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Changing motivational values in the light of friluftsliv experiences

Changing motivational values in the light of friluftsliv and the experience of
G. Liedtke1, B. Ghaffari1
1 Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
A lot of interventions e.g. in educational and health related settings with the aim of initiating or
implementing a change of behaviour fail in their intention to create long term effects for their
participants. Positive effects last often only for a short time. To create long lasting effects – so
the idea of this project it could be helpful to initiate a change of motivational values which
are the foundation of human behaviour, although motivational values are regarded to be stable
in adult age (Schwartz, 2012).
The investigation will explore if friluftsliv as a way to realize intense experiences of nature
combined with self-reflection can lead to changes in motivational values.
In the period from 2015-2017 six friluftsliv-trips to Southern-Norway with a total number of
N=58 participants (age M=26,2; SD=5,6; sex: 55% female; students from University of
Hamburg) were evaluated. The trips lasted 8-10 days. Changes in motivational values were
recorded on basis of the standard questionnaire PVQ 21 (Schmidt, Bamberg, Davidov,
Herrmann, & Schwartz, 2007). The results were compared with a control group (N=52; age:
M=25,9, SD=3,1; sex: 47% female; students from University of Hamburg). In addition, 12
participants of the friluftsliv-group were interviewed 6-8 weeks after the trip, interview data
were analysed by qualitative content analyses.
According to the questionnaire PVQ 21 the participants of the friluftsliv-trips showed in
relation to the control group positive group effects (values become more important) for self-
transcendence (universalism, humanism) and a negative effect (values become less important)
for self-enhancement (power, achievement). After three months the changes were no longer
detectable. Interview data showed that friluftsliv experiences had a great meaning for the
participants and resulted in personal changes e.g. in dietary behaviour, time spent outdoors,
range of motion, time spent alone or time spent without activity. Interview data showed also
that the transition from friluftsliv experience to everyday life was very difficult for many
Friluftsliv and the experience of nature combined with self-reflection can initiate changes in
motivational values which can lead to changes in everyday life behaviour. These changes
have a strong individual variety and it is difficult to detect them by means of group statistics.
However, changes which are initiated by special experiences (like friluftsliv) run into danger
of being superimposed by experiences of everyday life after a while.
Schmidt, P., Bamberg, S., Davidov, E., Herrmann, J. & Schwartz, S. (2007). Die Messung
von Werten mit dem «Portraits Value Questionnaire». Zeitschrift Für Sozialpsychologie,
38(4), 261–275.
Schwartz, S. H. (2012). An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online
Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2, 1–20.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
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This article presents an overview of the Schwartz theory of basic human values. It discusses the nature of values and spells out the features that are common to all values and what distinguishes one value from another. The theory identifies ten basic personal values that are recognized across cultures and explains where they come from. At the heart of the theory is the idea that values form a circular structure that reflects the motivations each value expresses. This circular structure, that captures the conflicts and compatibility among the ten values is apparently culturally universal. The article elucidates the psychological principles that give rise to it. Next, it presents the two major methods developed to measure the basic values, the Schwartz Value Survey and the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Findings from 82 countries, based on these and other methods, provide evidence for the validity of the theory across cultures. The findings reveal substantial differences in the value priorities of individuals. Surprisingly, however, the average value priorities of most societal groups exhibit a similar hierarchical order whose existence the article explains. The last section of the article clarifies how values differ from other concepts used to explain behavior—attitudes, beliefs, norms, and traits.
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Zusammenfassung: In zwei Stichproben wird eine deutschsprachige 40-Item Version des “Portraits Value Questionnaire” (PVQ) validiert; in einer dritten Stichprobe (European Social Survey) wird eine verkürzte Version mit 21 Items dieses Werteinventars validiert. Bei dem PVQ handelt es sich um ein von Shalom Schwartz neu entwickeltes Instrument zur Überprüfung seiner Theorie grundlegender menschlicher Werte. Die Aufgabenstellung des PVQ unterscheidet sich konzeptionell deutlich von der des bisher verwendeten Standardinstrumentes “Schwartz Value Survey” (SVS). Das neue Instrument ist besonders für Probanden mit mittlerer und niedriger Schulbildung geeignet. Unsere Ergebnisse belegen die instrumentenunabhängige Validität der von Schwartz postulierten Wertetheorie. Der Vergleich mit dem SVS belegt die konvergente und diskriminante Validität der mit dem PVQ gemessenen zehn Wertetypen. Auch die vorhergesagten Beziehungen der Wertetypen mit zwei externen Konstrukten belegen die Konstruktvalidität des PVQ. In einer konfirmatorischen Faktorenanalyse wird die postulierte Zahl der unterschiedlichen Werte nicht bestätigt, da neun statt zehn Werte als empirisch angemessen erscheinen. Eine externe Validierung mit den Daten des repräsentativen European Social Survey in Deutschland durch eine konfirmatorische Faktorenanalyse (jedoch nur mit 21 Items) hat die Schwartz'sche Werteskala weitgehend bestätigt, allerdings mussten sechs der zehn Wertetypen zu dreien zusammengefasst werden.
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The perceived separation between humans and nature may have implications for subsequent environmental values, attitudes, and behavior. This research examines people's per-ceptions of their connection to nature as well as their ideas about what constitutes natural and unnatural environments. We asked participants from three separate studies if they thought of themselves as part of or separate from nature. We also asked participants to list words that came to mind when thinking of natural and unnatural environments. The results show that even though the majority of the participants con-sidered themselves part of nature (76.9%), natural environ-ments were largely described as places absent from any human interference. Gaining an understanding of this ap-parent contradiction may lead to a better awareness of the importance of people's perceptions of themselves in nature and how that perception relates to general human-environ-ment interactions as well as management and policy.
Last Child in the Wood. Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficite Disorder
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Louv, Richard (2006): Last Child in the Wood. Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficite Disorder. Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books.
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Sagert, Christian (2018): Friluftsliv Als Anlass zur Änderung motivationaler Werte? Universität Hamburg.
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Zindel, Linea (2015): Andauernde Effekte bzgl. Veränderungen des Stresslevels und Wertekonstrukts durch ein natur-und bewegungsbezogenes Ressourcentraining. Universität Hamburg.