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A Meta Analytical Study on Leadership Integrity : A leadership Ethics Perspective


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Integrity is one of the top attributes of a great leader and a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and outcomes. This trait in a leader is a deep commitment to do the right thing for the right reason, regardless of the circumstances. The word integrity evolved from the Latin adjective integer, meaning whole or complete. In this context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and consistency of character. A leader can afford to lack and still get away from danger. Integrity isn't one of them.
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A Meta Analytical Study on Leadership
Integrity : A leadership Ethics Perspective
Prof Dr.C.Karthikeyan*
Integrity is one of the top attributes of a great leader and a concept of consistency of actions,
values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and outcomes. This trait in a leader is a deep
commitment to do the right thing for the right reason, regardless of the circumstances. The
word integrity evolved from the Latin adjective integer, meaning whole or complete. In this
context, integrity is the inner sense of "wholeness" deriving from qualities such as honesty and
consistency of character. A leader can afford to lack and still get away from danger. Integrity
Keywords: Integrity, Leader, Principles, Ethics, Lacking, Honest, Expectations, Outcome,
Introduction: In Leadership traits integrity is the most indispensible quality of a leader, by
being honest, having moral principles, uprightness, and consistent ethical standards. In ethics,
leader integrity is regarded as the honesty, truthfulness and accuracy of one's actions. Mayer
and Gavin (2005) found that people who trusted their leaders were more likely to engage in in-
role and extra-role behaviors on behalf of the organization. A Justification of Leader Integrity is
important due to various questions raised like why integrity matter to followers? Leader integrity
matters because it plays a significant role in the decision process used by followers when
* Director-Adithya School of Business, Adithya Institute of Technology, Coimbatore,
Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India
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deciding who they will follow, who they will trust, to whom they will be loyal and committed,
influence on the leadership process and the positive organizational outcomes it achieves.
Leadership from the employee-centered perspective attributes word/deed consistency, increase
follower confidence, and helps in a prediction of the behaviors to follow. Leaders with such
integrity follow through the practice what they preach, and walk the talk. The words professed
by leaders with integrity therefore become useful predictors of action. In the contrasting
situation, leaders who lack integrity provide no basis for followers to infer actions from their
Objectives of the study:
(i) : To evaluate the factors Influencing Integrity in a Leader
(ii) : To examine whether Leadership character influences the role of integrity
(iii) : To evaluate the ethical lapses influencing Integrity of a leader
(iv) : To examine whether Organisation Culture starts with the leader and it indirectly
influences Integrity in Leaders and organization
(v) : To evaluate what Leader Integrity means at Leadership Levels.
Methodology: Meta Analytical Study with the Literature Research and Secondary Data from
Leadership Training Organisations
Review of Literature: (Previous Related Work Done)
Grover & Moorman, (2007). Palanski and Yammarino (2007) suggested that integrity
   
has prevented both the development of theoretical models on cause and effect relationships of
integrity and the development of empirical tests of those relationships.
(Dunn, 2009). Palanski and Yammarino suggested further that the central point of disagreement
is whether integrity describes more narrow conceptions of wholeness or consistency or whether
integrity is better thought of more expansively to include references to authenticity, ethicality,
morality, or character.The root of all integrity judgments is a sense of consistency or congruence
between seemingly disparate elements.
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Palanski and Yammarino (2007) and Dunn (2009) have found little disagreement on the
importance of consistency; however, where things get more interesting is when discussions turn
toward just what should be consistent to indicate integrity.
Palanski and Yammarino (2007) began their discussion of integrity definitions with the general
as wholeness may refer to something like the integrity of the hull of a ship, suggesting that the
hull is watertight, or the integrity of a bridge, where the two ends are anchored and the span
supported. For leaders, integrity as wholeness speaks to a general consistency among all
Furrow (2005) 
extent to whi           
definition suggests that the key for integrity is the alignment of commitments, but it offers little
explanation of what those commitments must be.
A more specific definition of leader integrity is the definition and operationalization of
behavioral integrity developed by Simons (2002) and adopted, with some adjustment, by
Palanski and Yammarino (2007).
Simons (2002) defined behavioral integrity as the perceived pattern of alignment between a
             
             e kept
(Simons, Friedman, Liu, & McLean Parks, 2007).
Palanski and Yammarino (2007) considered this to be a more restricted definition of integrity
              
consistency wi
and behaviors.
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Simons and McLean-Parks (2000) found that behavioral integrity was related to trust in
managers and organizational commitment.
Simons (2008) also found that behavioral integrity directly affects employee trust in leaders and
that this trust is a central mechanism for predicting a causal chain from behavioral integrity to
trust, commitment, and various discretionary behaviors tied to individual, group, and
organizational performance.
Dineen, Lewicki, and Tomlinson (2006) reported that levels of behavioral integrity moderated a
relationship between supervisory guidance and organizational citizenship behavior and deviant
behavior. They found that when behavioral integrity was at a high level, supervisory guidance
was more positively related to OCB performance. However, the opposite occurred when
behavioral integrity was low: when behavioral integrity was low in the leaders, providing
guidance actually increased the deviance.
Moorman & Grover(2009 ) School of Global Leadership &Entrepreneurship, suggest that not
only is integrity defined by internal consistencies (such as word/deed consistency), it is also
defined by the external consistency of those actions with either individual moral frameworks or
community moral frameworks.
Thomson (2002) in their study of links between perceived integrity and transformational
leadership. Similarly, Brown and his colleagues characterized a leader with integrity as one who
behaves according to a set of normative ethics (Brown, Treviño, & Harrison, 2005). Virtue ethics
theory integrates both the internal and external perspectives on leader integrity. Palanski and
Yammarino (2007) defined integrity as an adjunctive virtue, which aligns with other virtuous
moral constructs like honesty, authenticity, trustworthiness, fairness, and compassion. They
              
definition therefore includes an indirect admission that perceived integrity may also infer an
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Simons, (2002) references only word/deed consistency, their belief that integrity is a virtue
indicating good character necessitates that integrity also be thought of as a measure of good
moral character.
Dunn (2009) rejected the argument that integrity is a virtue and instead expanded the definition
of integrity to include a much wider set of both internal and external consistencies. Included in
rnal coherence between moral values, words, and behaviors,
but he also asserted that integrity requires this internal coherence to be consistent with a set of
social values.
Grover & Moorman, (2007). Surprisingly, the academic business leadership literature has not
elevated leader integrity to a similar level of importance or activity. One reason for this may be
that leader integrity can be traced to trait theories of leadership (Bass, 1985; Stogdill, 1948)
which have been discredited in some quarters (Lord, de Vader, & Alliger, 1986).
Judge, Bono, Ilies, and Gerhardt (2002) cites ten reviews of the traits associated with
leadership and found that six includes mention of leader integrity or honesty (Bass, 1990; Daft,
1999; Kirkpatrick & Locke, 1991; Northouse, 1997; Yukl & Van Fleet, 1992).
Judge et al. (2002) suggested that these trait results have been devalued in the leadership
literature because traits Moorman & Grover/ INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP
STUDIES 106 International Journal of Leadership Studies, Vol. 5 Issue. 2, 2009 © 2009 School
of Global Leadership &Entrepreneurship, Regent University ISSN 1554-3145 may only be
associated with leader emergence rather than leader effectiveness
Palanski & Yammarino, (2007), and it might be the case that definitional nuances have nudged
Luthans and Avolio (2003), Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May, and Walumbwa (2005), and
Avolio and Gardner (2005) have detailed their theoretical perspective on authentic leadership.
           
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  -      
moral perspective-taking capacity and development
Simons, (2002).           
discussed by Brown and Trevino (Brown & Trevino, 2009; Brown, Treviño, & Harrison, 2005;
Treviño, Brown, & Hartman, 2003). They described the moral leader as one who behaves
according to the general concept of ethicality and integrity.
Brown et al. (2005),       
personal actions and interpersonal relationships, and the promotion of such conduct to followers
through two-way communication, reinforcement, and decision-    
leader not only behaves in ways that are consistent with his or her espoused values, but the moral
leader also behaves in ways that are consistent with the moral and ethical frameworks shared by
themselves and their followers. The prevalent model of organizational trust centrally includes
Mayer, Davis, & Schoorman, (1995). While Mayer and colleagues do not present a leadership
theory, the elements of trust are so closely related to leader integrity that the models are parallel.
Trust in the leader is considered such a central mechanism driving follower engagement that
models of the factors that determine trust are merely short steps away from models of effective
Simons (2002) noted that leader traits such as integrity can be thought of as perceiver constructs.
In his discussions of behavioral integrity, Simons considered integrity as subjective and as an
ascribed trait. He wrote that 
relationship between the actor and the perceiver, and by the attributes, history, and state of mind
Simons (2008) also conceded that for behavioral integrity to affect followers, the followers must
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van den Bos & Lind, (2002). Instead, the uncertainty management model suggests it is much
more likely that followers must decide to cede to authority in uncertain situations where
 as heuristic substitutes 
Bos, 2003, p. 483). One such heuristic substitute is the perception of procedural justice. When
direct information about outcome fairness is not available, people will resolve the question of
how they should interpret the decisions of the authority by relying on perceived procedural
Simons (2002) definition of word/deed consistency and, more indirectly, the belief that integrity
            
word/deed consistency may be instrumental       
actions from their words. Followers are likely to have heard leaders articulate plans, but they
Objective (i) : To evaluate the factors Influencing Integrity in a Leader
Related Work on Integrity: Kaptein and Wempe have developed a theory of corporate integrity
including criteria for businesses dealing with moral dilemmas. Another use of the term,
"integrity" appears in the work of Michael Jensen and Werner Erhard in their academic paper,
"Integrity: A Positive Model Other integrities that Incorporates the Normative Phenomenon of
Morality, Ethics, and Legality". Their model "reveals the causal link between integrity and
increased performance, quality of life, and value-creation for all entities, and provides access to
that causal link." According to Muel Kaptein, integrity is not a one-dimensional concept. he
presents a multifaceted perspective of integrity. Integrity relates to, for example, compliance to
the rules as well as to social expectations, with morality as well as ethics, and with actions as
well as attitude.
             
                
could be used to predict fu
consistent with values likely shared with the follower; c) that, in the future, the leader may only
ask the follower to behave in ways consistent with the values they already share; and d) that the
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             
four beliefs coalesce to significantly decrease the perceived risk of following a leader and to
significantly increase the belief that good things promised will come true.
Figure; 1 : Leader’s Integrity Credentials: Source Concept Designed: Prof.
Research Propositions Based leader integrity that 
Proposition 1: Attributions of leader integrity will be based on follower perceptions of
    
his or her words/deeds align with the moral and ethical frameworks of the follower. Proposition
2: Perceptions of leader integrity will be important in follower decisions to follow because they
provide information that increases follower certainty that the leader will deliver what he or she
promises. Proposition 3: Perceptions of leader integrity will be important in follower decisions
to follow because they provide information that increases follower certainty that the leader will
Proposition 4:
Perceptions of leader integrity will be important in follower decisions to follow because they
provide information that increases follower certainty that the leader will ask the follower to act in
           Proposition 5: If
followers do not perceive the leader to have integrity, information about leader competence will
only inform their decision to follow if that information comes from sources other than the leader.
Proposition 6: If followers do not perceive the leader to have integrity, information about plan
attributes will only inform their decision to follow if that information comes from sources other
than the leader.
Leaders Words indicative of
Leaders Actions Consistent
with Values
Leaders Consistency with
values they share
Leader's competence
is credible
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Figure: 2 : Research Propositions Based leader integrity that influences followers
The concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations and
outcomes connotes a deep commitment to do the right thing for the right reason, regardless of
the circumstances. People who live with integrity are incorruptible and incapable of breaking the
trust of those who have confided in them. Every human is born with a conscience and therefore
the ability to know right from wrong. Choosing the right, regardless of the consequence, is the
hallmark of integrity.
Integrity and Ethics:(personal ethics and Integrity for a leader)
In ethics when discussing behavior and morality, an individual is said to possess the virtue of
integrity if the individual's actions are based upon an internally consistent framework of
principles. These principles should uniformly adhere to sound logical axioms or postulates. One
can describe a person as having ethical integrity to the extent that the individual's actions, beliefs,
methods, measures and principles all derive from a single core group of values. An individual
must therefore be flexible and willing to adjust these values in order to maintain consistency
when these values are challenged; such as when an expected test result fails to be congruent with
all observed outcomes. Because such flexibility is a form of accountability, it is regarded as
based on
Perception of leader and
promises leaders make
tion :3
When increases
Followers values and
moral frameworks
Information about leader
about plan
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a moral responsibility as well as a virtue. An individual's value system provides
a framework within which the individual acts in ways which are consistent and expected.
Integrity can be seen as the state or condition of having such a framework, and acting
congruently within the given framework. One essential aspect of a consistent framework is its
avoidance of any unwarranted (arbitrary) exceptions for a particular person or group
especially the person or group that holds the framework.
Political integrity(for political leaders)
Integrity is important for politicians because they are chosen, appointed, or elected to serve
society. In order to be able to serve, politicians are given power in their positions to make,
execute, or control policy. They have the power to influence something or someone. There is,
however, a risk that this power will not be used by politicians to serve society. Aristotle said that
because rulers have power they will be tempted to use it for personal gain. It is important that
politicians withstand this temptation, and that requires integrity. The 10 basic mistakes that
makes leaders end up on the wrong end of a no-confidence Board vote, a Shareholder lawsuit, or
worst of all, Some of these mistakes may be obvious; some may be a bit more obscure. They are
all critical. Pride and Arrogance. Many leaders lost their early successes by inflating their
egos. Forgetting the roots the grew from and thought themselves to be invincible or infallible,
and putting self above anything or anyone. 
sense of security. Makes a leader feel superior to other people and institutions, and finally go
terribly wrong. Negative Influences. Some voices offer valuable counsel that can help keep a
leader on track. Some nudge the leaders and puts a leaders way off course. The challenge of
sifting through the ones worth listening and ignoring makes all the difference? Listening to
different perspectives from divergent sets of people, giving attention to the still small voice
makes a leader to listen, the better listener and discerner you will become.
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Figure; 3: The “Deceiving Chain in a Leader Leading to Lack of Integrity”: Concept and
Design: Prof Dr.C.Karthikeyan. (concieved idea: Enrique P. Fiallo)
Lacking Integrity. Leaders may lack many things and still can be clear of danger, where as
Integrity  need to establish a set of sound ethics policies, integrate
them into all business processes, communicate them broadly to all employees, and make clear
that you will not tolerate any deviation from any of them. Leaders can carve out time to set the
  and can make it clear to the organization. Giving too much importance to
small issues and make it a festival and celebrate, just because the leader is good at it. Leaders
distractions, tie their vision and strategy to the truly impactful things and execute those to the
best of their ability. Else the leader will hit the wall, and so will the company. This becomes
mediocre at a large number of things. Avoiding. If Leaders have an activity that needs to be
done, and should be done, then its better they do them and not to neglect them. The basic
business fundamentals cannot be ignored. Leaders need to strengthen their skills in weak areas
and put people in place in whose skill and integrity the leader trusts. Leaders need to recognize
the areas of weakness and try to learn how to do them (sometimes not practical to do) or find
people with those skills that the leader could trust to do them well. Lacking Values. Core values
are principles without which life (or business) wou       
Pride and
Majoring in
Minor things
Distractions Avoiding Habits
Lacking Values
Blindly Trusting
Spin Doctoring Short Cutting
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book Tribal Leadership, values are what the organization stands in. Leaders need to establish a
set of Core Values that can unite the organization, and then create resonance around them. The
leaders need to be convinced of Core Values and need to become the foundation of a well-oiled,
world-class, customer friendly, ethical organization. Leaders need to have a clue on it.
BlindlyTrusting People. Leaders can trust but also should      
alone, the wrong people with the wrong skills in the wrong place are a formula for disaster.
     prove themselves. Leaders need to take the
time to properly vet, and then observe key people in their role before and shall let them fly solo.
Any competent, well-grounded person should have no problem with this approach. Spin
Doctoring. Leders need to teach executives present the facts, tell the truth, communicate the
complete story and assure them that, let the chips fall where they may, but training them not to
divulge key strategies and give away competitive advantage, but the truth is ALWAYS the truth.
The lies will come back to haunt you and you may have to spend a too much time crafting the
right story, which in hindsight, a waste of time and energy. A better use of that time is to meet
challenges and problems head on,   
Short-Cutting. Many companies spend an in accounting tricks. A leader needs to understand
the most basic level, that there is no substitute for the natural laws of business. The leaders
needs to develop prospects, cultivate relationships, determine needs, propose solutions, close
is no substitute for methodical execution. The leader shall not succumb to the temptation of
circumventing the natural process through faulty techniques and flawed actions.
Objective: (ii) : To examine whether Leadership character influences the role of integrity
Integrity stands as the most important and the most critical as it builds valuable trust between
people and yet also the most esoteric. Integrity is doing the right thing when no one is watching,
and without integrity, yet trained to behave predictably in a certain manner. Discipline is
valuable and the critical components of integrity goes beyond just doing the right thing when no
one is looking. The first is that the adherence to a moral or ethical principle is a simple
compliance to a rule; it implies a philosophical understanding of the reason it exists. and the
second is the pursuit of an undiminished state or condition. Everyone makes mistakes, so being a
              
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means having the strength of character to le      
self-improvement. The word charattein, meaning to
engrave. This provides a much richer understanding of integrity as something leaders can select
and develop and strengthen.
High-integrity leaders are crucial to an organization's success: situations involving the loss
of integrity are not only found in the political arena, they also occur in our business
environments, perhaps more frequently than we would like to admit. While most leaders don't
engage in fraudulent behaviour, while they aren't engaging in anything illegal, their behaviour, in
my view, can be considered unethical and usually one more step to cross the line. A perception
of unethical behaviour also creates a sense of mistrust and a loss of integrity. People simply lose
respect for this type of leader.
Figure: 4 : The wheel of Integrity of a Leader: Integrity Factors interrelated: Concept
from: An Uncertainty Management Explanation, Robert H. Moorman, Creighton University,
(US) Source; Created by Dr.C.Karthikeyan
1. Continuous Personal Growth: Leaders with high levels of integrity are in constant
learning mode. They are ruthlessly honest with themselves, seek guidance to discover and work
around their blind spots and are always learning and growing as leaders.
are kept
Doing the
right thing
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2. A promise is a promise: High-integrity leaders keep their promises, and if they can't
meet the agreed-upon timeline, they will stay in communication with you until the promise has
been kept.
3. Reliability: Just as we purchase proven brands, leaders who are shown to be reliable and
can be counted on will attract more followers. Reliable leaders stick with problems and issues
until they are resolved from a win/win point of view and a strong consideration for all
stakeholders involved.
4. Accountability: High-integrity leaders don't just blame others and/or take the blame
themselves, they own the situation and all of its outcomes. These leaders quickly intervene in an
issue, evaluate unintended impact, take steps to rectify the situation and stay in close
communication with stakeholders until the job is done.
5. Responsiveness: There is nothing more frustrating than waiting for a leader to respond to
your query. High-integrity leaders are good time managers and will either respond immediately
and/or will inform you when they can get back to your issue. If the situation is a crisis, they will
be there for you.
6. Doing the right thing: High-integrity leaders have strong moral principles. You can
count on them do the right thing, at the right time and for all the right reasons. These leaders
have high personal standards and hold their team members and their corporation to the same high
standards. They then assess each decision and action against their organizational standards.
7. Respectfulness: Respect is earned and is done so by showing respect and an acceptance
toward others. Respecting others means understanding different values and beliefs, recognizing,
accepting and developing the skills of others and including all employees as part of the team.
Respect also means communicating and interacting with individuals by putting them on the same
playing field.
8. Accessibility: High-integrity leaders are physically present and make themselves
available and accessible to their staff. They interact with and invite employees to share their
issues; they are always available to stop and listen.
9. Transparency: High-integrity leaders ensure their actions are "seen" as trustworthy and
create a sense of certainty rather than uncertainty. They exhibit openness with respect to
information, finances and various operational transactions and business dealings. When
examined by others, their actions lead to trusting relationships.
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Whether a single lapse of integrity and/or as a continuous way of doing business, unethical, non-
integrity leadership behaviour not only has the power to ruin a career, but it has the power to
totally destroy an organization. When integrity is destroyed, confidence goes by the wayside and
may never ever return.
Objective(iii) : To evaluate the ethical lapses influencing Integrity of a Leader
Some of the research results were surprising and disconcerting: Social intelligence was the
most important factor for success in the middle of the organization. Middle managers must take
the vision of those at the top of the organization and communicate it to their subordinates. They
have pressures coming at them from all sides direct reports, colleagues in management, and
people above them in the hierarchy. They need the ability to get along, read other people, and
smooth over differences. But at the top of the organization, integrity and bravery were more
and in hand. Integrity is needed when deciding what action should
        
most vital of the two character strengths at the top was integrity.
Figure: 5 : Charater Elements In a Leader with Integrity: Source; Designed by Prof
Dr.C.Karthikeyan, Concept source; Barbara Bowes
Ethical lapses make the organizations sinks however integrity is the key criteria in determining
success by top executives. understanding the people and situations around them is key.
leaders have trouble
and damage the face of the organistion.So the researchers state that four character elements that
have repeatedly been shown to be important: integrity, bravery, perspective, and social
Broad Business Perspective
Social Awareness
Social Intelligence
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Leaders with integrity walk the talk. They are consistent, honest, moral and trustworthy. Their
         by their colleagues, their
bosses or the public and inevitably that will lead to problems.
Bravery is also vital for leadersreat or difficulty. It can
be lonely at the top or any level for leaders and they need the courage to take the lead on
unpopular actions.
Top-level executives need a broad business perspective to understand the environment in
which the organization is competing. Middle managers need perspective to engage effectively in
change and strategy formulation.
Social awareness is the awareness of the motives and feelings of yourself and others around
you. Because managers collaborate with others, this is a vital facility.
Objective;(iv): To examine whether Organisation Culture starts with the leader and it
indirectly influences Integrity in Leaders and organisation
Integrity seeks to understand all perspectives, and weigh consequences before making a decision.
Companies succeed or fail based upon the integrity of its leaders and employees. Integrity is the
basis for trustthe gauge through which we read and commit to action. Hardwire Integrity into
the Culture. You can hardwire integrity into the culture in three ways: It all starts with the
leader. Of course it all starts with the leader and if the leader can't walk the talk on values and
ethics, then it matters not what the rest of the team are doing, because it is the leader who sets the
tone. Keeping the promise and mostly this occurs not because leaders are disingenuous with
their promises, but mainly because of procrastination. The trouble with procrastinating on a
promise is by the time you get around to following through, you have already lost the trust and
confidence of your team. Leaders decision making. Just one badly skewed decision can result
in losing the respect of the team forever. Being non-judgemental. The trick here is to do
something about unwanted behaviors but to still care for the person in a non-judgmental way.
Giving credit where it's due. The leader even if headed up or initiated a project or piece of
work, the credit needs to go to the team who got the result. Leaders honesty in communication.
When leaders aren't straight, the team almost always find out, with disastrous results in destroyed
trust. Improvising face to face Conversations. Leaders needs to have conversation with
themselves, asking themselves the hard questions of personal accountability, grounded in
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truthfulness to oneself and all others involved. If leaders can adhere to values, feel that power in
the conviction of their words and actions is what is personal strength and courage, trust is
grounded within the self-assured knowledge of their ability to adhere to their convictions. No
          Leaders also need to expand
conversations across all boundaries and seek honest perspectives concerning how we live
integrity through corporate responsibility, accountability, and leadership direction.
Improvising functional Transparency. Transparencybeing free of all pretense and deceit
paves the way to open dialogue based upon trust in management and in the information. Good
business is predicated on solid principles. Businesses are comprised of many interconnected
departments, each dependent upon the flow, accuracy, and transparency of disseminated
information. Transparency is essential when you are setting a new course or desiring to improve
productivity and profitabi          
small and then snowballs. As more decisions are made based on the dishonest approach, the
snowball gains speed and mass until it becomes unmanageable and systems begin to fail.
Transparency keeps us honest. Expressing open-mindedness improves freedom from bias,
prejudice, and malice. Organisation candor enables us to listen receptively to other perspectives
while engaging in interactive dialogue. Dynamic leaders appreciate the contribution of others.
They leave their egos behind, harnessing the power of being secure within themselves while
trust, and candor fosters openness.
Objective: (v) : To evaluate what Leader Integrity means at Leadership Levels.
Leader Integrity is one of the fundamental values that a leader demonstrates sound moral and
ethical principles at work. Leaders with integrity lives in relationships with coworkers,
customers, and stakeholders and displays honesty and trust with integrity. The leaders with
integrity act with honor and truthfulness which are the basic tenets in a person with integrity.
Leaders who demonstrate integrity draw others to them because they are trustworthy and
dependable. They are principled and can be counted on to behave in honorable ways even when
no one is watching.The CEO of the company kept the employees up-to-date .The Ceo take a 10%
pay cut so that the company could avoid layoffs or furloughs for the time being. If you work in
an organization that values empowerment, for example, you are unafraid to take thoughtful
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risks. You are likely to identify and solve problems. You are comfortable making decisions
without a supervisor looking over your shoulder.Employees who thrive in this empowered
environment will do well. If you like waiting for someone to tell you what to do, you will fail if
empowerment is the expectation and value of your organization. Leaders in an organization
that values transparency, you can expect to know what is happening across the company. You
will know and understand the goals, direction, decisions, financial statements, successes, and
failures.Employees who don't want all of this information; may not fit the organization's
culture or meet the expectation that, having the information, they will use it. if your
organization values a high level of teamwork, they will ask employees to work in teams,
develop products by teams, and think of departments as teams. Additionally, because the
organization values relationships and a cohesive approach to working together with employees, it
will sponsor employee activities and events for employees and for employees and their families.
a loner kind of person who wants to work alone in your cubicle, you are not likely a good fit for
this work environment. Finally, a work culture that values responsibility and
accountability must hire employees who are willing to be responsible for output and outcomes.
It doesn't need people who make excuses, finger point and fail to hold each other accountable. It
needs people who are willing to call coworkers out for such problems as missing deadlines,
coming unprepared to meetings, or spreading misery and negativity.
Conclusions and Suggestions:
This research article concludes that integrity is the most important among the Leaders
traits:             
behavior and interaction with others. Studies of leadership have produced theories involving
character traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma,
and intelligence, among others. Somebody whom people follow: somebody who guides or
directs others. The most important trait in a good leader is integrity. A person of integrity lives
bound sound principles and motivates through ethical behavior. Integrity is the most important
trait of leadership in our society because regardless of what other beneficial characteristics exist,
people will not follow someone unless they have established trust with them. Become a fair
witness. To be a fair witness means to report your experience as accurately and neutrally as
possible. The more emotional attachment you have to something, the more challenging it is to be
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a fair witness of that thing; most of us are very emotionally attached to ourselves and our own
success. Reflect on your actions, your strengths and weaknesses, your mistakes and successes, as
though you are this impartial third party. What would he or she say about how you show up?.
Invite feedback. People who want to be fully self-aware know that none of us can see ourselves
entirely clearly without the aid of others. If you want to have a more accurate sense of how you
are operating in the world, build a small group of people who know you well, see you clearly,
want the best for you and are willing to be totally honest with you in the service of that.
Listen         
self-awareness. If you can learn to listen fully, without filtering what you hear through your pre-
existing notions, you will find that everyone around you is continually giving you clues both
subtle and overt             
impacting them.
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... Leadership integrity influences ethical leadership behavior [1]. Regarding leadership, integrity is a commitment to acting morally and ethically and a consistent set of behaviors, beliefs, and values [2]. Ethical leadership behavior describes the behavior and actions of leaders that exemplify ethical beliefs, principles, and decision making [3]. ...
... This entails a strong dedication to doing what is morally right, regardless of the situation. Leader integrity is crucial for establishing trust and credibility among followers [2]. It sets the foundation for ethical behavior and is a role model for others to emulate. ...
... This finding supports the idea that leaders with high levels of integrity are likelier to engage in ethical leadership behaviors. This result aligns with previous research [2] that has emphasized the importance of leader integrity in promoting ethical conduct within organizations. ...
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Leadership integrity is crucial in shaping ethical leadership or promoting a rigorous adherence to moral principles and standards. This study explores the intricate relationship between leader integrity, moral identification, self-regulation, and ethical leadership behavior, providing practical insights for healthcare leaders seeking to enhance ethical practices. It addresses a critical gap in the research landscape by focusing on individual-level ethical leadership within the healthcare sector, where prior investigations have been limited. This study examines the mediating role of moral identification among leader integrity and ethical leadership behavior. We surveyed 181 health sector workers and employed SmartPLS to assess the conceptualized relationships. The analyses reveal a significant indirect influence of leader integrity on ethical leadership behavior, whereas moral identification mediates the relationship. Our findings further indicate an intriguing moderation effect of self-regulation on the relationship between moral identification and ethical leadership behavior. This divergence from previous research underscores the significance of contextual and methodological factors in studying leadership integrity and ethical behavior. Our study contributes to the literature on the relationship through planned behavior theory by demonstrating that moral identification mediates the relationship between leader integrity and ethical leadership behavior in the context of the theory of planned behavior. Our findings underscore the significance of fostering leader integrity within organizations to indirectly promote ethical leadership behaviors through moral identification. Organizations should prioritize initiatives that cultivate moral identification among their members to enhance ethical cultures.
... Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes (Karthikeyan, 2017). According to OECD (2009) a -negative‖ approach to define integrity is also useful to determine an effective strategy for preventing integrity violations' in the field of public procurement. ...
... There are many studies on integrity in management (e.g., Thomas, 2019;Prottas & Nummelin, 2018). The results show that integrity is the main aspect of work behaviour (Moorman & Grover, 2009), as a predictor of work performance (Ones et al., 1993), and show the quality of leadership in organizations (Karthikevan, 2017). Not only that, but the literature also shows that individuals with integrity can create organizations, build culture, adhere to standards, and achieve accountability (Dobel, 2017). ...
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Corruption is one of the old problems facing the Indonesian government to date. The Covid-19 pandemic has not reduced corrupt behaviour in Indonesia. In fact, state officials in Indonesia were arrested for corruption in providing government social assistance to communities affected by this pandemic. Based on this phenomenon, this study aims to predict corruption acceptance behaviour using a stimulus-organism-response framework. The research focuses on youth because youth are future adults who will be active in business, politics, community activities, and others. A total of 246 youth was respondents in this study. Judgmental sampling was applied in this study and questionnaires were distributed online. The data was then analysed using structural equation modelling. The results of the analysis show that 4 of the 8 research hypotheses are supported. The four hypotheses supported are that anti-social media exposure has a negative relationship with personal values of materialism and materialism has a positive relationship with acceptance of corruption. The results of the analysis also show that pro social media exposure has a positive relationship with religious involvement. Furthermore, religious involvement has a negative relationship with acceptance of corruption. Limitations and suggestions for further research are also presented in this paper. Received: 14 October 2021 / Accepted: 20 January 2022 / Published: 5 March 2022
... Integrity is a concept of consistency of actions, values, methods, measures, principles, expectations, and outcomes [24]. According to [25] a "negative" approach to define integrity is also useful to determine an effective strategy for preventing integrity violations' in the field of public procurement. ...
... The concept of Integrity exists in the form of cases, including: (1) Academic honesty moral and plagiarism (Piascik and Brazeau, 2010); (2) Moral integrity in government and organization (Huberts, 2018;Becker, 1998); (3) Integrity in Human Resource management (Noelliste, 2013); (4). Moral integrity in leadership as an essential trait in decision making, (Schuyler, 2010;Gea, 2014;Karthikeyan, 2017). All of them highlight moral integrity as an essential foundation for creating ethical and performance initiatives. ...
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This article uncovers learning methods and teaches moral integrity and leadership in training a six-year cadre. The empirical voicing moral integrity problem affects many people from various countries, including Indonesia. Moreover, moral decadence and value inconsistency are increasing among young potential national leaders, which is urgently noted through moral integrity education and superior human resources at madrasah boarding schools that develop integrative and long-life learning. This has led to many proposals for improving integrity. A qualitative design with a phenomenological approach was used in this research, while the participants' criteria consisted of educators, alumni, national figures, and organizational leaders totaling 25 people. Furthermore, the learning method is developed after the data collection and integrated, leading to the moral integrity internalization of prospective leaders with a superior cadre formation scheme. As a result, the method fosters integrity and leadership in various ways, contributing to the development of leadership talents and moral integrity character in Islamic education programs. Therefore, this helps in adaptation and strengthening characters in other fields, including preventive action, promoting academic integrity success, and valuable to knowledge by educators at large.
... Thereby, the integrity of the individuals can be considered through the external reflections of the integrity characteristics, as far as they act in accordance with the values, beliefs and principles they claim to have [6]. However, the integrity represents a personal choice, a firm engagement in respect of ethical, moral, artistic, and spiritual principles and values [7]. From this perspective, honest behaviuor is that type of conduct ethically evaluated as fair, and the integrity represents an individual value, which refers to ethical fairness, and which cannot be bounded through the professional and legal honesty. ...
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In the process of risk management process implementation and deployment within the organizations, both public and private, the applicable standards outline the role played the human resources, as the key issue in this respect. Following the standards and the practice in the field, the integrity risks are considered within the framework of a holistic approach. The paper tries to introduce and address the main features of the integrity risks, considering the European approach, based on the quantitative and qualitative measurement through some specific indicators. Besides, the joint-approaches of the developments in the legal framework, and the other international bodies involved in regulation of the field, namely the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the United Nations Convention against Corruption are outlined. In addition, the public perception indicators regarding the integrity are presented through the comparative examination of the local findings amongst the other European countries and averages, pointing out the specific evolutions. The conclusions highlight the favourable changes and some of the actions required as prerequisites for necessary further improvements. Research background: Defined as the abuse of power oriented towards gain of private benefits, the corruption is a phenomenon that affects the economies and the fair distribution of welfare. Although there is a regulatory framework both at national and international levels, measuring of corruption remains a difficult task, as it often relies on public perception. Purpose of the article: The objectives consist in identification and assessment of integrity risks, besides the implementation of the adequate control tools, in order to ensure their proper monitoring. Methods: Employing the data from the international surveys and indexes used in measurement of the corruption perception, and considering the applicable legal framework, there are examined both the specific trends in Romania, compared to the general developments in the European Union . Findings Value added: Amid a general improvement trend, there are highlighted some slight backward steps and the necessary actions for future improvements. Considering the weak parts specific to the perception surveys, besides their further usage, results the necessity of fostering the using of special designed indexes, which rely, in addition, on aspects that mainly remain out of public perception.
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In the last years of his life, Gerald C. MacCallum, Jr. defied illness to continue his work on the philosophy of law. This book is a monument to MacCallum's effort, containing fourteen of his essays, five of them published here for the first time. Two of those previously published are widely admired and reprinted: "Legislative Intent, " certainly one of the best papers published on its topic, and "Negative and Positive Freedom, " which offered a new way of looking at a distinction that had been canonical fo the last two centuries. To complete MacCallum's unfinished pieces, Marcus G. Singer and Rex Martin painstakingly consulted MacCallum's notes for planned revisions. MacCallum discusses legal reasoning, the application of rules, the interpretation of statutes and constitutional provisions, and the relation of these matters to morality and justice. In the last decade of his working life, he became greatly concerned with the interrelated themes of integrity, autonomy, conscience, and violence. He became interested in the relations between competition and morality and between justice and adversarial systems of law. These themes are woven together in Legislative Intent and constitute the main subject of some of the essays. MacCallum was engaged in a constant search for truth and understanding and in his life and work lived up to Emerson's vision of the "American Scholar" as "Man Thinking." These essays are informed by the author's deep curiosity, penetrating intelligence, wide knowledge, and outstanding character. They will be treasured wherever these characteristics and true philosophy are treasured.
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Researchers for decades have believed that trust increases performance, but empirical evidence of this has been sparse. This study investigates the relationship between an employee’s trust in the plant manager and in the top management team with the employee’s in-role performance and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Results support a fully mediated model in which trust in both management referents was positively related to focus of attention, which, in turn, was positively related to performance. The results raise questions about appropriate levels of analysis for outcome variables. Trust is mandatory for optimization of a system.... Without trust, each component will protect its own immediate interests to its own long-term detriment, and to the detriment of the entire system.- W. Edwards Deming (1994) Over three decades ago, Argyris (1964) proposed that trust in management is important for organizational performance. Recognition of the importance of trust in organizational relationships has grown rapidly in recent years, evidenced by a large number of publications on the topic addressing both academic and practitioner audiences (e.g., Annison & Wilford, 1998; Fukuyama, 1995; Mishra, 1996; Shaw, 1997). In spite of this interest, difficulties in defining and operationalizing trust have hampered the empirical study of its relationship with performance.
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In previous literature on employee selection, leadership, and organizational trust, scholars have identified integrity as a central aspect of work behavior. However, despite important contributions, their work often has confused integrity with other concepts (especially honesty and conscientiousness) and has treated integrity as either a morally neutral or relativistic phenomenon. The philosophy of "Objectivism" solves these problems by providing a definition of integrity that distinguishes the term from related concepts and by integrating integrity into an objective code of morality. I discuss the implications of this perspective for the study of integrity in organizations.
List of Tables. List of Figures. Acknowledgements. Series Editor's Introduction. Part I: Leadership and Information Processing. Part II: Perceptual and Social Processes. Part III: Leadership and Organizational Performance. Part IV: Satbility, Change, and Information Processing. Bibliography. About the Authors. Index.