Technical ReportPDF Available

A checklist of endemic Hawaiian vascular plant taxa that are considered possibly extinct in the wild.

Authors:
  • The National Tropical Botanical Garden
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 1
A checklist of endemic Hawaiian vascular plant taxa that are considered
possibly extinct in the wild
May 2019
Kenneth R. Wood1, Hank Oppenheimer2, Matthew Keir3
1 National Tropical Botanical Garden, 3530 Papalina Road, Kalāheo, HI 96741, USA. 2 Plant Extinction
Prevention Program, Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 909, Makawao,
HI, 96768, USA. 3 Division of Forestry and Wildlife, 1151 Punchbowl St., Rm. 325, Honolulu, HI 96813,
USA. Corresponding author: Kenneth R. Wood (kwood@ntbg.org).
As the result of numerous requests inquiring on the status of plant extinctions in the
Hawaiian Islands, the authors present a checklist of 134 endemic vascular plant taxa that are
currently considered possibly extinct in the wild (see Table 1). For each taxon in this report we
indicate their federal and IUCN status, island distribution, year of last sighting, and whether the
taxon has been cultivated. Currently our list includes 123 dicots, 7 monocots, and 4 pteridophyte
taxa, representing ca. 10.9% of Hawaii’s 1217 endemic taxa. Field research for this updated
checklist was mainly conducted by staff at the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG), the
Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP) of Hawai`i, and the Hawai`i State Department of
Land and Natural Resources, Division of Forestry and Wildlife (DLNR, DOFAW). Some
species on this list have not been observed in over 175 years and others tragically represent the
last known wild individual(s) that have recently perished, including 12 species within the past six
years and 27 species since the year 2000. We acknowledge that the assertion of extinction is
fallible, as there is always the possibility for rediscovery, especially where there is still suitable
habitat (Wood 2007, 2012). This possibility is supported by the rediscovery of ca. 40 plant taxa
that were previously thought extinct (Imada 2012; Wood 2012; Oppenheimer 2019) and
subsequently documented after the publication of the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai`i
(Wagner et al. 1990). Most recent examples of rediscoveries include a small colony of
Hibiscadelphus woodii (Malvaceae) documented in February of 2019 on the cliffs of Kalalau,
Kaua`i, and a grouping of Cyanea kuhihewa (Campanulaceae) rediscovered in December of
2017 on the north shore of Kaua`i. These examples give a glimmer of hope for future
rediscoveries and clearly exemplify the importance of having phytogeographical knowledge for
advancing conservation efforts of the endangered Hawaiian flora.
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 2
Primary factors contributing to extinctions in the flora and fauna of Hawai`i, and
throughout the islands of Oceania, include introduced non-native feral animals and invasive
plants that degrade the structure and quality of native ecosystems. Other extrinsic factors include
devastation by severe storms, inbreeding depression, loss and fragmentation of natural habitats,
climate change, a weak conservation ethic, and introductions of plant diseases that can be
extremely lethal. Furthermore, subtle mutualistic plant/animal relationships have been seriously
disturbed by these factors and the decline of native plant pollinators (Kearns et al. 1998) and
seed dispersers (Milberg & Tyrberg 1993) continue to intensify the extinction crisis (Sakai et al.
2002; Wood 2007, 2012, 2014, 2015; Kingsford et al. 2009). For example, approximately 95
native Hawaiian bird taxa are currently considered extinct (Athens et al. 2002; Paxton et al.
2018), with only 21 forest bird species remaining on the main Hawaiian Islands. Although
approximately 43% of the extinct flowering Hawaiian flora required birds for pollination
services, more than 84% depended on birds for seed distribution. It is currently unclear how
many of the estimated 10,000 native Hawaiian insect species have gone extinct.
Concerning the plant extinctions reported here, evidently 41 of the 134 plant taxa
represent Hawaiian lobeliads in the Campanulaceae family, which include endemic genera such
as Clermontia, Cyanea, Delissea, and Trematolobelia. These genera are renowned for their co-
evolution with Hawaiian forest birds, especially the honeycreepers (Fringillidae). The Lamiaceae
or mint family falls second in Hawaiian plant extinctions with 27 species that are mostly insect
pollinated, but include some taxa in the endemic genus Stenogyne which are also associated with
flower visitation by honeycreepers. Third is the family Asteraceae, with 14 extinct taxa
predominately associated with insect pollination. The Malvaceae or hibiscus family comes in
fourth, with eight extinct taxa, seven of which belong to two extraordinary endemic bird-
pollinated genera, namely Hibiscadelphus and Kokia.
It should be noted that only 26 of these possibly extinct Hawaiian taxa (ca. 19.5%) have
been cultivated to date, and great efforts should be made to study the historical distributions of
all extinct species and attempt to rediscover, protect, and cultivate living individuals. Our
intention is to follow-up this report by publishing an annotated checklist that would cite
historical herbarium collections with their locations, and attempt to evaluate where future
populations may most likely be rediscovered.
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 3
Table 1. Checklist of endemic Hawaiian vascular plant taxa having no known naturally occurring individuals, and therefore possibly
extinct in the wild. (updated, May 2019)
Note: Checklist alphabetical by genus. Symbols: CR=critically endangered; E=endangered (federal status); EN=endangered (IUCN status); EW=extinct in the wild; EX=extinct;
H=Hawai`i island; K=Kaua`i; Ka=Kaho`olawe; Ku=Kure; L=Lana`i; La=Laysan; M=Maui; Mi=Midway; Mo=Moloka`i; N=Nihoa; Ni=Ni`ihau; O=O`ahu; PH= Pearl & Hermes Reef.
Flowering plants follow Wagner et al. 1999; pteridophytes follow PPG I 2016; Ranker 2016; Palmer 2003.
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Rosaceae
Acaena
exigua A.Gray
E
EX
K, M
no
Dicot
Amaranthaceae
Achyranthes
atollensis H.St.John
EX
Ku, Mi,
PH, La
no
Pteridophyte
Polypodiaceae
Adenophorus
periens L.E.Bishop
E
CR
K, O, Mo,
L, M, H
no
Dicot
Amaranthaceae
Amaranthus
brownii Christoph. & Caum
E
EX
N
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Argyroxiphium
virescens Hillebr.
EX
M
no
Pteridophyte
Aspleniaceae
Asplenium
leucostegioides Baker
M
no
Pteridophyte
Ophioglossaceae
Botrychium
subbifoliatum Brack.
K, O, Mo,
L, M, H
no
Monocot
Cyperaceae
Carex
wahuensis C.A Mey subsp.
herbstii T.Koyama
O
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 4
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Monocot
Poaceae
Cenchrus
agrimonioides Trin. var.
laysanensis F.Br.
E
EX
Ku, Mi, La
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Clermontia
multiflora Hillebr.
EX
O, M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
arborea Hillebr.
EX
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
comata Hillebr.
EX
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
copelandii Rock subsp.
copelandii
E
EX
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
cylindrocalyx Lammers
EX
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
dolichopoda Lammers &
Lorence
E
EX
K
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
eleeleensis (H.St.John)
Lammers
E
EX
K
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
giffardii Rock
EX
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
grimesiana Gaudich. subsp.
grimesiana
E
CR
O, Mo
yes
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
kolekoleensis (H.St.John)
Lammers
E
CR
K
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
linearifolia Rock
EX
K
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 5
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
longissima (Rock) H.St.John
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
mauiensis (Rock) Lammers
E
EX
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
minutiflora Lammers
EX
K
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
parvifolia (C.N.Forbes)
Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma
EX
K
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
pinnatifida (Cham.) E.Wimm.
E
EW
O
yes
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
pohaku Lammers
EX
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
pycnocarpa (Hillebr.) E.
Wimm.
EX
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
quercifolia (Hillebr.) E.Wimm.
EX
M
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
sessilifolia (O.Deg.)
EX
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
superba (Cham.) A.Gray
subsp. regina (Wawra)
Lammers
E
EX
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
superba (Cham.) A.Gray
subsp. superba
E
EW
O
yes
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 6
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Cyanea
truncata
E
CR
O
yes
Monocot
Cyperaceae
Cyperus
neokunthianus Kükenth.
E
M
no
Monocot
Cyperaceae
Cyperus
rockii Kük.
EX
K
no
Dicot
Gesneriaceae
Cyrtandra
crenata H.St.John & Storey
E
CR
O
no
Dicot
Gesneriaceae
Cyrtandra
kohalae H.St.John
H
no
Dicot
Gesneriaceae
Cyrtandra
olona C.N.Forbes
EX
K
no
Dicot
Gesneriaceae
Cyrtandra
pruinosa H.St.John & Storey
O
no
Dicot
Gesneriaceae
Cyrtandra
waiolani Wawra
E
EW
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
argutidentata (F.E. Wimmer)
H.St. John
E
H
yes
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
fallax Hillebr.
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
fauriei H. Lev.
Mo
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
laciniata Hillebr.
O
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 7
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
lanaiensis (Rock) Lammers
L
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
lauliiana Lammers
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
niihauensis H.St.John
E
EX
Ni
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
parviflora Hillebr.
H
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
rhytidosperma H.Mann
E
CR
K
yes
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
sinuata Hillebr.
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
subcordata Gaudich. subsp.
obtusifolia (Wawra) Lammers
E
EX
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
subcordata Gaudich. subsp.
subcordata
E
EX
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
takeuchii Lammers
E
CR
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Delissea
undulata Gaudich.
E
EX
M
no
Pteridophyte
Athyriaceae
Deparia
kaalaana (Copel.) M.Kato
E
K, M, H
yes
Dicot
Asteraceae
Dubautia
kenwoodii G. D. Carr
E
CR
K
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 8
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Monocot
Poaceae
Eragrostis
fosbergii Whitney
E
CR
O
no
Monocot
Poaceae
Eragrostis
mauiensis Hitchc.
L, M
no
Dicot
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia
celastroides Boiss. var.
tomentella Boiss.
EX
O
no
Dicot
Euphorbiaceae
Euphorbia
remyi A.Gray ex Boiss. var.
hanaleiensis Sherff
EX
K
no
Monocot
Poaceae
Festuca
molokaiensis Soreng, P.m.
Peterson & Catalán
E
Mo
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Haplostachys
bryanii Sherff
Mo
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Haplostachys
linearifolia (Drake) Sherff
Mo, M
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Haplostachys
munroi C.N.Forbes
L
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Haplostachys
truncata (A.Gray) Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscadelphus
bombycinus C.N.Forbes
EX
H
no
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscadelphus
crucibracteatus Hobdy
EX
L
no
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscadelphus
giffardianus Rock
E
CR
H
yes
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 9
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscadelphus
hualalaiensis Rock
E
CR
H
yes
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscadelphus
wilderianus Rock
EX
M
no
Dicot
Malvaceae
Hibiscus
brackenridgei A.Gary subsp.
molokaiana (Rock ex Caum)
F.D.Wilson
E
EX
M
no
Dicot
Rubiaceae
Kadua
degeneri (Fosberg) W. L.
Wagner & Lorence subsp.
coprosmifolia Fosberg
E
CR
O
no
Dicot
Rubiaceae
Kadua
foliosa Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Rubiaceae
Kadua
haupuensis Lorence &
W.L.Wagner
E
CR
K
yes
Dicot
Fabaceae
Kanaloa
kahoolawensis Lorence &
K.R.Wood
E
CR
Ka
yes
Dicot
Malvaceae
Kokia
cookei O.Deg.
E
EW
Mo
yes
Dicot
Malvaceae
Kokia
lanceolata Lewton
EX
O
no
Dicot
Brassicaceae
Lepidium
remyi Drake
H
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Lipochaeta
degeneri Sherff
Mo
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 10
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Lobelia
dunbariae Rock subsp.
dunbariae
Mo
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Lobelia
remyi Rock
O
no
Dicot
Primulaceae
Lysimachia
forbesii Rock
O
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Melanthera
bryanii (Sherff) W.L.Wagner
& H.Rob.
Ka
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Melanthera
micrantha (Nutt.) W.L.Wagner
& H. Rob. subsp. exigua
(O.Deg. & Sherff)
W.L.Wagner & H.Rob.
E
CR
K
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Melanthera
perdita (Sherff) W.L.Wagner
& H.Rob.
Ni
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Melanthera
populifolia (Sherff)
W.L.Wagner & H.Rob.
L
no
Dicot
Rutaceae
Melicope
balloui (Rock) T.G.Hartley &
B.C.Stone
E
EN
M
no
Dicot
Rutaceae
Melicope
macropus (Hillebr.)
T.G.Hartley & B.C.Stone
EX
K
no
Dicot
Rutaceae
Melicope
nealae (B.C.Stone)
T.G.Hartley & B.C.Stone
EX
K
no
Dicot
Rutaceae
Melicope
obovata (H.St.John)
T.G.Hartley & B.C.Stone
EX
M
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 11
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Rutaceae
Melicope
wailauensis (H.St.John)
T.G.Hartley & B.C.Stone
Mo
no
Dicot
Apocynaceae
Ochrosia
kilaueaensis H.St.John
E
CR
H
no
Dicot
Piperaceae
Peperomia
degeneri Yunck.
Mo
no
Dicot
Piperaceae
Peperomia
subpetiolata Yunck.
E
M
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
bracteata Sherff
E
M
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
brevidens A.Gray
E
M, H
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
glabra (Gaudich.) Benth. var.
lanaiensis Sherff
E
L
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
helleri Sherff
E
CR
K
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
hillebrandii H.Mann ex Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
kaalaensis H.St.John
E
CR
O
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
kahiliensis H.St.John
CR
K
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
knudsenii Hillebr.
E
CR
K
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 12
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
mannii Sherff
E
CR
Mo, M
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
micrantha H.St.John
O
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
parviflora (Gaudich.) Benth.
var. glabriuscula A. Gray
E
CR
H
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
parviflora (Gaudich.) Benth.
var. lydgatei (Sherff)
W.G.Wagner
E
CR
O
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
pilosa H.St.John
E
CR
Mo, M
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
rockii Sherff
Mo
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Phyllostegia
variabilis Bitter
Ku, Mi, La
no
Dicot
Apiaceae
Sanicula
kauaiensis H.St.John
EX
K
no
Dicot
Goodeniaceae
Scaevola
hobdyi W.L.Wagner
M
no
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Schiedea
amplexicaulis H.Mann
EX
K
no
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Schiedea
implexa (Hillebr.) Sherff
M
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 13
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Schiedea
jacobii W. L. Wagner, Weller
& A. C. Medeiros
E
M
yes
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Silene
cryptopetala Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Silene
degeneri Sherff
M
no
Dicot
Caryophyllaceae
Silene
perlmanii W.L.Wagner,
D.R.Herbst & Sohmer
E
CR
O
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
bifida Hillebr.
E
CR
Mo
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
campanulata Weller &
A.K.Sakai
E
CR
K
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
cinerea Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
haliakalae Wawra
M
no
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
kaalae Wawra subsp.
sherffii (O. Deg.) W. L.
Wagner & Weller
E
O
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
kanehoana O.Deg. & Sherff
E
CR
O
yes
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
oxygona O.Deg. & Sherff
H
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 14
CLASS
FAMILY
GENUS
SPECIES
FEDERAL
STATUS
IUCN
STATUS
DISTRIBUTION
CULTIVATED
Dicot
Lamiaceae
Stenogyne
viridis W.F.Hillebr.
M
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
arenarium (A.Gray) Hillebr.
subsp. laxum Lowrey
E
M
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
capillare (Gaudich.)
H.St.John
E
CR
M
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
consanguineum (A.Gray)
Hillebr. subsp.
consanguineum
EX
K?
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
consanguineum (A.Gray)
Hillebr. subsp. leptophyllum
(Sherff) Lowrey
H
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
conyzoides (A.Gray) Hillebr.
Mo, L, M,
H
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
lepidotum (Less.) Sherff
subsp. arbusculum (A. Gray)
Lowrey
M
no
Dicot
Asteraceae
Tetramolopium
tenerrimum (Less.) Nees
O
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Trematolobelia
auriculata H. St. John
L
no
Dicot
Campanulaceae
Trematolobelia
rockii H. St.John
Mo
no
Dicot
Thymelaeaceae
Wikstroemia
hanalei Wawra
EX
K
no
Checklist_Hawaiian_plants_possibly_extinct_may2019 Wood, Oppenheimer, Keir page 15
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Wood, K.R. 2007. New plant records, rediscoveries, range extensions, and possible extinctions
within the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 96: 1317.
———. 2012. Possible extinctions, rediscoveries and new plant records within the Hawaiian
Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 91102.
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———. 2015. Delissea rhytidosperma H. Mann (Campanulaceae) and Phyllostegia kahiliensis
H. St. John (Lamiaceae) possibly extinct on Kaua`i, Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum
Occasional Papers 116: 3133.
... Other factors include devastation by severe storms, inbreeding depression, loss and fragmentation of natural habitats, climate change, a weak conservation ethic, and introductions of plant diseases that can be extremely lethal. Furthermore, subtle mutualistic plant/ animal relationships have been seriously disturbed, contributing to the breakdown of unique forest microhabitats (Wood, Oppenheimer, and Keir, 2019). ...
... On a more promising note, around 40 vascular plant taxa (mostly flowering plants) previously thought extinct were rediscovered in predominantly remote high elevation locations subsequent to the first publication of the Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i in 1990 (Imada, 2012;Wagner et al.,1999b;Wood, Oppenheimer, and Keir, 2019). Inspiring examples of Hawaiian fern rediscoveries include two paleo-endemic species of black-stemmed spleenworts in the Diellia subclade that were previously thought extinct on Kaua'i and subsequently rediscovered between 2001 and 2002, namely Asplenium dielmannii Viane and A. diellaciniatum Viane (Aspleniaceae). ...
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Menisciopsis wailele (Thelypteridaceae) is a single-island endemic fern species restricted to the Hawaiian island of Kauai. All observations indicate it is an obligate rheophyte, preferring sites of fast-moving water along concave walls of remote streams and waterfall edges. This paper presents data on its morphology, evolution, taxonomy, distribution, abundance, and ecological characteristics. Based on phylogenetic and geographic evidence, the ancestor of the Hawaiian species of Menisciopsis may have dispersed from the mountains of continental East Asia. A formal IUCN assessment of the species has been completed and is reported here as Critically Endangered (CR B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)).
... However, 727 taxa or about half of the native flora are considered threatened or endangered (Laukahi, 2021) and 435, or more than 30%, are listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2021). It is also estimated that 134 have already gone extinct since 1840 (Wood et al., 2019). According to the Hawai'i Plant Extinction Prevention Program (PEPP, 2021), 237 native Hawaiian plants have less than 50 individuals left in the wild and are of high conservation priority. ...
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Abstract Historical herbarium collections have been proposed as a last resort for recovery of extinct plant species not represented in dedicated seed banks or other living conservation collections. For critically endangered plants at the brink of extinction, herbarium collections may also contain historical material from extinct subpopulations representing a species' former range and lost genetic diversity of high value for conservation management. We explored the potential for germination of 81 critically endangered seed plant taxa endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kaua'i from herbarium specimens in herbarium PTBG of the National Tropical Botanical Garden (NTBG). Of 1250‐recorded specimens of wild origin, 138 specimens representing 37 taxa contained mature seeds that could be subjected to germination testing. Seven of these taxa were not represented by any NTBG seed bank collections. Fresh embryos were observed in one seed of each of the three species Schiedea helleri, Schiedea kauaiensis, and Viola helena. While potential germination success may be low, we conclude that testing of seeds from herbarium collections should be extended from a focus on strictly extinct taxa to critically endangered taxa, which may not have sufficient representation in seed banks or other living collections of subpopulations and genetic diversity across their wild range.
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Oceania is a diverse region encompassing Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, New Zealand, and Polynesia, and it contains six of the world's 39 hotspots of diversity. It has a poor record for extinctions, particularly for birds on islands and mammals. Major causes include habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, and overexploitation. We identified six major threatening processes (habitat loss and degradation, invasive species, climate change, overexploitation, pollution, and disease) based on a comprehensive review of the literature and for each developed a set of conservation policies. Many policies reflect the urgent need to deal with the effects of burgeoning human populations (expected to increase significantly in the region) on biodiversity. There is considerable difference in resources for conservation, including people and available scientific information, which are heavily biased toward more developed countries in Oceania. Most scientific publications analyzed for four threats (habitat loss, invasive species, overexploitation, and pollution) are from developed countries: 88.6% of Web of Science publications were from Australia (53.7%), New Zealand (24.3%), and Hawaiian Islands (10.5%). Many island states have limited resources or expertise. Even countries that do (e.g., Australia, New Zealand) have ongoing and emerging significant challenges, particularly with the interactive effects of climate change. Oceania will require the implementation of effective policies for conservation if the region's poor record on extinctions is not to continue.
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Hawai'i's forest birds face a number of conservation challenges that, if unaddressed, will likely lead to the extinction of multiple species in the coming decades. Threats include habitat loss, invasive plants, non-native predators, and introduced diseases. Climate change is predicted to increase the geographic extent and intensity of these threats, adding urgency to implementation of tractable conservation strategies. We present a set of actionable research and management approaches, identified by conservation practitioners in Hawai'i, that will be critical for the conservation of Hawaiian forest birds in the coming years. We also summarize recent progress on these conservation priorities. The threats facing Hawai'i's forest birds are not unique to Hawai'i, and successful conservation strategies developed in Hawai'i can serve as a model for other imperiled communities around the world, especially on islands.
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Pre-contact avifaunal extinctions in Hawai'i generally have been attributed to human predation andlor landscape alteration by colo- nizing Polynesians. However, until recently there have been insuf- ficient data for evaluating most of the important variables involved in this issue. This situation has changed with recent archaeologi- cal, paleontological, and wetland coring research conducted on O'ahu's 'Ewa Plain, a hot, dry emerged limestone reef character- ized by numerous sinkholes. The main evidence obtained from this research includes (1) wetland coring data that stratigraphically demonstrate forest decline before any burning, (2) radiocarbon dating of bones of rats and extinct birds that provides a time frame for their occurrence unavailable from stratified deposits, and (3) the radiocarbon-based history of human settlement of the 'Ewa Plain. Based on this evidence the argument is made that (1) at least some major avian extinctions occurred within the period immedi- ately following Polynesian colonization, (2) these extinctions were due primarily to the rapid decline of their native lowland forest habitat, (3) human settlement of the 'Ewa Plain occurred after native forest collapse, not coincident with it, and (4) the main source of destruction of the native forests was the introduced Polynesiah rat, Rattur exulans, not Hawaiian agricultural clearing and burning. This model also explains the absence of large quanti- ties of bird bone in early sites (in contrast to other places in Polynesia and Micronesia), and the absence in early middens of many plants (notably Kanaloa kahoolawensis) that were common in the native forest.
Article
Many bird species were extirpated or became extinct when prehistoric man reached oceanic islands We list > 200 species of extinct island birds only recorded as sub-fossils and which probably vanished due to prehistoric man In addition we list c 160 cases where an extant species has been found as subfossil on islands where it no longer occurs Several species today considered endemic to single islands of island groups had a much wider distribution in the past Biogeographic analyses of insular avifaunas are almost meaningless it the extensive prehistoric extinctions are not taken into account Most extinct species belong to Anatidae Rallidae and Drcpanididae while local extirpations are numerous among doves and seabirds Smaller birds are rare mainly due to sampling bias and taphonomic factors The bird populations were depleted mainly by overhunting predation by introduced vertebrates and alteration of the original vegetation Prehistoric humans on islands although dependent on limited animal resources regularly failed to exploit these in a sustainable way Several cases where human populations disappeared from islands in the Pacific may have been due to over-exploitation of native animals Prehistoric man reached most tropical and temperate islands and most of the few remaining island faunas have been severely depleted in historic times The prehistoric extinctions emphasize the extreme vulnerability and value of the very few pristine island faunas that still remain
Hawaiian native and naturalized vascular plants checklist
  • C T Imada
Imada, C.T. (ed.). 2012. Hawaiian native and naturalized vascular plants checklist (December 2012 update). Bishop Museum Technical Report 60: 1-29, 7 appendices.
New Hawaiian plant records for
  • H L Oppenheimer
Oppenheimer, H.L. 2019. New Hawaiian plant records for 2018. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 126: 3-9.
A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns
  • Ppg I
PPG I, 2006. A community-derived classification for extant lycophytes and ferns. Journal of Systematics and Evolution 54: 563-603.