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Careers, Career Development, and Career Management

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Research on careers, career development, and career management has been growing rapidly in vocational psychology, IWO psychology, management, and organizational behavior. Studies across these different fields have adopted a myriad of definitions, models, and methodologies for studying individual careers. We review these diverse conceptualizations of careers, as well as prominent career theories from many traditions. We then review empirical evidence on the processes of career choice, individual change throughout careers, career persistence, and career success. Finally, we review factors contributing to effective career self-management and different methods organizational career development.
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... attitude, and a focus on subjective career success (Lo Presti et al., 2018;Wiernik & Kostal, 2019) appears pertinent. Self-directed and individually customized career paths have gained importance, and they are becoming more relevant for successful career development (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). ...
... We also do not have a sufficient understanding of how people with PCA and BCA attain their desired career success. Such research is needed to advance insights on why and how PCA and BCA may help individuals in achieving subjective career success (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). ...
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This study examines the multiple mediation model between protean and boundaryless career mindsets and career satisfaction through job crafting and career commitment. Drawing on career motivation and job crafting theories, the results of a cross sectional study (French sample = 321) demonstrate that protean and boundaryless careers are associated with subjective career success in the form of career commitment and career satisfaction by way of job crafting. We find that the relationship between protean and boundaryless careers and career satisfaction is serially mediated by both job crafting and career commitment. These results bring together three different streams of the careers literature, that of protean and boundaryless careers, job crafting and subjective career success. Implications for theory and practice are discussed, and future research proposed.
... attitude, and a focus on subjective career success (Lo Presti et al., 2018;Wiernik & Kostal, 2019) appears pertinent. Self-directed and individually customized career paths have gained importance, and they are becoming more relevant for successful career development (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). ...
... We also do not have a sufficient understanding of how people with PCA and BCA attain their desired career success. Such research is needed to advance insights on why and how PCA and BCA may help individuals in achieving subjective career success (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). ...
Article
This study examines the link between protean career and boundaryless career attitudes and subjective career success. We propose that employees with protean and boundaryless career attitudes are more likely to engage in job crafting behavior, ultimately leading to career commitment and career satisfaction. Data from 321 business professionals working in France revealed that protean and boundaryless career attitudes predict subjective career success in the form of career commitment and career satisfaction through job crafting. The data also revealed a serial mediation pathway whereby protean and boundaryless career attitudes positively predicted job crafting behavior, which lead to stronger career commitment and increased career satisfaction. These results highlight the importance of job crafting behavior as an important, yet unexplored work-related phenomenon with significant organizational implications.
... Second, a comprehensive review is also missing of the validity of protean and boundaryless career orientations for predicting important career outcomes. Several studies have reported positive findings (e.g., , but it is as yet unclear whether these orientations have replicable and generalizable validity for satisfaction, mobility, extrinsic success, and other criteria of interest to individuals, organizations, and career researchers (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). Thus, the criterionrelated validity of PBCO is our second research question. ...
... Third, research and theoretical development on protean and boundaryless career orientations has been largely unconnected to broader models and research on individual-level drivers of career behavior and success (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). As a result, it is unclear how PBCO intersect with models of career behavior based on other dispositional characteristics (Lent, 2013;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Seibert, Kraimer, & Crant, 2001). ...
Article
The protean/boundaryless career concepts refer to people becoming more self-directed and flexible in managing their careers in response to societal shifts in work arrangements. A sizable literature has emerged on protean/boundaryless career orientations/preferences (PBCO). Questions remain, however, about the structure of PBCO and whether they predict important criteria. The PBCO literature is largely disconnected from broader individual-level career research, making it unclear how PBCO intersect with career models based on other characteristics. We address these questions by systematically reviewing/meta-analyzing PBCO research. On the basis of 135 demographically/occupationally diverse samples from 35 countries (45,288 individuals), we find no support for traditional distinctions between protean and boundaryless orientations- protean self-directed, protean values-driven, and boundaryless psychological mobility all load onto a single general factor, labeled proactive career orientation, and are only weakly related to boundaryless physical mobility preferences. We also find that PBCO predict career self-management behaviors and career satisfaction but are less related to non-career-focused attitudes, objective success, or physical mobility behavior. PBCO are strongly related to proactivity-related and self-efficacy personality traits. We use these findings to propose an integrative model for how PBCO and other dispositions mutually influence career behavior. We discuss when PBCO may have advantages over broad traits for understanding careers, implications for counseling practice, and directions for future research.
... Second, a comprehensive review is also missing of the validity of protean and boundaryless career orientations for predicting important career outcomes. Several studies have reported positive findings (e.g., , but it is as yet unclear whether these orientations have replicable and generalizable validity for satisfaction, mobility, extrinsic success, and other criteria of interest to individuals, organizations, and career researchers (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). Thus, the criterionrelated validity of PBCO is our second research question. ...
... Third, research and theoretical development on protean and boundaryless career orientations has been largely unconnected to broader models and research on individual-level drivers of career behavior and success (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). As a result, it is unclear how PBCO intersect with models of career behavior based on other dispositional characteristics (Lent, 2013;Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Seibert, Kraimer, & Crant, 2001). ...
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The protean/boundaryless career concepts refer to people becoming more self-directed and flexible in managing their careers in response to societal shifts in work arrangements. A sizeable literature has emerged on protean/boundaryless career orientations/preferences (PBCO). Questions remain, however, about the structure of PBCO and whether they predict important criteria. The PBCO literature is largely disconnected from broader individual-level career research, making it unclear how PBCO intersect with career models based on other characteristics. We address these questions by systematically reviewing/meta-analyzing PBCO research. Based on 135 demographically/occupationally-diverse samples from 35 countries (45,288 individuals), we find no support for traditional distinctions between protean and boundaryless orientations—protean self-directed, protean values-driven, and boundaryless psychological mobility all load onto a single general factor, labelled “proactive career orientation”, and are only weakly related to boundaryless physical mobility preferences. We also find PBCO predict career self-management behaviors and satisfaction but are less related to non-career-focused attitudes, objective success, or physical mobility behavior. PBCO are strongly related to proactivity-related and self-efficacy personality traits. We use these findings to propose an integrative model for how PBCO and other dispositions mutually influence career behavior. We discuss when PBCO may have advantages over broad traits for understanding careers, implications for counseling practice, and directions for future research.
... The construct 'career maturity' faces the ability to cope with developmental challenges throughout various life stages (Super, 1955). It can also be understood as the extent to which someone is ready and able to make career choices (Wiernik & Wille, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Pupils’ and students’ learning in the workplace and dual education has drawn increased attention because it is, among others, relevant in combating youth unemployment, increasing individual employability, and organisations’ ability to provide high quality services and products. However, research focusing on pupils’ and students’ readiness to participate in learning in the workplace is scarce and scattered. The present study was conducted to get a deeper insight into readiness to participate in learning in the workplace, and more particular in the Flemish (Belgium) context of dual education. The study applied a multi-method approach including literature review, document study, semi-structured interviews and member checking. The study resulted in a conceptualisation of ‘willingness to participate in learning in the workplace’ and ‘maturity for learning in the workplace’ including clusters of competencies related to participation in the workplace, learning in the workplace, and motivation for learning and participating in the workplace. This conceptualisation contributes to the development of policy and practice through providing a basis for assessing readiness to participate in dual education.
... perspectives (Hall, 2004), it appears that employees have full autonomy and independence in their own career management, in fact, that is not always the case (Wiernik & Wille, 2017). ...
Article
Despite the increasing evidence that has demonstrated the strengths of high-performance work systems (HPWS), there is no consensus on the relation between HPWS and job performance. By integrating HPWS theory with the model of career goals, we developed a mediated moderation model to explain the way career goals moderate the relation between employee-experienced HPWS and job performance, and whether job crafting mediates these interactive effects. Based upon a multi-phase, multi-source sample of 398 employees and their direct supervisors, we found that employee-experienced HPWS is related positively and significantly to job performance only when intrinsic career goals are high or when extrinsic career goals are low, and the results showed that job crafting mediates these moderated relations. Theoretical contributions, practical implications, and limitations are discussed as well.
... 116). Wiernik and Wille (2018) add that career can also be described more subjectively as the 'integrative stories individuals use to provide meaning to their work lives'. Looking at these definitions, expatriation could just as well be framed as a subsection of career research. ...
... Organizational career management is aimed at recruiting new employees, assessing and improving employee performance, fostering employees' organizational commitment, and helping employees develop skills to meet their future career needs. In today's organizations, employers and employees share the responsibility for career management (Wiernik & Wille, 2018). Career role performance refers to how well employees progress in their career roles, seek out career opportunities, develop skills needed for future career steps, and attain personal career goals (Welbourne et al., 1998). ...
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On the basis of socioanalytic theory (Hogan & Shelton, 1998) and mimicry-deception theory (Jones, 2014), we hypothesized that political skill would effectively mask Machiavellianism (socioanalytic theory) with consequences for coworker perceived career role performance and actual counterproductive work behavior at low and high levels of job tenure (mimicry-deception theory). We tested our hypotheses in a triangular multisource design in two complementary studies comprised of both target workers and coworkers with a total of N = 1,438 participants. In Study 1, we found that when political skill was high, targets received high career role performance ratings from coworkers, and this was also the case when targets had high levels of Machiavellianism (socioanalytic masking effect). For targets with low political skill, the career role performance ratings of high Machiavellians was low at long tenure. The results of Study 2 partly disconfirmed mimicry-deception theory: Individuals high in Machiavellianism and high in political skill did not tend to avoid engaging in overtly mean behaviors toward others and extracting organizational resources at short tenure. Implications and limitations are discussed. Keywords: Machiavellian personality, socioanalytic theory, mimicry-deception theory, political skill, career role performance, counterproductive work behavior
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Purpose The question of responsibility for career development is critical for virtual employees who work remotely. The purpose of this paper is to (1) compare the perceptions of virtual and on-location employees in the high-tech industry about where responsibility lies for career management, as reflected in their psychological contract (PC) and (2) evaluate the ability of virtual employees to exercise behaviors capable of enhancing their career development. Design/methodology/approach A mixed-methods approach was used for this study. Study 1 consisted of semi-structured interviews ( N = 40) with virtual and on-location employees working for the same high-tech organization, exploring perceptions responsibility for career self-management as captured by their PCs. Study 2, a quantitative survey of virtual and on-location employees ( N = 146) working for various organizations in the high-tech sector, examined perceptions of career self-management through the perceived PC, as well as the perceived ability to exercise behaviors that would enhance career development. Findings Both categories of employees assumed that they, together with their direct manager, had responsibility for managing their career development. Nevertheless, virtual employees had lower expectations of support from their managers in this respect (Study 1) and felt that they actually received less support from their managers (Study 2). The results of both studies show, however, that virtuality does not have any significant effect on employees’ self-reported proactive career-influencing behaviors. Originality/value The study contributes to existing research by highlighting the perceived joint responsibility for career management and the critical role played by line management in this regard and by showing that virtuality does not have a significant effect on employees’ self-reported proactive career-influencing behaviors.
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Background More and more high-income countries hire internationally educated nurses as part of their workforce. While the factors that push and pull internationally educated nurses to migrate and influence their workforce integration have been widely reported in the literature, little is known about internationally educated nurses’ career development and whether they are satisfied with their nursing career in Canada. Objective This study aims to identify the main correlates of internationally educated nurses’ career satisfaction. Methods A cross‐sectional analysis of data from a pan-Canadian survey sample of 1,951 internationally educated nurses, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and registered psychiatric nurses, was conducted. Measures of career satisfaction included individual, job and career characteristics as well as organizational-related and integration process factors. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U and Spearman rank correlation tests were used to examine the association of the various factors with career satisfaction. Results Overall, internationally educated nurses showed a high degree of career satisfaction. At the same time, career satisfaction varied greatly depending on sociodemographic characteristics, organizational setting, and geographic location. Older and more experienced internationally educated nurses tended to be more satisfied with their career than their younger or less experienced colleagues were. Furthermore, male were inclined to be less satisfied than their female counterparts, and having children tended to make all three groups (men, women and overall) more satisfied. The higher the level of education prior to immigrating the lower the career satisfaction. Internationally educated nurses who identified as White or Asian had the highest level of career satisfaction, whereas those who identified as Black tended to be the least satisfied. Career satisfaction was the highest among those who live in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba), and Ontario, the lowest in the Atlantic Provinces (New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland and Labrador). As for organizational characteristics, full-time nurses were more satisfied than those working part-time or with occasional employment. Finally, internationally educated nurses who thought they had achieved their career goals were more satisfied, while those who experienced discrimination were less satisfied with their career. Conclusion Our findings highlight the need for organizations to ensure a healthy work environment for internationally educated nurses, free of discrimination, where they can attain their career goals. Tweetable abstract: More and more countries rely on internationally educated nurses to ease their nursing shortages. This study aims to identify the main correlates of internationally educated nurses’ career satisfaction, using non-parametric Mann-Whitney U and Spearman rank correlation tests on data from a pan-Canadian survey sample of 1,951 internationally educated nurses, including registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and registered psychiatric nurses. Overall, internationally educated nurses showed a high degree of career satisfaction. At the same time, career satisfaction varied greatly depending on the internationally educated nurses’ sociodemographic characteristics, organizational settings and geographic location. Finally, internationally educated nurses who thought they had achieved their career goals were more satisfied, while those who experienced discrimination were less satisfied with their career. Our findings highlight the need for organizations to ensure environment free of discrimination, where internationally educated nurses can attain their career goals.
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This longitudinal study provides an analysis of the relationship between personality traits and work experiences with a special focus on the relationship between changes in personality and work experiences in young adulthood. Longitudinal analyses uncovered 3 findings. First, measures of personality taken at age 18 predicted both objective and subjective work experiences at age 26. Second, work experiences were related to changes in personality traits from age 18 to 26. Third, the predictive and change relations between personality traits and work experiences were corresponsive: Traits that "selected" people into specific work experiences were the same traits that changed in response to those same work experiences. The relevance of the findings to theories of personality development is discussed.