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Solar Panel's Current-Voltage Characteristics

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This article checks the relation between current-voltage characteristics, to evaluate the impact of solar radiation and temperature on the productivity of a solar photovoltaic module. Photovoltaic systems have become an urgent requirement to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce air pollutants from burning. In Iraq, this rich country in fossil fuels such as natural gas and crude oil, is suffering from a shortage of electricity supplies and long hours of disruption. It seems that the solution using natural gas or diesel plants is no longer feasible and switching to photovoltaic stations is the best option to this day. The results of the study showed that the current is affected slightly by the increase in the radiation intensity whilethe module voltages is affectedhighly by the intensity of radiation, especially when the load on the cell is increasedcausing an increase in power produced.
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International Journal of Trend in Research and Development, Volume 6(3), ISSN: 2394-9333
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Solar Panel's Current-Voltage Characteristics
1Khaleel I Abass, 2Ali A K Al-Waeli and 3Kadhem A N Al-Asadi,
1Mechanical Eng. Dept., University of Technology-Iraq
2Ibn Rushed College, Baghdad University, Iraq
3Education College for Human Science, University of Basra, Iraq
Abstract-This article checks the relation between current-
voltage characteristics, to evaluate the impact of solar radiation
and temperature on the productivity of a solar photovoltaic
module. Photovoltaic systems have become an urgent
requirement to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and reduce
air pollutants from burning. In Iraq, this rich country in fossil
fuels such as natural gas and crude oil, is suffering from a
shortage of electricity supplies and long hours of disruption. It
seems that the solution using natural gas or diesel plants is no
longer feasible and switching to photovoltaic stations is the
best option to this day. The results of the study showed that the
current is affected slightly by the increase in the radiation
intensity whilethe module voltages is affectedhighly by the
intensity of radiation, especially when the load on the cell is
increasedcausing an increase in power produced.
Keywords - PV Module, Solar Radiation, Temperature,
Voltage, Current.
I. INTRODUCTION
Iraq (a country rich in natural resources such as oil and natural
gas) suffers from significant problems in the processing of
electricity to citizens. The power outages for long hours caused
the Iraqi citizens to rely on generators running by diesel and
gasoline [1]. The use of these generators has been aggravated
by air pollution (already contaminated and hard). The
extraction of crude oil has caused significant pollution in the
atmosphere of Iraq because of the spread of oil wells
throughout the country [2]. Rainfall lack for more than two
decades has caused the Fertile Crescent (Mesopotamia) to turn
into a source of dust to Iraq and neighboring countries [3]. It
also increased the salinity of water in the rivers and thus
reduced the large cultivated areas [4].Also, Iraq has suffered
from many wars that caused the destruction and deterioration
of services, especially for power generation facilities [5].
The shift towards the use of renewable energies in electricity
production has become very vital in Iraq to reduce the
environmental impact of excessive combustion of fossil fuels
[6]. Some may consider wind power to be limited in certain
parts of Iraq, making it useless [7]. Many consider the use of
solar energy to produce heat and electricity in Iraq necessary
and successful, as Iraq's environment is characterized by high
solar radiation is very high because of the country is located
next to the solar belt [8]. Solar heat can be used to heat
domestic water [9], solar distillation [10-13], heating air for
comfort purposes [14, 15], and heating Trombe wall for
ventilation and heating rooms [16-18].Electricity can be
produced using solar chimney [19], concentrated solar power
plants [20], and photovoltaic cells [21]. Among these
applications, photovoltaic cells are considered the most
acceptable, because of their high elasticity, which can be
operated in various areas of Iraq topography, desert,
mountains, and green plains [22]. It can also work in areas far
from the national grid [23].
In addition to the possibility of installation PV modules in
different areas, its applications are multiple, for example it can
be set for street lighting [24], health clinics [25], electricity
telecommunication towers [26], pumping systems [27], and
lighting cars parking [28]. Dependence on electricity produced
from photovoltaic cells is determined by the weather
conditions as they are affected by solar radiation [29, 30], air
temperature [31, 32], relative humidity [33, 34], wind [35],
shadow [36], dust [39, 40], and other factors such as air mass
[41], and tilt angle [42].
The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of a particular
photovoltaic (PV) cell module or array are giving a detailed
description of its solar energy conversion ability and
efficiency. Knowing the electrical I-V characteristics (more
importantly (Pmax) of a solar cell, or panel is critical in
determining the device’s output performance and solar
efficiency[43].
The main electrical characteristics of a PV cell or module are
summarized in the relationship between the current and
voltage produced on a typical solar cell I-V characteristics
curve[44]. A large part of the solar radiation falling on the
solar cell turns into heat while the smaller part of the radiation
turns into electricity. Increasing the intensity of solar radiation
to the photovoltaic cell turns into (I), while increases in the
temperature of the solar cell reduce its voltage (V).
In this study, I-V and P-V properties were tested for an in-vitro
photoelectric unit to assess the possibility of using such
techniques in the solar radiation environment in Iraq. Iraq is
characterized by high solar radiation, which is an average of
460 W/m2 in winter and reaches 1000 W/m2in summer.
II. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
A. Effect of Light Intensity
Figure 1 shows the characteristics of the I-V curve of a
photovoltaic cell system with a light intensity of 1000, 800 and
500 W / m 2. The figure shows a significant difference in the
characteristics of V-I
Figure 1: V-I Characteristics of Solar Cell under Several Solar
Radiation Intensity
Photovoltaic cells change as the intensity of the solar radiation
reaches them. The resulting current is proportional to the flow
of photons of light energy, while the difference of the open
circuit voltage increases logarithmically as the light intensity
increases.
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To evaluate the performance of an array of PV cells, attention
should be paid to the sequence and transition resistors, which
can be considered very important in this assessment because of
their direct effect on the solar cell filler (FF). The filler is
defined as the power ratio at the maximum power point (MPP)
divided by the short circuit current (Isc) and the voltage of the
open circuits (Voc). From this definition, the refill factor (FF)
can be considered as a measure of a distinctive I-V curve, and
by moving away from this curve, the efficiency of the PV
array becomes impaired.
The internal losses of the semiconductor layer resulting from
communication describe the RS resistance series. These losses
directly affect the forward shape of the I-V solar system
around the MPP and thus fill the filler. The effect of
degradation on short circuit current (Isc) by increasing the
chain resistance is obviuos. This is evident when the radiation
density is high, while the open circuit voltage remains
unaffected. This feature is undesirable as it causes a reduction
in peak power and results in degradation of the efficiency of
the PV system.
The RP (or parallel) resistivity represents the currents of the
leakage of electrons from the surface of the solar cell via PN
junctions. This transformation affects the slope of the
characteristic I-V curve near the short circuit current point and
results in the deterioration of the FF. This deterioration in
general has a practical effect on the efficiency of the solar cell
system less than the resistance of the chain. Low conversion
resistance results in higher open loop decay especially under
low voltages, and there is no effect on short circuit current in
this case. Resistivity is directly affected by solar radiation
absorbed in the short circuit current. When the absorbed
radiation is increased, the slope of the characteristic I-V curve
decreases near the short circuit current point and the effective
conversion resistance decreases proportionately.
A. Simulation and experimental results
Figure 2 represents the characteristic curves of I-V and P-V for
a 250V-rated PV system when changing the intensity of solar
radiation and cell temperature. In this case, the temperature
was set at 25 ° C and the intensity of the solar radiation was
changed by 200, 600, 1000 W/m2. Experimental data obtained
using current and voltage measurement devices enabled the I-
V curve to be plotted for the studied units.
Figure 2: V-I and P-VCharacteristics of Solar Cell Affected by
Different Temperature and Solar Radiation
Using the curves of Fig. 2, a specific point is found where the
MPP is maximized. This point depends entirely on the
maximum or optimal solar radiation intensity. The PV output
characteristic curve is divided into two parts: the left part: The
source at which the output current approaches the constant,
and the right part: the voltage source area where the output
voltage is barely changed. The MPP point changes by
changing the intensity of the solar radiation, the angle of the
cell's tilt, and the temperature of the cell itself. It is always
recommended to operate PV systems in MPP (shaded area)
mode to optimize the system output. This method requires
constant modification to face the solar cells and perpendicular
to the sun to reach maximum power output.
B. Equipment
The solar panel used in the tests incorporates a module of (85
W, 12 V). It contains a sensor for the Irradiation and
Temperature. These sensors are Red and Black; to provide the
solar panel power output. Also, the 5-pin terminal provides
irradiation and temperature data. To make it easy to be
handled, the light weight solar module is placed on wheels.
Side of the panel contains a meter for measuring the angle of
the solar panel inclination towards the horizontal surface.The
solar irradiation intensity and the PV temperature sensors used
in the tests were type DELLENZO. These sensors are used to
transfer the heat and the irradiation from the Solar Source
using the connections to the DL Solar device.
Figure3: Solar Panel Equipment Used.
D. Tests procedure
1. Change the light from (100 ,75, 50, and 25)
2. Change the resistances from 0 to 1000 Ω and take
reading of power, current, and voltage.
3. Draw a relationship between current and voltage.
4. Draw a relationship between power and voltage.
III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The tests were conducted to evaluate the impact of temperature
and radiation on PV module inside the laboratory. Table 1
shows thedaily generated power with changing the light
intensity (25, 50, 75 and 100 W).The PV module outcomes are
positively affected by solar radiation intensity while the
temperature effect is negative.The tests results reveals that the
impact of solar radiation increase voltage with increasing the
load resistance on the module while its effect on current is low.
Figure 4 is known as an I-V curve, it shows how current and
voltage relate to each other in each of the four colors lines is
describes the behavior of radiation, the above graph shows I/V
curves for four different time that is the current presents a
slightly descending behavior until it reaches to down and its
decreases quickly into reach to zero, also we found the
maximum current is 0.22 amps. On the other hand, Figure 5
known as a P-V curve where we get the maximum power is
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equal to 3.2 Watts, we noted when the power is increased the
voltage will increase for four different lights intensities. In
general, the PV module output power is increased with
elevated solar radiation intensity. This outcome power increase
is related tovoltage increase.
Table 1: data from experiment
Light at (100)
Light at (50)
Ω
I
V
P
I
V
P
0
0.21
0.4
0
0.15
0.04
0
1
0.22
0.2
0
0.15
0.13
0
2
0.22
0.44
0.1
0.15
0.25
0
3
0.22
0.57
0.1
0.15
0.31
0
5
0.22
0.84
0.2
0.15
0.45
0.1
10
0.22
1.98
0.4
0.15
1.05
0.2
20
0.22
3.76
0.8
0.15
2.17
0.3
30
0.22
5.13
1.1
0.15
2.87
0.4
50
0.22
9.42
2
0.15
5.37
0.8
100
0.2
15.39
3.1
0.15
9.28
1.4
200
0.16
17.81
2.8
0.14
14.08
2
300
0.12
18.58
2.2
0.11
16.71
1.9
500
0.1
18.81
1.9
0.1
17.16
1.7
1K
0.08
18.98
1.6
0.08
17.61
1.5
Light at (75)
Light at (25)
Ω
I
V
P
I
V
P
0
0.19
0.04
0
0.11
0.03
0
1
0.19
0.21
0
0.11
0.08
0
2
0.19
0.4
0.1
0.11
0.12
0
3
0.19
0.47
0.1
0.11
0.19
0
5
0.19
0.69
0.1
0.11
0.25
0
10
0.19
1.55
0.3
0.11
0.53
0.1
20
0.19
3.12
0.6
0.11
1.14
0.1
30
0.19
4.22
0.8
0.11
1.55
0.2
50
0.19
7.73
1.5
0.11
2.88
0.3
100
0.18
13.16
2.4
0.11
5.24
0.6
200
0.16
16.84
2.6
0.11
8.22
0.9
300
0.12
17.84
2.1
0.11
13.4
1.4
500
0.1
18.15
1.8
0.1
15.35
1.4
1K
0.08
18.41
1.5
0.08
16.37
1.3
Figure 4: I-V Characteristic of Different Solar Radiation
Figure 5: P-V Characteristic of Different Solar Radiation.
CONCLUSION
Iraq suffers from a severe shortage of electricity supplies, and
to this day, this problem has not been solved because of the
decision makers prefer to establish high-cost steam power
stations, which run with fossil fuels. Although Iraq has one of
the world's largest reserves of oil and natural gas, such stations
emit millions of tons of pollutants into the air every year.
Therefore, the shift towards the use of photovoltaic stations
has been introduced as an alternative to these stations. In this
study, the behavior of the photovoltaic cell was understood
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
0.25
0 5 10 15 20
C (A)
V (v)
light at maximum (100)
light at (75)
light at (50)
light at (25)
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
0 5 10 15 20
P (W)
V (v)
light at maximum (100)
light at (75)
light at (50)
light at (25)
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when solar radiation was increased. The solar cell was tested
by exposing it to four light intensities (25, 50, 75, 100 W) and
found that cell productivity was increased by light intensity, as
the intensity of the radiation increased the energy. There was a
noticeable effect on solar module due to temperature.
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... 4. The results of the analyzes of water samples in the three sites and for the summer season showed that the value of potential hydrogen PH was (7,62,8,12,7,34) respectively. We noticed that the highest value was in site two which indicates that the water was more salty in this site while the results of winter season were (7,41,7,48,7,36) which indicates that the water is moderate salinity during this season [11]. ...
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