between days with re occurrences
and temperature for Pisa. As evidenced by Torresetal.
(2011), rainfall distribution and re occurrences show
inverse relationship for both areas and when associated
with high temperatures, as observed in Pisa, it is better
correlated with re occurrences.
According to Liu & Wimberly (2015), climatic
elements have weak inuence on the size of forest
res. is can be observed in the region of Londrina,
where the burned area presented low inverse correlation
with rainy days (r= -0.50) and temperature (r= -0.28).
However, correlation of r = -0.68 was observed between
burned area and precipitation in Pisa, and r= 0.70 when
related to temperature, showing that these variables,
especially temperature, inuence re propagation.
3.2. Historical zoning
Historical variables were grouped into 5 re risk
levels for the region of Pisa, while Londrina has 2 risk
levels, both at high risk of re. Table2 shows the mean
values for historical class for each region.
Table 1. Forest re occurrences in Londrina and Pisa in the period from 2005 to 2014.
Yea r
Londrina Pisa
Fire occurrences Area Mean Fire occurrences Area Mean
nº % ha % (ha/re) nº % ha % (ha/re)
2005 174 12.13 31.0 0.96 0.18 48 7.63 92.6 5.97 1.93
2006 218 15.19 2486.9 77.22 11.41 58 9.22 61.6 3.97 1.06
2007 211 14.70 181.6 5.64 0.86 69 10.97 52.6 3.39 0.76
2008 135 9.41 63.3 1.97 0.47 54 8.59 85.1 5.49 1.58
2009 65 4.53 58.7 1.82 0.90 75 11.92 642.8 41.45 8.57
2010 150 10.45 124.7 3.87 0.83 28 4.45 10.8 0.69 0.38
2011 186 12.96 143.0 4.44 0.77 114 18.12 201.7 13.01 1.77
2012 115 8.01 54.2 1.68 0.47 123 19.55 352.9 22.76 2.87
2013 98 6.83 47.7 1.48 0.49 44 7.00 39.7 2.56 0.90
2014 83 5.78 29.2 0.91 0.35 16 2.54 10.9 0.71 0.68
Tota l 1435 100.00 3220.4 100.00 - 629 100.00 1550.8 100.00 -
Mean 143.5 - 322.0 - 1.67 62.9 - 155.1 - 2.05
Source: CCB (2015) and AIB (2015), prepared by the authors (2017).
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Figure 3. Rainfall distribution, temperature, re occurrence and burned areas per month in Londrina (A and B)
and Pisa (C and D) in the period from 2005 to 2015. Sources: INMET (2015), ARSIA, (2015), CCB (2015) and AIB
(2015), prepared by the authors (2016).
Table 2. Fire occurrence variables calculated for Londrina and Pisa.
No. of
Number of
10 km2/year
Number of
res> 30 ha
of years with
forest res
burned area
in one re
Median of
the burned
area in
one re
burned area
in one re
3 4 0.74 0.81 0 0 100 0 0.77 0.56 0.11 0.16 30.7 15.14
1 5 0.58 3 100 11.26 0.05 2400
1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 0.09 0 10 7 7 7
27 3 0.22 0.17 0 0 52 25.62 1.37 1.17 0.37 0.55 10.1 14.03
3 4 1.45 0.4 0 0 100 0 0.37 0.55 0.05 0.38 18.7 15.96
4 5 0.37 0.43 1 0 60 0 10.04 14.03 0.38 1.74 123.3 0.49
Sources: CCB (2015) and AIB (2015), prepared by the authors (2017). Note: Number of BUs: number of provinces/municipalities in
Londrina and Pisa according to risk classes. Classes: 1 (null), 2 (low), 3 (medium), 4 (high) and 5 (very high).
For the region of Pisa, Class 2 presented irregular
distribution in the occurrences of res due to the low
number of years with res (10%) and the number of
forest res per basic unit.
Class 3 presented the highest number of cities and
mean and median values of burned areas, as well as
for the maximum burned area. is situation did not
occur in Londrina, which presented classes with high
Comparison of Forest Fire...Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
means of burned area and maximum area burned per
re occurrence.
Class 5 represented cities that historically have
high risk of re; both Pisa and Londrina are similar
due to the high number of maximum burnt areas
(123.3 and 2400 ha). It was observed that only one
re occurrence with > 30 ha of burned area occurred
in Pisa, while three occurred in Londrina.
e region of Londrina presented the two highest
re risk levels (Figure4), which was due to the large
extensions of basic units and probably to the use of re
in agriculture. Basic unit that makes up class 5 represents
very high re risk level due to the occurrence of res
throughout the period and the maximum area burned
by a single re was 2400.0 ha. While carrying out a
risk zoning map according to demographic density,
Batistaetal. (2014) veried that the region of Cambé
was within the highest risk class.
Four basic units were grouped in Pisa with mean
burned area (10.04 ha) similar to that found for class5
in Londrina (11.26 ha) (Figure5).
e presence of Pisan Mountains in the city of Calci
contributes to frequent re occurrences (Di Renzoetal.,
2012), conguring it as a region of very high re risk.
e same occurs with Bientina and Santa Maria a
Monte, which comprise the area of the Montefalcone
State Nature Reserve, where Cerbaia hills are located
(Lisaetal., 2015). Another important factor in these
areas is the prevalence of “macchie sclerolle sempreverdi
(Mediterranean vegetation of evergreen sclerophylls)
oen mixed with easily ignitable Pinus pinaster L.
(Pinaceae) species (Bertacchietal., 2004), which leads
to the occurrence of severe res with high propagation
rates (Viedmaetal., 2015). e central belt extending
from Pisa to Pomarance has medium risk level, which
may be related to the existence of pasture areas and
Figure 4. Historical risk zoning for Londrina in the period from 2005 to 2014. Sources: IBGE (2015) and CCB
(2015), prepared by the authors (2016). Note: 1 (Londrina), 2 (Arapongas), 3 (Rolândia) and 4 (Cambé).
8/10 Santos JFL, Tetto AF, Bertacchi A, Batista AC, Soares RV Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
Figure 5. Historical risk zoning for Pisa in the period from 2005 to 2015. Sources: ISTAT (2015) and AIB
(2015), prepared by the authors (2016). Note: 1 (Bientina), 2 (Buti), 3 (Calci), 4 (Calcinaia), 5 (Capannoli),
6(Casale Marittimo), 7 (CascianaTerme – Lari), 8 (Cascina), 9 (Castelfranco Di Sotto), 10 (CastellinaMarittima),
11 (Castelnuovo Di Val Di Cecina), 12 (Chianni), 13 (Crespina – Lorenzana), 14 (Fauglia), 15 (Guardistallo),
16(Lajatico), 17 (Montecatini Val diCecina), 18 (Montescudaio), 19 (MonteverdiMarittimo), 20 (Montopoli In Val
D’arno), 21 (OrcianoPisano), 22 (Palaia), 23 (Peccioli), 24 (Pisa), 25 (Pomarance), 26(Ponsacco), 27 (Pontedera),
28(Riparbella), 29 (San Giuliano Terme), 30 (San Miniato), 31 (Santa Croce Sull’arno), 32 (Santa Luce), 33(Santa
Maria a Monte), 34 (Terriciolla), 35 (Vecchiano), 36 (Vicopisano) and 37(Volterra).
the use of re to clear the land (Lovreglioetal., 2012).
e provinces of Vecchiano, Terricciolaand Volterra
were grouped into the high and very high risk classes,
which is dierent from what is observed in practice,
and this dierence was due to the occurrence of large
res during the period. Such information opens
the possibility for further investigations. e city of
Casale Marittimo was the only with no records of
re occurrences during the study period; therefore,
it corresponds to null risk level.
e hypothesis that precipitation is a preponderant
factor in distinct regions has shown to be partially true
for both study areas.
i) Precipitation was a predominant factor for the
occurrence of res in Londrina; however, better
correlation was observed in Pisa when the dry
season was associated with elevated temperatures;
ii) It was possible to compare the historical prole
of forest res in both regions according to the
number of occurrences, burnt area, temperature
and precipitation;
iii) Londrina presented higher re risk as evidenced
by the zoning with higher risk classes, while the
Pisa region had distribution with greater number
of cities within moderate risk class.
To CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de
Pessoal de Nível Superior) for funding this research.
e authors would also like to thank UFPR (Universidade
Comparison of Forest Fire...Floresta e Ambiente 2019; 26(2): e20170607
Federal do Paraná) and UNIPI (Università di Pisa),
for their support in carrying out this work, also the
Fire Department of the state of Paraná (Comando
do Corpo de Bombeiros - CCB) and the Servizio
Antincendi Boschivi (AIB) of the Province of Pisa,
for providing the database.
Received: 29 nov., 2016
Accepted: 12 mar., 2018
João Francisco Labres dos Santos
Divisão de Ciências Agrárias, Universidade
Federal do Paraná – UFPR, Av. Pref. Lothário
Meissner, 900, CEP 80210-170, Curitiba, PR,
e-mail: jo
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... De forma similar, en Londrina, Brasil, y en Pisa, Italia, de 2005 a 2014 la época de incendios se ubicó de julio a septiembre. En ambas regiones, julio y agosto se encuentran al final de la época de menores precipitaciones, las cuales comienzan en septiembre (Santos et al., 2019). En el Estado de Paraná, Brasil, de 2005 a 2010 la mayor cantidad de incendios ocurrió de junio a septiembre, asociado esto a que los menores valores medios de precipitación pluviométrica se presentaron durante los meses de mayo, junio y agosto (Tetto et al., 2012). ...
... Durante el período 2002-2011 la media del área quemada por incendio en Pinar del Río, Cuba, fue de 18.90, valor similar al obtenido en esta investigación para los dos últimos sub-periodos y muy superior al obtenido para Monte Alegre, Brasil, que fue de 0.46 ha por incendio(Ramos et al., 2013). En Londrina, Brasil, y Pisa, Italia, durante el periodo 2005-2014 se reportaron valores medios de 1.67 y 2.05 ha quemadas por incendio, respectivamente,(Santos et al., 2019), los cuales son inferiores a los obtenidos en esta investigación. ...
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Comprender la evolución de las causas de los incendios permite realizar un trabajo objetivo de prevención. Esta investigación analiza la causalidad de los incendios forestales en Pinar del Río, Cuba (1975-2018). Los análisis se realizaron considerando sub-periodos, meses del año y vegetación afectada. En el periodo ocurrieron 2896 incendios y se quemaron 51 217.75 hectáreas. Los incendios originados por causas antropogénicas, principalmente las negligencias, mostraron una tendencia al aumento en el tiempo, contrario a lo ocurrido para el caso de los rayos. Esta evolución determinó que la época de incendios cambiara de marzo a junio en el sub-periodo 1975-1985, y pasara a presentarse de marzo a mayo en el sub-periodo 2008-2018. No obstante, la época donde más incendios ocurren por cada causa de forma individual no cambió durante los 44 años analizados. Estos resultados permitirán perfeccionar el trabajo de prevención de incendios forestales.
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Forest fires represent significant environmental, economic, and social damage in many countries. Historical knowledge of their characteristics aids in making preventive decisions, as well as fighting forest fires. However, the general data of fires in Paraná are outdated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the forest fires in the state of Paraná in 2018 and 2019, surveying the following information: municipality and region affected; month and day of occurrence; and vegetation type. To this end, data obtained from the Paraná Fire Department through the SysBMNew-CCB platform were analyzed. The fire density by region was verified and compared through cluster analysis. Compared to the previous year, 2019 showed a 42.25% increase in the number of fires. In both years, most forest fires occurred in the North-central region, followed by the Metropolitan Region of Curitiba. The municipality of Curitiba recorded the highest number of fires in both years. According to the Fire Department classification, the vegetation type most affected by the fires was vacant lots. From the data obtained, we verified the need for environmental education measures aimed at the prevention of fires in vacant lots. Further research is recommended so that a profile of forest fires can be traced in the state and thus base prevention and control measures.
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Esta investigación tiene por objetivo establecer las bases metodológicas para el perfeccionamiento de la prevención contra los incendios forestales, a partir de la evaluación de su comportamiento histórico como elemento fundamental para su materialización. En el desarrollo del trabajo queda fundamentada teóricamente la importancia que tienen estas evaluaciones y se valoran los elementos que deben caracterizarlas. De acuerdo con lo anterior y teniendo en cuenta la experiencia acumulada en el mundo y en el país en cuanto a la prevención de los incendios, se establecen las bases metodológicas, estructuradas en tres etapas fundamentales: • Obtención y procesamiento de la información estadística. • Evaluación del comportamiento histórico de los incendios forestales. • Formulación de las medidas preventivas. Las principales conclusiones a las que se arriban son las siguientes: • Se establecen las bases metodológicas para el perfeccionamiento de la prevención contra los incendios forestales, demostrándose la factibilidad de su aplicación en la provincia de Pinar del Río al obtenerse un efecto económico positivo derivado de la posibilidad de evitar la pérdida cada año de $ 46 040,00 pesos, además de contribuirse al logro del manejo forestal sostenible y a la protección del medio ambiente. • Se utilizaron distintas pruebas estadísticas que confieren a los análisis un adecuado rigor científico y se automatizó el diseño y manejo de bases de datos sobre incendios forestales, lo que no se había desarrollado hasta el momento en el país, lo cual posibilita disminuir el tiempo y el costo de las evaluaciones sobre el comportamiento histórico de los incendios forestales y aumenta su precisión.
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An improved understanding of the relative influences of climatic and landscape controls on multiple fire regime components is needed to enhance our understanding of modern fire regimes and how they will respond to future environmental change. To address this need, we analyzed the spatio-temporal patterns of fire occurrence, size, and severity of large fires (> 405 ha) in the western United States from 1984–2010. We assessed the associations of these fire regime components with environmental variables, including short-term climate anomalies, vegetation type, topography, and human influences, using boosted regression tree analysis. Results showed that large fire occurrence, size, and severity each exhibited distinctive spatial and spatio-temporal patterns, which were controlled by different sets of climate and landscape factors. Antecedent climate anomalies had the strongest influences on fire occurrence, resulting in the highest spatial synchrony. In contrast, climatic variability had weaker influences on fire size and severity and vegetation types were the most important environmental determinants of these fire regime components. Topography had moderately strong effects on both fire occurrence and severity, and human influence variables were most strongly associated with fire size. These results suggest a potential for the emergence of novel fire regimes due to the responses of fire regime components to multiple drivers at different spatial and temporal scales. Next-generation approaches for projecting future fire regimes should incorporate indirect climate effects on vegetation type changes as well as other landscape effects on multiple components of fire regimes.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the response of the soil microarthropod community to wildfire in forest ecosystems. The edaphic microarthropod communities of pine stands burned in 2001, in 2009, both in 2001 and in 2009, in 2012 were compared to an area never burned. Sampling was conducted in the spring and autumn of 2011 and 2012 in the areas burned in 2001, in 2009 and those never burned, while in the area burned in 2012, soil samples were collected in March (10 days after fire), June and September. The abundance and biodiversity of the microarthropod community were assessed. A multitemporal analysis was also carried out to assess the effect of fire on soil microarthropod abundance 5 months, 2-3 years and 10-11 years after fire. The results showed that the abundance of edaphic microarthropod communities decreased dramatically in areas burned twice, but also in areas burned once in 2009 and five months after the fire in the area burned in 2012. Different taxonomic groups did not seem to respond to fire in the same way, some taxa being more sensitive than others. Pseudoscorpionida decreased in both the short and the long-term, while Diplopoda, Thysanoptera and Symphyla showed a reduction in the intermediate- and long-term. In the short-term, Diptera and Coleoptera larvae appeared to be the most influenced taxonomic groups. Our study shows that biomonitoring is a valuable tool to investigate the reaction of forest ecosystems to fire, and that edaphic microarthropods can provide interesting answers about the direct and indirect effects of fire on soil.
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Resumo O Paraná possui a terceira maior área de cultivos florestais do país. Uma das preocupações com a cobertura vegetal existente está relacionada com os danos causados pela ocorrência de incêndios florestais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o número e época de ocorrência de incêndios, a área atingida e as principais regiões do estado impactadas por esses eventos. Para isso foram analisados os dados do Corpo de Bombeiros do Estado, no período de 2005 a 2010. Os resultados permitiram concluir que nesse período ocorreram 54.793 incêndios, que atingiram 172.130 ha. O período normal de ocorrência de incêndios se concentrou nos meses de junho a setembro, com 52,5% dos registros. O maior impacto, com relação à vegetação atingida, se deu nos meses de julho a setembro, com 76,0% da área. A região mais atingida foi a noroeste, com 30,4% das ocorrências, seguida pela nordeste, com 17,3%. Em termos de área atingida, o destaque se dá para o noroeste, com 65,6% da área atingida, seguida pela sudoeste, com 19,0%. Conclui-se que a região norte foi a mais sujeita à ocorrência de incêndios florestais, em função dos fatores ambientais associados aos incêndios, sobretudo o clima, a tipologia florestal e o uso do fogo em práticas agropecuárias. Palavras-chave: Área queimada; estação normal de perigo de incêndios; prevenção. Abstract Forest fire occurrence in Parana State, in the period 2005 to 2010. Parana holds the third largest area of forest plantations in the country. One of the concerns about the existing vegetation is related to the damages caused by forest fires. This research aimed to determine the fire season, the number of fire occurrences, the burned area, and the main state regions affected by these events. The analyzed data were collected from the State Fire Department, from 2005 to 2010. The results showed that in the analyzed period 54,793 fires, affecting 172,130 ha, were recorded.The main fire season was concentrated in the months of June to September, with 52.5% of the recorded occurrences. The biggest impact to the vegetation occurred in the months of July to September, with 76.0% of the affected area.The northwest region was the most affected, with 30.4% of the occurrences, followed by the northeast, with 17.3%. Regarding the affected area, the northwest region, with 65.6% of the total, run in first place, followed by the southwest, with 19.0%. The results allowed to conclude that the northern region was more susceptible to the occurrence of forest fires, due to environmental factors associated to the fires, like climate characteristics, vegetation cover, and the use of fire in agricultural practices. Keywords : Affected area; fire season; prevention.
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It is important to determine where, when and why forest fires occur in order to structure the prevention and suppression within economically viable limits. This research was developed in order to compare the historical behavior of forest fires in the period 2002 to 2011 in the Forest District of Monte Alegre, Paraná State, Brazil, and forestry companies in the province of Pinar del Río, Cuba. Spatial and temporal distributions of fire occurrence were considered and the efficiency of fire control service was analyzed. Records of fire occurrence were provided by Klabin S/A and the Forest Department of Pinar del Río. The results revealed a higher number of occurrences and a lower burned area in Monte Alegre. The fires were concentrated from the month of August to October (77.97% of total) in Monte Alegre and March-May (86.80%) in Pinar del Río. The most affected vegetation in both regions was "Pinus spp" and the main cause of the occurrence was "incendiary" (71.66% of total) in Monte Alegre and "lightning" (39.26%) in Pinar del Río. There was a similarity in the fire profile for the two regions, except in the fire season.
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Este trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de dados meteorológicos de precipitação mensal e número de dias de chuva no período de 1947 a 2005. Foi realizado um estudo do comportamento da precipitação na região do Distrito Florestal de Monte Alegre, verificando sua variação ao longo do tempo. Foram analisados a precipitação média mensal, o número de dias de chuva e a precipitação média por dia de chuva (mm) em termos de seus valores médios, mínimos e máximos e desvio padrão, para o período de 1947 a 2005. Esses dados foram agrupados em períodos de 10 anos, tendo sido feito um estudo da evolução da precipitação para esses períodos. Observou-se um aumento no número de dias de chuva por ano, a partir da década 1947–1956 para a década 1997–2005. Para a década de 1947–1956, o número médio de dias de chuva foi 96,6 dias. Na década seguinte (1957–1966), esse valor caiu para 90,2 dias. Na década de 1987–1996 foi de 108,6, e na década de 1997–2005 esse valor foi de 108,1. Os resultados indicam um crescimento de 11,5 dias anuais de precipitação.
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Forest fires are global phenomena resulting from the interaction between climate, fuels and human activities. There is an expectation of most researchers that changes in climate over the next 100 years will cause a major impact on forest ecosystems. The aim of this study was to determine, by decade, the zoning of forest fire risk for the state of Paraná, based on the scenarios predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. For this maps of vegetation were used, fuel moisture, Monte Alegre Formula (FMA), slope, altimetry, slope orientation, population density and road systems. This information, after being classified according to the risk of fire hazard, were weighted in a mathematical model. The determined values were then used to compose the Forest Fires Zoning Risk (ZRIF) per decade for the State. It was observed that for the best scenario, which considers an increase of 1.8 ºC in the average temperature of the Earth by year 2100, there will be an increase in class extreme risk of forest fires, rising from 1.80% of the area of the State in 2020 to 8.49% in 2100. The same applies to the class of very high risk, which rises from 10.43% (2020) to 32.38% (2100). For the worst scenario, which considers an increase of 4.0 ºC in the average temperature of the Earth by 2100, the class of extreme risk rises from 2.18% (2020) to 22.72% (2100). The higher risk class rises from 13.93% (2020) to 55.95% (2100). If the IPCC predictions were confirmed, there will be an increase in the number of occurrences and areas affected by forest fires in the state of Paraná, which will require integrated actions to prevent and supress forest fires to minimize environmental damage, social and economic. Keywords: climate oscillations, forest fuel, Monte Alegre Formula, fuel moisture, forest fire zoning of risk.
The percentage of forest fires of unknown origin, accounting in Italy for about 40% of the total number, hampers any attempt of efficacious prevention based on modification of causes. This work deals with the implementation of a simple though promising technique of motivation survey aimed at reducing such percentage, the Delphi method, a grouping technique using estimates from a panel of experts and feedback summaries from preceding responses for additional estimates. Sitting between knowledge and speculation, the informed deliberations of the panel of experts may be considered an informed judgment. Delphi surveys were carried out by CFS (National Forestry Service) in 23 of the most affected provinces, involving several panel of experts for a total of 1000 people, all of them on duty in the Forestry Stations of the Service. Results highlighted a remarkable prevalence of involuntary versus voluntary fires (54% and 42%, respectively). The panels of experts provided fairly homogeneous and convergent answers based on few motives, the majority of fire ignitions were attributed to: (i) creation or renewal of pastures; (2) residues elimination, including stubble burning; (iii) increasing the yield of wild plant foods; (iv) poaching probably related to limitation of hunting use and access control. The most recurrent motivations represent traditional uses of fire by rural societies. Other motivations presented less significant and negligible values. Cluster analysis clearly put in evidence that similar motivations characterize small and homogeneous groups of provinces, supporting the evidence that fire motivations are site and culture specific phenomena.