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Examining the impact of luxury brand's social media marketing on customer engagement : Using big data analytics and natural language processing

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Abstract

This research utilizes big data in investigating the impact of a luxury brand's social media marketing activities on customer engagement. In particular, applying the dual perspective of customer engagement, this research examines the influence of focusing on the entertainment, interaction, trendiness, and customization dimensions of a luxury brand's social media activities on customer engagement with brand-related social media content. Using big data retrieved from a 60-month period on Twitter (July 2012 to June 2017), this paper analyzes 3.78 million tweets from the top 15 luxury brands with the highest number of Twitter followers. The results indicate that focusing on the entertainment, interaction, and trendiness dimensions of a luxury brand's social media marketing efforts significantly increases customer engagement, while focusing on the customization dimension does not. The findings have important implications for the design, delivery, and management of social media marketing for luxury brands to engage customers with social media content.

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... The exponential growth of social media has generated enormous opportunities for both brick-and-mortar and e-commerce companies to connect with customers, move their businesses onto social media platforms, and become social commerce firms (Aral, Dellarocas, & Godes, 2013;Oh, Roumani, Nwankpa, & Hu, 2017;Yan, Xiong, Chu, Li, & Xiong, 2018). Both customers and firms can easily engage with each other on social media platforms (Stephen & Toubia, 2010;Ballings & van den Poel, 2015), which raises the discussion of customer engagement (CE) pertaining to construction (Ho, Chung, Kingshott, & Chiu, 2020;So, Wei, & Martin, 2020), measurement (Shawky, Kubacki, Dietrich, & Weaven, 2020), and effect (Simon & Tossan, 2018;Liu, Shin, & Burns, 2021). Specifically, based on three distinct levels, including consumption, contribution, and creation, CE is an essential feature of firm-customer communication in social media (Li, Luo, Fan, Chen, & Liu, 2017), through which an individual consumer may have a powerful social influence on firms' selling, promoting, branding, and other marketing activities (Chen, Fan, & Sun, 2019). ...
... Thriving social commerce also grants start-ups the opportunity to launch ventures on social media platforms with low entry barriers (Ghezzi, Gastaldi, Lettieri, Martini, & Corso, 2016). Social commerce start-ups increasingly acknowledge the power of social media in approaching and engaging customers, and the literature emphasizes exploring the antecedents and outcomes of CE (Ho et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2021). However, few studies investigate how these start-ups could optimize their sales and operations planning when confronted with resource constraints and fierce competition. ...
... These enable customers to deliver their feelings, experiences, and expectations toward firms' products or services, thus forming UGC, which in turn can exert solid and wide-spread influence on other consumers' purchasing decisions (Chen et al., 2019). Many scholars categorize the interaction above under the conceptual label of "customer engagement" (Ho et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2021;Simon & Tossan, 2018;So et al., 2020), and then dynamically dissect this critical notion into distinct dimensions, including consumption (number of views), contribution (number of thumbs-up), and creation (customer comments) (Liu et al., 2021). Current studies on CE focus on its antecedents (Liu et al., 2021), outcomes (Ho et al., 2020), and dynamic management framework (Shawky et al., 2020). ...
Article
Despite the surge of literature on customer engagement (CE) in social media, few studies shed light on how to leverage CE to improve firms’ operational efficiency. This research proposes a fresh framework using social media data to improve demand forecasting accuracy, resulting in a cost-efficient inventory control strategy. Drawing upon the resource mobilization perspective in particular, this research quantifies the construct of CE from the view of input-output efficiency evaluation using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, and then leverages CE to forecast consumer online demand and reconfigure inventory management strategy. Using a 71-week data set from a social commerce start-up in China, this research shows that this new framework dramatically increases demand forecasting accuracy and reduces operational costs in inventory management. This study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the value of social media data in improving operational efficiency, particularly regarding inventory management.
... Many of the luxury fashion brands have adapted different SNS platforms due to the benefits that such companies can gain (Kim & Ko, 2010, 2012. Such benefits include interacting with current and potential consumers (Koivisto & Mattila, 2018), increasing customer engagement Liu et al., 2021), building stronger brand relationships (Alalwan et al., 2019;Algharabat, 2017;Dwivedi et al., 2021;Kelly et al., 2010), improving brand image and brand equity (Kim & Ko, 2012), and eventually enhancing customer experience and positive responses (Arenas-Gaitan et al., 2013;Godey et al., 2016). In addition, Godey et al. (2013) assert that regardless of the purchase motivation a consumer might go for luxury fashion brands, the brand's mere presence on SNS influences customers' attitudes and perceptions in subtle ways because the brand remains the focal point. ...
... Social media marketing activities (SMMa) is defined as the use of online social media applications and platforms to perform entertainment, customization, trendiness, purchase intentions, interaction and word of mouth (Kim & Ko, 2012). Within luxury fashion brands on social media, we have noticed that extant literature on SMMa and engagement is still emerging (Dhaoui, 2014;Liu et al., 2021;Pentina et al., 2018) and that the number of studies which linked SMMa with lovemark are very limited. For instance, Nyadzayo et al. (2020) investigated the impact of brand image (unidimensional) on brand engagement in selfconcept (unidimensional), which influences brand loyalty without investigating the impact of lovemark. ...
... Algharabat (2017) linked SMMa with brand love (but not lovemark) for different brands (only 30% of the brands related to fashion) on Facebook. Moreover, extant literature on luxury fashion brands focuses on using a single social media platform such as Facebook (Algharabat, 2017), Twitter (Kar, 2021;Liu et al., 2021), WeChat . Godey et al. (2016) investigated the use of two SNSs namely, Facebook and Twitter. ...
Article
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This research aims to investigate the impact of social media marketing activities (SMMa) on brand loyalty directly and through mediating variables community engagement and lovemark. To propose a research model, we used the theories including lovemark theory, engagement theory and brand equity theory. As a result, this research investigates the impact of SMMa, community engagement, and lovemark on brand loyalty. Using an online survey, we collected data from 464 female participants who are following luxury fashion brands on major social networking sites including Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, and Twitter. Results using PLS revealed that SMMa positively influences community engagement and lovemark. Moreover, we find positive relationships between community engagement, lovemark and brand loyalty. However, we find that SMMa has no direct influence on brand loyalty.
... The use of social media may clash with the conventional luxury marketing strategies that are closely related to complete control and exclusivity. Consistent with that, a number of luxury brands have traditionally avoided reaching their consumers through e-commerce or simply having a mere existence on social media (Liu et al., 2019b;Maman Larraufie and Kourdoughli, 2014). However, the intense competition and the ever-changing customer needs and expectations are compelling luxury brands, which can no longer rely solely on their current customer base, to embrace innovative communication strategies with their various customer segments (Mir-Bernal et al., 2018;Mrad et al., 2019). ...
... While the technology revolution has generated many opportunities for luxury brands (Bazi et al., 2020;Passavanti et al., 2020), it has also created some challenges because of the difficulty of assessing its effects on them. Earlier studies have examined the impact of different social media platforms such as Facebook, Instagram (Godey et al., 2016) and WeChat (Liu et al., 2019b) on luxury brands. Nevertheless, a major dilemma emerged in relation to whether luxury brands can "maintain the 'dream value' of luxury online" and whether the various platforms could affect the perception of "luxury" at all (Chandon et al., 2016, p. 301). ...
... (2) While the impact of social media on luxury brands has received widespread interest among researchers (Duong and Sung, 2021), these studies do not convey a complete sense of how consumers perceive luxury brands across different platforms. Previous research has mainly examined the influence of social media in the context of Facebook (Liu et al., 2019b); nonetheless, to the authors' best knowledge there has not been a formal study on the most prevalent worldwide social network with approximately more than two billion monthly users (Statista, 2021a), namely, WhatsApp. While consumers mainly have been using WhatsApp to interact with their friends and surroundings, a number of luxury brands (e.g. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the pros and cons of WhatsApp communication service and its likely effects on consumer behavior and one’s perception of luxury brands. Design/methodology/approach This study conducted 27 in-depth interviews with UK-based participants. This study used NVivo12 to thematically analyze the collected data. Findings The findings indicate that perceived communication convenience, searching for prepurchase information, intimate consumer–brand relationship, perceived self-worth and the thrill of a new service positively contribute to luxury customers’ acceptance of WhatsApp communication usage. Nevertheless, many factors including push promotional strategy, poor service quality, brand “massification” effect, deficient sensory experience, fear of financial risk and deceptive practices, all curbed the participants’ acceptance of this communication platform. When service is poor, all these factors jeopardized the luxury image, causing an impaired brand image, accompanied with negative word of mouth and in some instances, unexpected anticonsumption reactions. Research limitations/implications This study carries the limitations of any exploratory and qualitative research. Therefore, future research should replicate this study in other areas and for other instant messaging platforms. Practical implications The implications of this study serve as a reference for luxury brands’ managers when managing their WhatsApp service. This study provides important insights into the risk of using WhatsApp by luxury brands to communicate with customers. The overall conclusion is that WhatsApp communication service requires a close, supervised and innovative use to benefit luxury brands. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the topic of WhatsApp usage as a communication mean in the luxury industry is still largely underexplored, hence filling a gap in the literature that needs to be addressed given its significant implications.
... Technology aroused interest in a large number of sectors, including tourism and hospitality (Petrović, Milićević, & Djeri, 2017). New technologies can support consumers throughout the whole experience, from pre-consumption to postconsumption, by helping them make the more accurate choice and share either positive or negative experiences (Liu, Shin, & Burns, 2019). These technologies can become an integral part of products or services, thus offering augmented experiences (Benckendorff, Xiang, & Sheldon, 2019;Buhalis, 2019;Dixit, 2020). ...
... Consumers adopt these emerging technologies in different ways, and, in general, with the purpose of simplifying their daily life supported by smartphones, Fitbit, tablets and voice recognition devices (Hsu & Lin, 2016;Sestino, 2019). These new technologies, enabled by the IoT and AI, could increase the ability of luxury companies to communicate and provide personalised services to their consumers (Deloitte, 2019;Liu et al., 2019). The integration of technological components has become a central challenge for luxury hotels (Pham, Nguyen, & Luse, 2018). ...
... Literature has partially explored the role of VAs as a guest's support tool by focussing on the quality of the interaction as a key determinant of VAs' perceived quality and intention to use. Further studies investigated the relative advantage of using service robots compared to their human correspondents (Liu et al., 2019). Moriuchi (2019) conducted an empirical study on the effect of VAs on consumer involvement and loyalty by contributing to the technology acceptance model (TAM; Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). ...
Chapter
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New technologies represent an important challenge for all sectors across the world, becoming a relevant opportunity for the luxury hospitality industry as well. This study empirically investigates the effects of openness to change and status consumption orientation in influencing luxury hotel guests' perceived usefulness of voice assistants when integrated with their staying. Specifically, we shed light on the potential interplay between these two constructs in shaping guests' perceived usefulness of these devices. Finding suggests that openness to changes and status consumption represents two potentially alternative aspects that managers could leverage to encourage hotel guests' perceived usefulness and vocal assistant devices. This implies that openness to change on the part of luxury hotel guests may be a necessary but not sufficient condition for these devices to be accepted. Rather, luxury hotel managers should also consider the status consumption orientation of their guests.
... Thus, researchers have attempted to identify and categorize customer engagement behaviors within social media frameworks, a complex and challenging process given that customer engagement is personal and substantially varies between social media platforms (Voorveld et al. 2018). Following the work of researchers such as Schivinski, Christodoulides, and Dabrowski (2016) and Liu, Shin, and Burns (2019), the current study adopts the Consumers' Online Brand-Related Activities (COBRAs) framework developed by Muntinga, Moorman and Smit (2011). The COBRAS framework recognizes three types of engagement with brand-related content on social media, distinguished by their degree of activeness: consumption, contribution, and creation (Muntinga et al., 2011). ...
... Creation describes the most active engagement level and includes producing customer-generated content. Producing brand-related content on behalf of the firm requires the most effort and can, therefore, can be perceived as a high-level endorsement (Liu et al., 2019;Schivinski et al., 2016). ...
... Nonetheless, previous customer engagement studies centered on measuring purchase behaviors, ignoring other engagement metrics that can impact the network of potential customers responsible for the brand's performance (Liu et al., 2019). Studies of engagement must move beyond learning about purchase behaviors to understand every aspect of interaction with brands, regardless of whether a customer makes a purchase (Vivek, Beatty, & Morgan, 2012). ...
Article
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Despite Instagram’s popularity among the Y and Z generation consumers, social media research investigating factors that can influence customer engagement on Instagram remains limited. The uses and gratifications theory underpins this study which investigates how social media marketing of prominent Malaysian brands on Instagram impacts customer engagement. ScrapeStorm web scraper tool was used to extract posts and comments from the public Instagram accounts of four notable Malaysian brands. The findings reveal that different features of social media, affect consumer engagement differently. Social media influencers had a positive impact on consumption and creation-based customer engagement. Contextual features are negatively correlated with contribution-based customer engagement. In terms of content, videos had greater engagement rates, followed by images of people and images without people. Results also show that consumers reacted positively to informative textual content. Some implications for theory and practice are highlighted.
... For example, scholars in social robotics have highlighted that engagement and entertainment are key to the adoption of the technology (e.g. Coulter et al., 2012;Schodde et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2019). A lack of empirical data (Čaić et al., 2019;Chiang and Trimi, 2020;Lu et al., 2020) and a well-defined framework in this area means it is very difficult to identify the variables that are critical to measuring the social robot's service quality (Chiang and Trimi, 2020). ...
... Entertainment engages users and is recognised as one of the strongest antecedents which lead to individuals' satisfaction (Wakefield and Baker, 1998). If customers are entertained, they are more engaged and have longer interactions (Coulter et al., 2012;Liu et al., 2019). Since Sony's entertainment robot "Aibo" was first launched in 1999, the world of robotics has seen the massive value in using robots as an "entertainment tool". ...
... The relationship between entertainment and engagement has long been recognised as the key in the adoption of social robots (e.g. Karat et al., 2002;Coulter et al., 2012;Schodde et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2019). Further, studies in advertising have indicated that positive mood does not always generate positive evaluations (Yan et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Services are intangible in nature and as a result, it is often difficult to measure the quality of the service. In the service literature, the service is usually delivered by a human to a human customer and the quality of the service is often evaluated using the SERVQUAL dimensions. An extensive review of the literature shows there is a lack of an empirical model to assess the perceived service quality provided by a social robot. Furthermore, the social robot literature highlights key differences between human service and social robots. For example, scholars have highlighted the importance of entertainment value and engagement in the adoption of social robots in the service industry. However, it is unclear whether the SERVQUAL dimensions are appropriate to measure social robot’s service quality. The paper proposes the SERVBOT model to assess a social robot’s service quality. It identifies, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy, and entertainment as the five dimensions of SERVBOT. Further, the research will investigate how these five factors influence emotional engagement and future intentions to use the social robot in a concierge service setting. The model was tested using student sampling, and a total of 94 responses were collected for the study. The findings indicate empathy and entertainment value as key predictors of emotional engagement. Further, emotional engagement is a strong predictor of future intention to use a social robot in a service setting. This study is the first to propose the SERVBOT model to measure social robot’s service quality. The model provides a theoretical underpinning on the key service quality dimensions of a social robot and gives scholars and managers a method to track the service quality of a social robot. The study also extends on the literature by exploring the key factors that influence the use of social robots (i.e. emotional engagement).
... With such a communication style, messages that are fresh, frequent, informative (e.g., brand, product, or deal mentions), rich, and persuasive (e.g., remarkable facts) are likely to be more effective (Ashley & Tuten, 2015;Bai & Yan, 2020;Lee et al., 2020). Interestingly, the use of informative content, on its own, may be less effective to solicit CE, but may become highly effective when paired with emotional or personality expressive content (e.g., emotion, humor) (Lee et al., 2018), especially when the intention is to build brand communities rather than to simply disseminate information (Wu et al., 2019), as witnessed through higher brand engagement levels among customers who interact more with content posted by other users as compared to brands (Cheung et al., 2020;Giakoumaki & Krepapa, 2020;Hollebeek, 2011b), whose brand customized messages had no significant effects in most instances (Cheung et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2019). Indeed, messages on social media need to be interactive and trendy (Cheung et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2019;Ningthoujam et al., 2020), with prevention-focused messages gaining more traction than promotion-focused messages, especially among customers who score high on extraversion and neuroticism (Dodoo & Padovano, 2020). ...
... Interestingly, the use of informative content, on its own, may be less effective to solicit CE, but may become highly effective when paired with emotional or personality expressive content (e.g., emotion, humor) (Lee et al., 2018), especially when the intention is to build brand communities rather than to simply disseminate information (Wu et al., 2019), as witnessed through higher brand engagement levels among customers who interact more with content posted by other users as compared to brands (Cheung et al., 2020;Giakoumaki & Krepapa, 2020;Hollebeek, 2011b), whose brand customized messages had no significant effects in most instances (Cheung et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2019). Indeed, messages on social media need to be interactive and trendy (Cheung et al., 2020;Liu et al., 2019;Ningthoujam et al., 2020), with prevention-focused messages gaining more traction than promotion-focused messages, especially among customers who score high on extraversion and neuroticism (Dodoo & Padovano, 2020). More importantly, the manipulative nature of message-related antecedents demands more investigations that could contribute to third-order knowledge so as to influence the curation of finer-grained message content and design that would yield the greatest amount of desired CE on social media. ...
... Third, the review also noted 12 studies that have not relied on any theories to guide their research irrespective of fields (e.g., marketing [Ashley & Tuten, 2015], management [Sashi, 2012], information systems [Oh et al., 2017], tourism [Sashi et al., 2019]) and journal ranks (e. g., "A*" [Agnihotri, 2020], "A" [Liu et al., 2019], "B" [Loureiro & Lopes, 2019], and "C" [Ningthoujam et al., 2020]). Though this observation suggests that publishing without relying on theories is possible, it is arguably better to employ theories to inform research, as its presence would arguably strengthen the theoretical foundation of the study, especially in the case of conceptual, quantitative, and experimental research. ...
Article
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Customer engagement (CE) is a marketing concept of great importance and the rise of social media has further amplified the importance of this concept. Yet, our understanding of the progress of CE research remains limited due to the absence of a one-stop state-of-the-art overview of the concept that considers its manifestation on social media. To address this gap, we review CE research on social media since the beginning of the present millennium using the PRISMA protocol for systematic reviews. The outcome of our review reveals the antecedents, decisions, and outcomes; the theories, contexts, and methods; and the ways forward for advancing knowledge, improving representation, and enhancing rigor with respect to future research on CE and social media. Keywords: Customer engagement, marketing, social media, systematic review.
... For example, big data comes from sensors, devices, video/audio files, networks, log files, transactional applications, the web, and social media -much of it being generated in real time and on a very large scale (Ducange et al., 2018). On the other hand, Liu et al. (2019) argued that big data analysis allows analysts, researchers, and business users to make better and faster decisions using data that was previously inaccessible or used. While Kauffmann et al. (2020); Singh et al. (2018) indicated that companies can use advanced analytics techniques such as text analysis, machine learning, predictive analytics, data mining, statistics and natural language processing to gain new insights and insights from previously untapped data sources independently or with existing enterprise data. ...
... Basically, all that is necessary is to have a big data analysis strategy in place to maximize the data the organization has, and with a proper customer data analysis mechanism in place the organization will have the ability to elicit important behavioral insights that it needs to act upon in order to retain the customer base and thus improve brand equity which agreed with (Ducange et al., 2018). Also results agreed with Wang and Wang (2020); Liu et al. (2019) who stated that where understanding customer insights will allow the organization to be able to deliver what customers want from it, this is the key step to achieving significant improvement on brand equity. Generally speaking, by using big data analysis techniques and tools, Wal-Mart was able to improve search results for its products on the Internet by 10-15%, while according to a report by McKinsey -a leading business consulting company -that the health sector in the United States, if it used big data analysis techniques effectively and efficiently, would have been Has generated more than 300 million US dollars in annual surplus from the health budget, two-thirds of which is due to a reduction in expenditure costs by 8%. ...
Article
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The current study aimed at examining the influence of big data analytics (Consumer Acquisition and Retention, Personalization, Cost Reduction and Targeted Advertising) and its role in increasing brand equity within pharmaceutical industry in Jordan during the fiscal year 2020-2021. For that sake, quantitative method was used and a questionnaire was developed and uploaded online in order to collect primary data. A sample of (94) marketing and sales managers in pharmaceutical companies and drug stores in Jordan responded to the questionnaire. SPSS v. 23 rd was used in order to screen and analyze gathered data; study indicated that the main hypothesis was accepted and big data analytics play a role in increasing brand equity within pharmaceutical industry in Jordan with high level of relationship and an explained variance of 59.7%. In addition to that, study was able to uncover the fact that marketing and sales managers in pharmaceutical companies and drug stores in Jordan seemed to have a high level of awareness regarding the concept of brand equity and big data analytics as their answers were positive and reflected reliability of study tool. As for variables of big data analytics, it was revealed that big data helps brand equity through the targeted advertising which focuses on orienting the brand to the right audience who are able to help its reputation, equity and meaning. Study recommended taking care of the quantities of data that are received by organizations during marketing campaigns, as this data can be converted into valuable information if properly arranged and organized.
... The interactivity feature of this media has made it practical to incorporate and build consumer relationships with a brand (Cheung et al., 2020b) and improve affection or loyalty toward the brand (Hasan and Sohail, 2021). Along with the advancement of smartphones, brands in every industry have begun to utilize SMM to reach and interact with consumers (Cheung et al., 2020a;Ebrahim, 2020;Liu et al., 2021;Moslehpour et al., 2021). ...
... Trendiness denotes the extent to which brand information on social media is up-to-date with trendy or hot updates, news and topics (Naaman et al., 2011). With the rising popularity of social media, consumers seek instant access to brand information through the platform because they perceive this information source as valuable and current than other traditional media (Liu et al., 2021). This credibility encourages marketers to share constant updates from brands' social media pages to gain consumers' attention and build their trust (Ibrahim et al., 2021). ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates the impact of social media marketing activities (SMMA) on shoppers' store love and the impact of store love on store loyalty in grocery retail. Moreover, it explores the mediating and moderating role of store love and social media usage intensity (SMUI). Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted among grocery shoppers and social media users in Norway. A total of 177 valid responses were collected and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Findings The study discovered that SMMA impacts store love, and store love affects store loyalty. Store love serves as a mediator between SMMA and store loyalty. SMUI positively moderates the relationship between SMMA and store love; however, the relationship between store love and store loyalty is not moderated by SMUI. Research limitations/implications Despite having limited generalizability from a cross-sectional study, this study provides literary additions to the body of knowledge in grocery retail and enhances the cognitive appraisal theory (CAT) and the attachment theory (AT). Practical implications The findings of this study will help grocery shoppers, store managers and grocery chain marketers to comprehend the role of SMMA in building emotional attachment with a grocery store and help make better decisions. Originality/value For the first time, this study incorporated SMUI as a moderator in the relationship between SMMA, store love and store loyalty in grocery retail. The study also proposes a new explanation for the relationship between SMMA and store loyalty by highlighting the mediating role of store love.
... According to Liu et al. (2021), marketing campaigns for luxury brands consist of main factors such as customization, reputation, trendiness, interaction, and entertainment which significantly impact customers' purchase intentions and brand equity. Activities that involve community marketing accrue from interactions between events and the mental states of individuals, whereas products are external factors for users (Parsons and Lepkowska-White, 2018). ...
... Since purchase intention refers to a customer's affinity toward a particular product, it is a metric of a customer's behavioral intention. According to Liu et al. (2021), the probability of a customer buying a particular product is known as an intention to buy. So, when the probability is high, it simply means that the willingness to purchase is high. ...
Article
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The aim of this study is to explore social media marketing activities (SMMAs) and their impact on consumer intentions (continuance, participate, and purchase). This study also analyzes the mediating roles of social identification and satisfaction. The participants in this study were experienced users of two social media platforms Facebook and Instagram in Pakistan. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. We used an online community to invite Facebook and Instagram users to complete the questionnaire in the designated online questionnaire system. Data were collected from 353 respondents, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to analyze the data. Results show that SMMAs have a significant impact on the intentions of users. Furthermore, social identification mediates the relationship between social media activities and satisfaction, and satisfaction mediates the relationship between social media activities and the intentions of users. This will help marketers how to attract customers to develop their intentions. This is the first novel study that used SMMAs to address the user intentions with the role of social identification and satisfaction in the context of Pakistan.
... time monitor target audiencesto gain a first-hand understanding and knowledge of their opinionsby applying mining techniques to easily accessible and retrievable user-generated content (UGC) like reviews, social media posts, and similar online reactions(Liu et al., 2017;Liu et al., 2021). AI-powered service robots are also recognized as reliable frontline service employees, allowing brands to serve and follow up consumers with increasing human-like interaction(Van Doorn et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
The wide diffusion of artificial intelligence (AI) is one of the most disrupting technological revolutions in recent human history. Yet, still little is known on how and to what extent the diffusion of AI in business practices affects brand experiences in general and brand experience co-creation in particular. While the literature dealing with brand experience is becoming increasingly consumer-centric and keener to frame brand experience as a socially-constructed and context-sensitive phenomenon, research hardly addresses the current role that AI technologies play in the creation of new and different forms of brand experience. In this chapter, we explore this “terra incognita” at the theoretical level by constructing an updated framework of brand experience co-creation that combines recent theoretical refinements of the brand experience concept with the service dominant logic of markets and actor-network theory. The developed theoretical framework results in a novel ontology of brand-experience co-creation at the time of AI which inspires theoretical and practical implications and opens avenues for future research.
... The results of this study help clarify why consumers share and interact with businesses and other consumers regarding sustainable messages on social media. Prior research has suggested that the increasing impact of social media marketing depends on how consumers get involved with behavioral engagement in social media promotional messages [59], but the messages have no detailed mechanisms through which this interaction occurs. Our findings suggest that one such mechanism is that arousing emotions may trigger sharing sustainable related messages and getting involved with the message and businesses.The unconscious and instant responses such as emotions, happiness, acceptance, interest, fear, anger influence decisions and rational thinking emotions [16]. ...
Article
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This study investigated how sustainability-related messages of cotton textile and apparel products influence consumers’ attitudes toward the message and interaction with other consumers in social media. Three hundred and eighty-eight online survey data of US consumers investigated the effects of perceived information and emotion toward sustainability practice messages on attitude toward and social interaction with other consumers and the effects of attitude on social interaction in social media. The results confirm that emotion is an influential variable, and, specific, positive emotion is an influential variable for attitude, and attitude influences social interaction with other consumers of sustainability practice messages. Negative emotions influence both attitude and social interaction. The information does not influence attitude but directly impacts social interaction, which may bring the purchase intention of sustainable fashion products. Thus, apparel marketers should consider emotionally sustainable promotion messages when tailoring their brand communications on social media. This study helps clarify the relationships between emotion and social interaction for sustainable fashion products. It also contributes to the theoretical foundation and has implications for sustainable fashion marketing and management in social media.
... Risk based testing, ignorance, radical innovation and creative intensity were listed as useful factors for deriving full benefits of big data analytics in marketing research. In the case of luxury brands also, Liu et al. (2019) used big data from Twitter accounts of five years of July 2012 to June 2017, consisting of 3.78 million tweets on 15 luxury brands having the highest number of Twitter followers. The results indicated customer engagement to be more important than customisation. ...
Article
This review aimed at providing a systematic review of the current status of marketing analytics systems, and identifies possible areas of improving their quality. A total of 49 papers were shortlisted and reviewed under different sections. The following general trends could be noted. Marketing analytics involves complex processes of analysing large volume of qualitative and quantitative data over a period of time to evaluate the success of marketing activities in terms of firm performance. Many successful firms have used this technique and this is one reason behind their improved performance. Many leading business organisations are using marketing analytics, the full potential is yet to be realised in spite of continuous arrival and further development of new software technologies and processes of marketing analytics. Especially, big data analytics offer more precise measurement and prediction of customer engagement and buying behaviour. At the same time, there are also challenges and barriers of top management support, lack of funds and resources, lack of enthusiasm, lack of skills and above all how to take decisions based on the results of marketing analytics. Addressing these challenges can improve the quality of marketing analytics systems and the ultimate results. This research has practical implications for firms which use marketing analytics systems.
... On the other hand, practitioners have witnessed such a result as consumers are not able to process all the information that is available from all sources online. Subsequently, social media have made it possible for consumers and buyers to provide information to others on a worldwide basis about how the products and services they have acquired met their expectations and needs (Liu et al., 2019). Consequently, it behooves researchers to think carefully through the assumptions that were made about how the consumer would search, buy online, and communicate with other consumers and with sellers to practice collaborative consumption (Ferm & Thaichon, 2021). ...
... The extent to which brand social media content strategies affect digital customer engagement varies. First of all, not all content strategies stimulate the same level of customer engagement (de Vries et al., 2012;Dhaoui and Webster, 2021;Liu et al., 2021;Shahbaznezhad et al., 2021). Chandrasekaran et al. (2019) state that the level of customer engagement varies by content category, with remuneration and social content category showing significant differential effects in the number of likes and shares. ...
Article
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Enterprises often post branded content on social media and adopt a proactive response approach to improve digital customer engagement to gain a competitive advantage. However, there are many brands which fail to operate social media as effectively as expected. The effective use of brand social media strategies to improve digital customer engagement remains an ongoing challenge for the enterprises. Based on firm-generated content theory and social presence theory, this study aims to identify the impact of brand social media strategies on different levels of digital customer engagement, including positive filtering, cognitive and affective processing as well as advocacy from content strategy and response strategy. Based on 1,519 brand posts on the official Weibo pages of eight of the top 500 Chinese brands in 2021, this study uses a multiple linear regression model to examine the impact of brand social media strategies on digital customer engagement and the moderating effects of brand image and discretionary purchases. The findings show that, on the one hand, among the brand social media content strategies, action content strategy is associated with higher levels of digital customer engagement. On the other hand, different brand social media response strategies have a differential impact on digital customer engagement levels, with cohesive response being the best strategy for increasing digital customer engagement level. In addition, the effectiveness of brand social media response strategy in digital customer engagement is further moderated by the brand image and discretionary purchases. In contrast, the effectiveness of brand social media response strategy in digital customer engagement is stronger when the brand image emphasizes its “competence” or the discretionary purchases focus on “material purchases.” This study not only enriches the research on digital customer engagement but also provides a reference for the brand strategy selection, design and management based on social media.
... Reference Types Methods Descriptions Strength Weakness [9], [50], [51], [70] Streaming processing Apache Spark streaming Discretized stream, supports machine learning and graph processing algorithms Very fast, automatic parallelization, fault-tolerant for stream processing time-consuming, and lack of file management system [95] Streaming processing manner, from varieties of domain sources such as education data [1], [97]- [100], IoT / sensor data 902 [101]- [103], Social media data [104]- [108], Multimedia data [109]- [111], Text data [7], [112], [113], 903 ...
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The study of big data analytics (BDA) methods for the data-driven industries is gaining research attention and implementation in today’s industrial activities, business intelligence, and rapidly changing the perception of industrial revolutions. The uniqueness of big data and BDA has created unprecedented new research calls to solve data generation, storage, visualization, and processing challenges. There are significant gaps in knowledge for researchers and practitioners on the right information and BDA tools to extract knowledge in large significant industrial data that could help to handle big data formats. Notwithstanding various research efforts and scholarly studies that have been proposed recently on big data analytic processes for industrial performance improvements. Comprehensive review and systematic data-driven analysis, comparison, and rigorous evaluation of methods, data sources, applications, major challenges, and appropriate solutions are still lacking. To fill this gap, this paper makes the following contributions: presents an all-inclusive survey of current trends of BDA tools, methods, their strengths, and weaknesses. Identify and discuss data sources and real-life applications where BDA have potential impacts. Other main contributions of this paper include the identification of BDA challenges and solutions, and future research prospects that require further attention by researchers. This study provides an insightful recommendation that could assist researchers, industrial practitioners, big data providers, and governments in the area of BDA on the challenges of the current BDA methods, and solutions that would alleviate these challenges.
... Social media strategies can still assist these companies in achieving proactive market orientation, however, as they give them an increased chance of identifying latent consumer demands. A proactive marketing strategy involves selecting high-return projects (Liu et al., 2021). The best way to do this is to identify latent needs that opportunistic companies can exploit in social media. ...
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In the context of China’s online technology business, this study explores the linkages between knowledge acquisition via social media, two modes of market orientation (proactive and responsive), social media strategic capability, and brand innovation strategy. Data were collected from 853 Chinese technology firms with the help of questionnaire. To analyze the collected data structure, equation modeling was applied using smart-PLS 3.3 version. Results indicate that knowledge acquisition from social media, market orientation (proactive and responsive), and strategic capability has significant impact on brand innovation in the context of social media. Furthermore, strategic capability on social media moderates the relationship between knowledge, market orientation (proactive and responsive), and brand innovation in the context of social media. This study offers new perspectives on market orientation and brand innovation strategy by extending the literature and testing key assumptions. Moreover, using social media knowledge in social media marketing and innovation management is a sensible approach for making changes and transforming an organization.
... Interactiveness refers to the ability to allow for the sharing and exchanging of information with others. The interactivity of social media posting is important because it promotes customer reactions, such as liking and commenting on the firm's post (Liu et al., 2021). According to Kim and Ko (2012), social media platforms are aimed at facilitating interactions between users (i.e., inter-consumer interaction, consumer-brand, etc.), among other things. ...
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A good image of millennials’ residential rental space is an important issue. This image can be impacted by the available telecommunication technology. Social media marketing can, therefore, be an important marketing tool to achieve it. Many studies have shown that a good brand image positively impacts brand preference. This study quantitatively investigated the impact of social media attributes of trendiness, entertainment, customization, information, interaction on Sandton’s rental market’s brand image, and the relationship between this image and millennials’ rental preference. Data were collected from millennials who have lived, live or intend to live in Sandton. Structural equation modeling was employed for data analysis. The findings of the study are that entertainment, customization, and information positively impact Sandton’s image and that trendiness and interactions do not. Also, the image of Sandton’s rental market has a positive influence on the millennials’ preferences as to rental housing. The outcomes will find application for both academics and management practice as will be shown below.
... The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: https://www.emerald.com/insight/0959-0552.htm producers of digital content and value creators. The spectacular growth of user-generated content and online reviews on social media platforms provides a massive quantity of information that allows for first-hand ascertaining customers' experiences, opinions and feelings (Liu et al., 2019;Xiang et al., 2015). For example, research shows that online reviews in tourism services play an important role because they provide ideas to tourists and increase their confidence by reducing risk and making better purchase decisions (Gretzel and Yoo, 2008). ...
The purpose of the study is to identify critical value-creating elements of luxury services expressed in ratings and reviews posted on third-party sites and examine cross-cultural differences. To this end, the research analyzed online ratings and reviews of luxury hotels posted on TripAdvisor from customers of four European regions (East, North, South and West). Eight hundred thirty-eight online user-generated ratings and reviews of luxury hotels were analyzed quantitatively using MANOVA and qualitatively using text analysis. The study findings support (a) that product and physical evidence are the most critical experiential elements of luxury hotels' offerings and (b) cultural differences among tourists from various regions of Europe in their hotel ratings and reviews. Specifically, Eastern and Northern Europeans are more generous in their review ratings than western and southern Europeans. Moreover, eastern Europeans value the hotel's physical evidence/environment whereas western Europeans prioritize the core product (room and food) followed by the physical environment/servicescape. Southern Europeans and Northern Europeans value most the personnel, followed by the physical environment and the core product, respectively. Cultural differences provide several implications with regard to luxury services segmentation, social media management, service marketing mix development and hotel promotion. The value of this study originates from studying post-purchase customer behavior in luxury services from a cross-cultural perspective. Moreover, identifying critical aspects of value-creating customer experience in a luxury context adds to the available literature.
... Importantly, entertainment motive is a significant difference in CE for hedonic vs. utilitarian as it significantly drives lurking engagement for hedonic brands. This finding is unique compared to the earlier engagement studies that indicated entertainment needs lead customers to active engagement behavior (posting, sharing, and content creation) (Liu, Shin, and Burns 2021;Gummerus et al. 2012). The finding stresses that brand managers should design brand content in SMBBC for hedonic brands with specific attention to lurkers who passively engage with the brands in search of the entertainment needs which ultimately result in brand loyalty. ...
Article
The study is motivated by the lack of comprehension on how lurking and posting engagement are driven by hedonic vs. utilitarian brands in social media-based brand communities (SMBBC). Survey responses of 229 social media customers comprising group 1 for hedonic brands (n126) and group 2 for utilitarian brands (n ¼ 103) were included in a multigroup analysis (MGA). PLS-SEM modeling results indicate that economic and entertainment needs of customers are significantly related to lurking engagement for hedonic brands. In contrast, identification and information needs of customers are significantly related to posting engagement for utilitarian brands. Importantly, lurking engagement appears more significantly related to brand loyalty compared to posting engagement. The study extends several insights on lurking and posting engagement to design brand type-oriented social media marketing strategies. Findings of the study also enrich the Uses and Gratification Theory in the context of lurking and posting engagement.
... However, this study explains that UGC creation and exchange are not only limited to creators. There are many UGC participants who socially engage with fashion brands' audiences, such as content creators, critics and collectors/consumers. Previous studies only focused on exploring the benefits of social media platforms in the context of seeking advice for taking best possible decision with respect to products or services selection (Liu et al., 2019; Naeem and Ozuem, 2021a), but this study explained that SMUs are involved in creating, exchanging, acknowledging and consuming UGC related to those fashion brands in which they are interested. For example, content creators are highly involved in sharing brandsrelated content with their friends, friends of friends, family members and online local community on Facebook, which helps to increase engagement with brands. ...
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The study looks at the types of social media participants through user-generated content (UGC) and how this leads to brand engagement in a fashion retail context. In doing so, it explores the effects of social context of brand-related content on other social media users, which promotes socially influenced consumer brand engagement (SICBE) in social media settings. Method The study postulates the existence of social realities as consistent with social constructivism, with multiple realities of social influence outlined on the basis of ontological relativism. To fulfil the proposed research objectives, research data were gathered from professional and social participants based on specific inclusion criteria, purposive sampling technique and a semi-structured interview method. Findings Findings highlighted various types of UGC participants with differing objectives in their use of UGC; these participant types are passive, creators, critics and collectors/consumers. The study uncovered many social context that can increase the effectiveness of UGC. The social context is explored through social trust, Fashion UGC expertise, and relevance. These UGC participants and social context can foster SICBE in a fashion retail context. Originality This study proposes a holistic framework which highlighted the role of UGC participants and social context can foster SICBE in a fashion retail context.
... Various types of economical use of SNSs is another topic that attracts the attention of researchers, who believe in redefining business behaviors through social media and thus, discuss the advantages and challenges of SNSs in commercial-related communications [35,36]. The significant role of entertainment, interactions, and trendiness created by social media was recently revealed at the luxury brand marketing [37]. At the same time, there is a scarcity of investigations on economical-related use of SNSs in students, even though shopping is one of the major goals of internet use among this group [15]. ...
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Background Higher education students are heavy users of the internet for a wide variety of reasons, including Social Networking Sites (SNSs). This study investigated various purposes of internet use among undergraduate university students, and how different categories of such activities are related to SNS addiction. Methods The sample set from 420 SNS users (280 females), a survey questionnaire was used to collect the information, including demographic information, purposes for internet usage (social, entertainment, academic, and economic purposes), and SNS addiction. Descriptive statistics, correlation, and a path diagram to estimate the regression coefficients were used to examine the data. Results Findings revealed that the most common purposes for using the internet were online social networking and information seeking, followed by listening to music or watching movies, learning, relaxing, using email for educational needs, and reading socio-political news. In the comparison between categories of purposes for internet usage, the most prevalent group of purposes were academic and informative, recreational, social, and economic categories respectively. Moreover, the most significant influences belonged to the social group [positively], the academic and informative group (negatively), and the recreational group (positively) on SNS addiction respectively. The economic group of purposes did not have a significant influence on SNS addiction. Conclusion This study has important implications for education and health providers, particularly in universities; we recommend that they try to improve students’ mental health and academic performance by providing opportunities for them to improve their IT literacy and skills.
... Whereby cognitive engagement is an influential driver of consumers' ongoing search behavior, while emotional engagement and behavioral engagement are significant predictors of the repurchase intention of consumers. X. Liu et al. (2021) Customer engagement Empirical (big data analytics) ...
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The social behavioral perspective is under-researched in the extant literature. This hinders the holistic understanding of social media brand engagement. This study examines the interplay of socio-psychological gratification variables (perceived homophily, perceived critical mass, and self-status seeking) and consumer values (personal, interpersonal, and fun) on consumer participation in social media brand engagement. The conceptual model in this study is situated on the principles of Uses and Gratifications, Critical Mass, Homophily, and Values theories. Based on an online survey of 713 Facebook users, we examine the model using structural equation modeling (with Amos 23.0). The analysis disclosed insights on the interplay of motivational factors that underlie social media brand engagement. Our findings suggest that socio-psychological gratification variables (perceived homophily, perceived critical mass, and self-status seeking) drive consumers' engagement with brand pages and brand communities on social media. This relationship is strengthened by the consumer values. These insights serve as an important basis for researchers and practitioners to understand social media brand engagement and its outcomes.
... For example, some studies have investigated the effects of new laws on digital marketing (Hemsley, 2018;Sposit, 2018). Additionally, research on social media marketing started paying attention to emerging markets, where the adoption rate of social media marketing is lower in comparison with developed countries (Christino et al., 2019;Liu et al., 2019b). Some companies in these countries still rely more on traditional media for advertising of their products and services, as they are more trusted in comparison with social media channels (Ali et al., 2016;Olanrewaju et al., 2020) . ...
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You can reach my book, 'Digital Marketing' via the following link: https://www.morebooks.shop/store/gb/book/digital-marketing/isbn/978-613-8-96557-2
... Consumers will feel the motivation to get trending information about a brand within social media platforms, which encourages them to keep up with the latest developments about brands by seeking knowledge of relevant trends (Gallaugher & Ransbotham, 2010). Trendy information can help consumers attract attention, evoke positive consumer feelings, and drive loyalty intentions (Liu, Shin, & Burns, 2021). ...
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The research aims to examine the factors that form brand awareness and brand image of the tourism sector in Indonesia by using the model social media marketing on TikTok platform. The research was conducted quantitative methods using a survey of 220 respondents who were users of the TikTok application. Data collection was carried out from April to May 2021, and processed using Structural Equation Model Partial Least Square (SEM PLS). Convenience sampling was used in this research. The results show that entertainment, electronic word of mouth, and interaction positively affect consumer brand engagement. Trendiness and customization do not affect consumer brand engagement. Furthermore, consumer brand engagement positively affects brand loyalty, brand awareness, and brand image. The implication of this research is a reference for managers and policymakers in formulating strategies to improve the tourism sector in Indonesia using the model Social Media Marketing on TikTok.
... Conceptualized under the service-dominant logic, customer value is created by customer engagement with the service provider (Vargo and Lusch, 2017). In this regard, growing attention has been paid to customer engagement in the recent decade (Van Doorn et al., 2010;Ho and Chung, 2020;Liu et al., 2021). However, research on the dynamic interaction between service employees and customers is still limited (Argo and Dahl, 2020;Li and Katsumata, 2020;Zhang et al., 2020). ...
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There has been an increasing interest to explore and gain knowledge about customer engagement behavior among academia and practitioners. Particularly, the value co-creation process in customer services is essential to explore the interaction structure. In this study, we applied the computational simulation of the NK model to identify the value co-creation process between service employees and customers in the service context. To specifically explore the dynamic interaction among them, we identified what kind of service is provided for what type of customers and when service performance improves according to the degree of interaction between service employees and customers. The simulations show that the greatest service value can be achieved when employees and customers jointly perform local search (90%) and long jump (10%). However, if both employees and customers jointly perform local search only, the service value can be stuck in a local optimum. In cases where employees and customers make their independent improvement, either through local search or long jump, the overall service value varies depending on the complexity of interactions between employees and customers. For example, the improvement in service value is the worst when employees and customers make long jumps at independent timings in high complex interactions. Our computational simulations offer visible experimental-based insights into understanding the value co-creation process with customers and promising results for customer service studies.
... averaged 320 million monthly active users in 2018). Twitter's interactive feature enables access to real-time data which re°ects customer innovation interactions [Liu et al. (2021)]. Additionally, academic researchers increasingly use Twitter as a data source to investigate fashion-related phenomena [e.g. Lee et al. (2017); Zhao and Min (2018)]. ...
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Digital printing technology (DPT) represents a core innovation that is currently revolutionizing the global decorated apparel market by automating the printing process, facilitating customization, and reducing energy costs and production lead time. However, the fundamental understanding of the emerging DPT market remains unexplored due to its novelty. This study aims to identify DPT diffusion patterns over the past decade in the U.S. market and establish a predictive user profile employing social media-based analytics along with data mining and traditional statistical modeling. A proxy variable is used to measure likely adoption which reflects an S-shaped diffusion curve consistent with Diffusion of Innovations Theory. Additionally, the outcome profile suggests that likely DPT adopters reside in locations that reflect higher levels of education (bachelor’s degrees or higher), relatively young populations (i.e. between 19–34 years of age), proportionately higher incomes generated from art and design occupations, but with lower household annual incomes.
... Furthermore, businesses can derive meaningful insights from what customers say in their own words and make more relevant strategies based upon these insights. (Liu et al, 2021) • ...
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Technological advancements improve the knowledge potential of business and help in building interactions with the customers. Artificial intelligence is drastically changing the way businesses used to engage with the customers by extracting and analyzing tremendous data generated through customer interaction. However, this area is not much explored in academic research. Hence, this study aims at understanding the role of artificial intelligence in enhancing customer engagement. It also deals with artificial intelligence tools used for engaging customers, challenges in using artificial intelligence for customer engagement, and the future of artificial intelligence in customer engagement. This study depends on secondary data that have been gathered from various sites, journals, books, and other available e-content. This study has implications for marketers in enhancing customer engagement and for academicians as it contributes to the literature on the role of artificial intelligence in developing customer engagement.
... Thanks to big data analytics, new patterns and trends have emerged in the study of brands. This enriched knowledge can drive strategic choices and support novel family firm branding strategies and actions (Kunz et al., 2017;Liu, Cutcher, & Grant, 2017;Liu, Shin, & Burns, 2019), moving forward from the traditional use of surveys, case studies, interviews, and focus groups (Aaker, 1996;Keller, 1993;Lassar, Mittal, & Sharma, 1995). ...
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This study explores the role of external audiences in determining the importance of family firm brands and the relationship with firm performance. Drawing on text mining and social network analysis techniques, and considering the brand prevalence, diversity, and connectivity dimensions, we use the semantic brand score to measure the importance the media give to family firm brands. The analysis of a sample of 52,555 news articles published in 2017 about 63 Italian entrepreneurial families reveals that brand importance is positively associated with family firm revenues, and this relationship is stronger when there is identity match between the family and the firm. This study advances current literature by offering a rich and multifaceted perspective on how external audiences perceptions of the brand shape family firm performance.
... This paper proposals a pragmatic assessment of the character of different organizational workers in online communication links during adversities. Liu et al. (2021) have proposed a study to make usage of large data in examining the influence of a superfluity trademark's social media publicizing undertakings on consumer meetings. This study analyzes the impact of concentrating on the show business, collaboration along customization magnitudes of a superfluity brands' social media undertakings on consumer commitment with trademark-relavent social media content. ...
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People are using platforms of social media like Twitter, Facebook, or Instagram as a regular way to reach very much targeted and new prospective customers. The role of online media is to facilitate the opportunity in making a connection with followers and fans every time they log in. Online media keep social posts informative and sometimes entertaining which the followers' glade to see the contents in their feeds. Online media facilitate with low commitment and easy way to prospective consumers for expressing attentiveness in the business you do for your services or product. Online media can offer a number of marketing opportunities for businesses of all dimensions. These opportunities include promotion of the brand, communication to the consumer about service or product, attracting customers, and building strong connections with available consumers. Apart from this, several other benefits can be gained from the business of online media such as the ability to target, broad reach, fast, personal, low cost or free, and easy to use. An overview of the existing approaches, tools, and techniques to present is the dire need of the modern business in order to develop novel ways and to present the business of services or products in an effective and efficient way. Therefore, this study has presented a comprehensive review of the existing literature associated with the techniques, tools, and approaches used for business with the help of online media and to decision making. Based on this study, new mechanisms will be provided for effective business.
Chapter
E-Health is an application of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) across the range of functions which affect health for example, treat patients, pursue research, educate students, track diseases and monitor public health. E-Health has become a sturdy and versatile platform that can facilitate the enhancement of information and services delivery in the health industry. E-Health readiness assessment is a basis for ICT investments in healthcare organizations. In relation to healthcare, assessing health readiness is impacted by several factors. However, even though there is an abundance of evidence of the subject of healthcare in the literature, studies that have investigated the factors impacting its assessment in the developing countries is still limited. In Iraq, e-Health readiness is still in its nascent stage. Therefore, this study aims to assess the contribution of the critical factors leading to e-Health readiness assessment in healthcare institutions in Iraq. The propose study also contributes to the body of knowledge among medical and technical staff with regard to their beliefs in the use of e-Health. In addition, these significant findings have crucial implications and valuable contributions to researchers, government agencies, insurance companies, and healthcare professionals in Iraq.
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Purpose The purpose of the study is to understand how socially shared misinformation and rumors can enhance the motivation to protect personal interests and enhance social practices of panic buying. Design/methodology/approach The study employed a number of qualitative data collection methods for the purpose of triangulation, as it can offer thick interpretation and can help to develop a context specific research framework. Findings The shared misinformation and rumors on social media developed into psychological, physical and social threats; therefore, people started panic buying to avoid these negative consequences. People believed that there were differences between the information shared by politicians and government officials and reality, such as “everything is under control,” whereas social media showed people standing in long queues and struggling to buy the necessities of life. The shared misinformation and rumors on social media became viral and received social validation, which created panic buying in many countries. Research limitations/implications It is the responsibility of government, politicians, leaders, media and the public to control misinformation and rumors, as many people were unable to buy groceries due either to socio-economic status or their decisions of late buying, which increased depression among people. Originality/value The study merged the theory of rumor (TORT) transmission and protection motivation theory (PMT) to understand how misinformation and rumors shared through social media increased global uncertainty and the desire to panic buy across the world.
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The literature has overlooked whether emotional positivity in social media messages posted by brands has the same effect on different types of consumer engagement behaviors on social media. Furthermore, whether brands’ emotional positivity plays a role in shaping the impact of message emotionality is unclear. To address these gaps, the authors develop and test a model of the impact of emotional positivity of social media messages posted by brands on consumers’ personal engagement and interactive engagement behaviors. The authors also examine whether and how brand emotional positivity interacts with message emotional positivity in triggering these responses. Based on a sample of 62,255 Twitter messages posted by brands the authors find that, in general, emotional positivity has an opposite effect in terms of stimulating personal engagement (likes) versus interactive engagement (retweets). Brand emotional positivity negatively moderates the link between message positivity and both types of user responses.
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Bu çalışma algılanan sosyal medya çevikliğinin müşteri satın alımları, müşteri tavsiyeleri, müşteri etkileri ve müşteri geri bildirimleri/önerileri üzerinde pozitif etkisinin olup olmadığını test etmeyi amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca bu çalışmada araştırmacılara ve yöneticilere daha kapsamlı bir bakış açısı sunmak için incelenen ilişkilerin, müşterilerin sosyal medya kullanım yoğunluğuna göre farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığının ortaya çıkarılması hedeflenmektedir. İlgili yapıları test etmek için, çevrimiçi anket yöntemiyle 228 sosyal medya kullanıcısından veriler elde edilmiştir. Ölçeklerin güvenirlilik ve geçerlilikleri test edildikten sonra hipotezler regresyon analizleri ile test edilmiştir. Algılanan sosyal medya kullanım yoğunluğunun düzenleyicilik rolünü analiz etmek için PROCESS Makro Model 1 kullanılmıştır. Araştırmacılara ve yöneticilere düzenleyici etkiler ile ilgili daha kapsamlı bilgiler sunmak için istatistiksel olarak anlamlı çıkan düzenleyici etki(ler) Johnson Neyman yöntemi ile irdelenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, algılanan sosyal medya çevikliği müşteri katılım davranışlarını olumlu olarak etkilemektedir. Düzenleyicilik analizlerinden elde edilen sonuçlara göre; sosyal medya kullanım yoğunluğu algılanan sosyal medya çevikliğinin müşteri katılım davranışları üzerindeki pozitif etkisini kısmi olarak olumlu yönde düzenlerken; müşteri teşvikleri, müşteri etkileri ve müşteri geri bildirimleri üzerindeki pozitif etkisini düzenlememektedir. Johnson Neyman yönteminden elde edilen bulgulara göre ise; algılanan sosyal medya çevikliğinin müşteri satın alımları üzerindeki olumlu etkisi, sosyal medya kullanım yoğunluğunun tüm seviyelerinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı çıkmıştır. Ancak, sosyal medya kullanım yoğunluğu yüksek olan bireyler (düşük olanlara kıyasla) bir markayı sosyal medyada çevik olarak algıladıklarında, o markanın ürünlerini veya hizmetlerini satın almada daha istekli davranmaktadırlar.
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In the era of Marketing 5.0, crafting a favorable brand attitude and engaging consumers with a banking brand has become the most critical and challenging task for bank marketers to enhance overall brand equity. Previous research did not sug- gest how effectively social media marketing efforts enhance overall brand equity in the financial service sector. In response to this gap, this study aims to examine how social media mar- keting efforts (SMME) influence overall brand equity (OBE) through consumer brand engagement (CBE) and brand atti- tude (BAtt) in the banking sector in Bangladesh. Furthermore, brand trust (BT) is tested as a moderator of SMME and CBE. The data were obtained by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 263 banking consumers in Bangladesh using a systematic sampling method. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate hypothesized relationships. The results indicated that SMM efforts directly influence CBE and BAtt. CBE and BAtt partially mediate the relationship between SMME and OBE. Moreover, the results confirmed the moderat- ing role of brand trust on the link between SMME and CBE. The findings of this research offer significant implications for building overall brand equity in the social media marketing perspective, particularly for the banking sector.
Article
The transformation of society and the development of digital technologies have significantly affected consumer behavior: consumer identity is now spreading to digital environment, with a new segment of digital consumers being developed. As a result of digitalization, new business models are emerging, for example, commercial sharing systems, the full functioning of which is impossible without the existence of digital platforms and the Internet. Despite the popularity of the topic of commercial sharing systems in the research environment and a wide range of tools used in research, at the moment no attempts have been made to study a digital profile of commercial sharing services users based on the analysis of their social networks profiles. Social network data are one of the most extensive sources of information about consumers: the ability to analyze consumer behavior in social networks can become a significant competitive advantage for companies, as it allows them to quickly extract objective information about the users. The objective of the study is to develop digital profiles of commercial sharing systems’ users based on their digital footprint data. The empirical basis of the study is the publications (posts) of commercial sharing communities’ subscribers on a popular Russian social network VKontakte. The information posted by users in social networks was collected using Python (the API, Application Programming Interface are used), the sample size comprises 24,000 profiles. The collected data have been processed and analyzed using the topic modeling method, as a result of the analysis, 12 main topics are identified characterizing users’ interests. Based on individual topic profiles, topic profiles of communities are formed, furthermore, differences in the digital behavior commercial sharing systems profiles were identified. The application of data on user behavior in digital environment creates new opportunities for digital companies and can become the basis for improving the performance of personalization services, timely adaptation of product offers and approaches to interaction with customers, as well as become the basis for the development of ecosystems.
Article
Sharing economy platforms commonly claim to bring about positive social impacts, such as facilitating contact between individuals that would not have met otherwise. According to contact theory, such intergroup contact would change the stereotypes that individuals hold of outgroup members, such as people with a different nationality or ethnicity. We use a large‐scale online Investment Game experiment among Airbnb users to study the effect of Airbnb interactions on cross‐national trust. In contrast with common claims about the positive impact of the sharing economy, we did not find that individuals who had prior experience with a nationality as a host or a guest on Airbnb trusted persons of that nationality more. This may be because monetization, institutionalization and professionalization of Airbnb limits the intensity of contact, or because Airbnb mostly establishes contact between individuals with similar backgrounds.
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Purpose Although the consumption of luxury brands is significantly on the rise in emerging markets, a significant impetus is needed to boost their growth to achieve desired revenues and profitability. This paper aims to consider social media marketing activities and consumer-brand engagement as key constructs to realize these desired objectives. Design/methodology/approach The empirical relationships among social media marketing activities, consumer-brand engagement and consumer response have been examined with a sample of 465 respondents. Findings Social media marketing activities foster engagement among luxury brand consumers, translating into a favorable response. Besides this, informational marketer generated content (MGC) moderates the relationship between social media marketing activities and consumer-brand engagement. Practical implications Marketers can use the outcomes of this study to better engage consumers of luxury brands on social media platforms to engender a favorable response. Originality/value This paper highlights how consumers of luxury brands are engaged through different marketing activities in the social media context. Also, the moderating role of MGC has been explored.
Chapter
Social media is a powerful advertising tool in today’s competitive business environment. Though social media advertising is helping businesses reach out to consumers through numerous channels, research into this phenomenon is still scarce in the African marketplace. This chapter fills this research gap first by exploring how businesses in Africa use social media marketing to engage with customers in a way that drives buying behaviour, builds loyalty, and enhances brand reputation. Second, it examines the use of creative, informative, and emotional appeals as critical antecedents to positive user responses in the context of social media advertisements. The chapter concludes with recommendations for marketing practitioners in Africa.
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Purpose Social media data from financial websites contain information related to enterprise credit risk. Mining valuable new features in social media data helps to improve prediction performance. This paper proposes a credit risk prediction framework that integrates social media information to improve listed enterprise credit risk prediction in the supply chain. Design/methodology/approach The prediction framework includes four stages. First, social media information is obtained through web crawler technology. Second, text sentiment in social media information is mined through natural language processing. Third, text sentiment features are constructed. Finally, the new features are integrated with traditional features as input for models for credit risk prediction. This paper takes Chinese pharmaceutical enterprises as an example to test the prediction framework and obtain relevant management enlightenment. Findings The prediction framework can improve enterprise credit risk prediction performance. The prediction performance of text sentiment features in social media data is better than that of most traditional features. The time-weighted text sentiment feature has the best prediction performance in mining social media information. Practical implications The prediction framework is helpful for the credit decision-making of credit departments and the policy regulation of regulatory departments and is conducive to the sustainable development of enterprises. Originality/value The prediction framework can effectively mine social media information and obtain an excellent prediction effect of listed enterprise credit risk in the supply chain.
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The significant growth of luxury products and services and their marketing in the last three decades has fueled substantial research interest among scholars and practitioners investigating the various aspects of luxury. However, the existing literature lacks a comprehensive review that includes all possible aspects of luxury. This paper responds to this gap by systematically reviewing the studies on this subject to provide a macro picture to identify the existing state of research, potential synergies, differences, and direction for future research. This review includes articles from 34 journals, covering 125 articles in total. The paper finds that the research on luxury revolves around four major themes: branding, consumption drivers, counterfeits, and marketing strategy. The paper then integrates various studies into these themes, enabling it to provide key insights for each domain, while examining their research design permits the analysis of the industry, geography, and methodological approaches. The paper finds that there are multiple theoretical paradoxes in the existing literature. Luxury research requires theoretical integration, should use real-world data to generate insights, and pay attention towards managerially relevant problems. The paper synthesizes implications across studies, identifies overlap and replication, understands disagreements and issues, and outlines potential research areas.
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Purpose Social bots are prevalent on social media. Malicious bots can severely distort the true voices of customers. This paper aims to examine social bots in the context of big data of user-generated content. In particular, the author investigates the scope of information distortion for 24 brands across seven industries. Furthermore, the author studies the mechanisms that make social bots viral. Last, approaches to detecting and preventing malicious bots are recommended. Design/methodology/approach A Twitter data set of 29 million tweets was collected. Latent Dirichlet allocation and word cloud were used to visualize unstructured big data of textual content. Sentiment analysis was used to automatically classify 29 million tweets. A fixed-effects model was run on the final panel data. Findings The findings demonstrate that social bots significantly distort brand-related information across all industries and among all brands under study. Moreover, Twitter social bots are significantly more effective at spreading word of mouth. In addition, social bots use volumes and emotions as major effective mechanisms to influence and manipulate the spread of information about brands. Finally, the bot detection approaches are effective at identifying bots. Research limitations/implications As brand companies use social networks to monitor brand reputation and engage customers, it is critical for them to distinguish true consumer opinions from fake ones which are artificially created by social bots. Originality/value This is the first big data examination of social bots in the context of brand-related user-generated content.
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The amount of digital text available for analysis by consumer researchers has risen dramatically. Consumer discussions on the internet, product reviews, and digital archives of news articles and press releases are just a few potential sources for insights about consumer attitudes, interaction, and culture. Drawing from linguistic theory and methods, this article presents an overview of automated text analysis, providing integration of linguistic theory with constructs commonly used in consumer research, guidance for choosing amongst methods, and advice for resolving sampling and statistical issues unique to text analysis. We argue that although automated text analysis cannot be used to study all phenomena, it is a useful tool for examining patterns in text that neither researchers nor consumers can detect unaided. Text analysis can be used to examine psychological and sociological constructs in consumerproduced digital text by enabling discovery or by providing ecological validity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Content analysis of in-person interviews with luxury shoppers in Paris identified 11 discrete social media engagement behaviors. Findings indicate that consumer engagement behaviors (CEBs) have different potential for luxury brand cocreation depending on their intended audience, degree of applied effort and creativity, complexity of motivations, and dominant content creation style, but not on choice of social media platform. Luxury marketers can preserve their unique positioning in social media by offering top-quality visual content reinforcing the desired brand associations to (a) generate active and creative behaviors by influentials and (b) promote low-effort, high-virality behaviors by consumers motivated by less complex needs.
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With the increasing popularity of mobile social media among Chinese consumers, Western luxury brands attempt to connect with the Chinese market via popular social media applications. However, due to cultural differences and features of social media, Western luxury brands are facing challenges in building social presence, creating self-presentation, and interacting with Chinese consumers via social media. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to understand the strategic use of social media in luxury branding and Chinese consumers’ perception and interpretation of such practices. Applying triangulation, this study conducted content analysis on seven Western luxury brands’ WeChat public accounts in 2015, and in-depth interviews with seventeen female luxury consumers. The findings show that Western luxury brands primarily use rich media to build social presence, focus on the social meaning of self-presentation, and allow low-level consumer engagement. Consumers, meanwhile, perceive Western luxury brands’ social media advertising as conservative, distant, and inactive. Based upon the findings, this study suggests that Western luxury brands should provide more creative and entertaining value via social media advertising, appear to be more personal and relatable, and engage consumers at higher levels.
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Luxury brands have embraced the social media era through marketing communications pointing out the particular attributes of luxury such as high quality, rich pedigree, rarity, personality and placement, as well as using public relations, public figures and typically high pricing, to drive consumer engagement. This paper provides empirical findings about the effectiveness of luxury brand marketing in driving consumer engagement on social media platforms. An empirical study of 52 luxury brands' Facebook pages has been conducted. The findings of this study provide valuable guidance for luxury brand managers and marketing researchers on how to formulate and implement effective social media marketing strategies to leverage their luxury brand's potential.
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Luxury brands have always been fashion industry leaders, with admirable aesthetic value and innovative yet traditional business management. The brands constantly struggle to secure profits by providing novel value to customers through quality products and services, customer management, retail strategies, and innovative marketing mixes. However, the recent entry of numerous fashion brands in the luxury market coupled with decreased sales related to economic downturns have led to new challenges for luxury firms. Because the luxury fashion business is considered high value-added with guaranteed high profit margins and secure regular customers, the lower sectors have begun to heat up the competition. To survive the recent unforeseen challenges of heated competition, they have turned toward marketing communication using social media. Social media are the two-way communication platforms that allow users to interact with each other online to share information and opinions. Use of social media sites such as Twitter and Facebook has already expanded to almost every luxury fashion brand and been evaluated as business take-off tools. With the increased use of social media as a means of marketing communication for luxury brands, it has become necessary to empirically analyze the effect of social media marketing (SMM). Thus, the study presented here investigated the effects of this SMM on customer relationships (involving intimacy and trust) and purchase intention. A preliminary test was conducted in order to draw a sample of a luxury fashion brand for this study. Self-administrated questionnaires with visual stimuli were used to collect data from luxury consumers in the Seoul area. Respondents were restricted to consumers who had purchased any luxury fashion brand item within the previous two years. Among 150 questionnaires distributed, 133 questionnaires were finally employed for statistical analysis. Principal component analysis using varimax rotation was conducted to figure out the properties of luxury fashion brands’ SMM. The social media contained five properties: entertainment, customization, interaction, word of mouth, and trend. Factor loadings ranged from .84 to .52. Cronbach’s α lay between .80 and .88, demonstrating adequate construct reliability. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of SMM on customer relationship (i.e., intimacy and trust) and purchase intention, as well as relationship between customer relationship (i.e., intimacy and trust) and purchase intention. Results show that entertainment has a significant positive effect on intimacy (β=.25, t=3.48, p<.01), trust (β=.34, t=5.75, p<.001), and purchase intention (β=.31, t=4.32, p<.001). Other positive effects are customization on trust (β=.13, t=2.28, p<.05), interaction on purchase intention (β=.25, t=3,54, p<.01), word of mouth on intimacy (β=.14, t=1.92, p<.05) and purchase intention (β=.19, t=2.65, p<.01), and trend only on trust (β=.32, t=5.30, p<.001). It seems that entertainment, customization, and trend were satisfying what customers expected from a luxury fashion brand. Because the luxury industry aims to provide value to customers in every way possible, the brands should focus on providing free entertainment content, customized services, and trend forward social media site which all act positively toward enhancing customer relationship. Trust has a significant relationship with purchase intention (β=.34, t=4.85, p<.001). Since the trust variable within a customer relationship was only significantly associated with purchase intention, the mediating effects of customization and trend were found. The study proves the effectiveness of luxury brands’ SMM on both customer relationships and purchase intention, and proposes a strategy to enhance the brands’ performance by defining specific factors influencing both. The result show that the chosen brand’s SMM includes distinctive elements in comparison to old-fashioned marketing performances. Every property found in luxury brands’ SMM positively influenced customer relationships and purchase intention, with entertainment affecting more variables than any other properties. Luxury brands should heavily supply an entertainment aspect of social media contents and activities. Every activity enabled by use of the media, such as creating relationships with other users, providing customized service and free entertainment contents, and obtaining genuine information on personal interest should all be entertaining. By focusing on providing such features, customer relationships and purchase intention will be enhanced. Concerning the association between customer relationship and purchase intention, trust and purchase intention were highly related. Customers’ trust was strengthened via interaction with other users as well as brand on social media sites. Trust gained while enjoying entertainment and communication provided on the sites seems to contribute greatly toward a luxury brand’s profit. With the growing interest of luxury fashion brands in providing luxurious value to customers in every way possible, using social media appears to be appropriate for retaining old customers and attracting cross-shoppers. As competition among luxury fashion brands becomes more intense by providing plenty of alternatives to customers, the brands’ prosperity seems no longer quite so promising. The importance of managing customers as valuable assets cannot be emphasized more. As such, more luxury brands should engage in social media marketing activities to anticipate a positive contribution to the brands by providing new luxury value to customers.
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