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Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management Mini Review

Authors:

Abstract

Anger is a basic emotion, experienced by almost all the human beings in response to the unwanted behavior of others. Everyone had angry feelings at sometimes or other. It is a normal reaction when circumstances are not fair or our expectations are not met. It is a healthy human reaction and in its healthy form, anger provides a warning signal to the brain that something is wrong and supplies the body with energy in the form of adrenaline to correct the situation. But sometimes anger becomes negative when people deny it, suppress it or express it inappropriately. Anger can be of state or trait type. State anger is situational specific and is not stable. On the other hand, trait anger is stable personality trait that leads to angry reactions. Various pharmacological as well as non –pharmacological measures can be used to control the episodes of anger. One of the effective and with non- side effects treatment for anger management is regular practice of exercises. Physical exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especially if person feel that they are about to burst. Present article had shown the positive impact of exercise on anger management. Key words: Exercise, Anger, Anger Management.
ACTA SCIENTIFIC MEDICAL SCIENCES (ISSN: 2582-0931)
Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2019
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
Priyanka Malhotra*
MSc. Nursing in Mental Health Nursing From PGIMER, Chandigarh, Presently Working as Nursing Tutor, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Priyanka Malhotra, MSc. Nursing in Mental Health Nursing From PGIMER, Chandigarh, Presently Working as
Nursing Tutor, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India. E-mail: priyanka.malhotra23@yahool.com.au
Mini Review
Received: April 01, 2019; Published: April 23, 2019
Abstract
Anger is a basic emotion, experienced by almost all the human beings in response to the unwanted behavior of others. Everyone
had angry feelings at sometimes or other. It is a normal reaction when circumstances are not fair or our expectations are not met. It is
a healthy human reaction and in its healthy form, anger provides a warning signal to the brain that something is wrong and supplies
the body with energy in the form of adrenaline to correct the situation. But sometimes anger becomes negative when people deny

the other hand, trait anger is stable personality trait that leads to angry reactions. Various pharmacological as well as non –pharma-
 
management is regular practice of exercises. Physical exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especially if person feel
that they are about to burst. Present article had shown the positive impact of exercise on anger management.
Keywords: Exercise; Anger; Anger Management.
Introduction
All of us experienced anger. Anger is a completely normal,
healthy human emotion. Anger often serves important functions,
such as motivating the individual to take protective action and
achieve goal or overcome obstacles but when it gets out of control
and turn destructive, it can lead to various physiological, psycho-
logical and behavioral problems [1]. Anger overcomes us when
something goes wrong or when we think something has gone
wrong. Anger can lead to problems in work, in one’s personal rela-
tionships and in the overall quality of one’s life [2,3].
What does Anger Mean?
Anger is ‘an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild
irritation to intense fury and rage [7] 
emotional state experienced as the impulse to behavior in order to
protect, defend or attack in response to a threat or a challenge [8].
-
comes problematic only when experienced with such a frequency
or intensity that it detrimental to health. Problematic anger, associ-
ated with poor impulse control, is commonly evident in domestic
violence and other forms of criminal behavior [9]. Di Giuseppe et al
   
associated cognitions and physiological arousal patterns” [10].
Anger is one of the most common, powerful and perplexing hu-
man emotion. The things that make people angry are as diverse as
   -
personal communication. For a relationship to last and two people
to take pride and delight in their togetherness, sooner or later they
have to deal with and have to manage the experience and expres-
sion of anger [4]. Due to excessive anger, some of us have cringed
under the rage in our families, struggled with it in our souls, felt it
towards our friends, co- workers and loved ones. Some of us have
shocked others with volcanoes of anger [5]-
ing and saying things we don’t want to do. We don’t know where
the button to turn our anger down or off. A study conducted by



someone’s property out of anger [6].
Why does Anger exist?
     
are likely to be an interaction of both internal and external factors.
DOI: 10.31080/ASMS.2019.03.0278
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
133
These commonly include a family history of violence, expression
of bullying and experience of physical, sexual or emotional abuse.
In addition to psychosocial factors, biological predisposition may
also play a crucial role. Physiological response is that triggered
in the autonomic nervous system by adrenalin, which produces
        
which are common to all emotions. It is the individual’s labeling
        
emotions [11,12]. Some brain circuits are of central importance in
anger. Anger involves the activation of the papezs circuit, which in-
cludes sites in the amygdale, the ventrolateral hypothalamus and
down to place in the midbrain (the periaqueductal gray matter).
Activity of the circuit is supported by the neuropeptide substance
P. In human the stimulation of these location showed irritation
and report violent rage attack [13-16]. Anger, like other emotional
     
physiology. Cognitions involved in an angry response commonly
include thinking errors such as personalizing- ‘he did it deliber-
ately to upset me’- and catastrophizing- ‘it’s awful: I will never get

example, that the life should be unfair or that one is entitled to take
     
can include ‘adaptive’ responses such as problem solving, asser-
tiveness, tactical withdrawal and maladaptive responses such as
social withdrawal, self –harm and verbal and physical aggression.
External or social factors also have a role in determining anger, for
  
factors such as noise, over- crowing or poor living conditions can
   [11-13]. Thus anger has bio-
logical, psychological as well as social origin.
Dimensions of Anger
       
and control. Experiences of anger are conceptualized as hav-
        
       
feelings that vary in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury
 
in disposition to perceive a wide range of situations as frustrating
and by the tendency to respond to such situations with elevation in
state anger. State anger has three components- feeling angry, feel
like expressing anger verbally, feel like expressing anger physically.
Trait anger has two components: angry temperament, which is a
general prosperity to experiences and express anger without spe-
        
express anger when criticized or treated unfairly by other individu-
 -
ponents: the anger expression-out component involves the expres-
  
and the second component is anger directed inwards i.e. holding
in or suppressing angry feelings. Anger control is also conceptual-

control-in. These two components show the individual differences
in the extent to which a person attempts to control the expression
of anger [7-8,17].
Development and Expression of Anger (Harris and Rowlins,
1992) [18]
Figure 1
How to Manage Anger?
The goal of anger management has to reduce our emotional feel-
ings and physiological arousal that anger cause. We can’t get rid of
or avoid, the things or people that enrage us, nor can change them,
but we can learn to control our reactions [2,3]. Thus, the aim of
therapy for anger problems is the control of anger, not its suppres-
sion. Various strategies can be used to manage anger but exercise is
a promising treatment option with no side-effects.
      
for different target groups. Physical exercise can be used both as
early prevention, and as part of a continuous treatment process.
Physical activity stimulates various brain chemicals that leave the
feeling of happiness and relaxation. Person also feels better when
    -
prove self-esteem. Physical and mental health are linked with each
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
134
other. Improving physical condition helps to better manage emo-
    
anger management strategies, it helps to control anger and frus-
tration [19,20].
According to psychologist Kelly Wilson in her book "Things
Might Go Terribly, Horribly Wrong," hundreds of studies have dem-
onstrated that exercise reduces anger that is the result of frustra-
tion by burning off excess energy and releasing powerful endor-
phins that can help in altering mood. Exercise also reduces blood
pressure. High blood pressure can make the person to feel angry,
and may also be the consequence of excessive anger. Physical exer-
cise is one of the most effective methods for reducing anger. Physi-
cal exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especial-
ly if person feel that they are about to explode [19,20].
Aerobic exercise relies on oxygen to produce energy and is gen-
erally performed for several minutes or more. Aerobic exercises in-
clude a host of workouts that raise heart rate. Because aerobic ex-
ercise increases the heart rate and exercise the pulmonary system,
it is particularly effective at lowering blood pressure and reducing
anxiety which result in decreasing the episodes of anger. Various

level [21,22]-
    
the scores of anger among study participants [23].
Malhotra P., et al did a study to assess the effect of physical ex-
 
State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory- 2TM (STAXI-2TM). In
the experimental group, Physical exercises (Surya namaskar and
aerobic exercise- Brisk walking and Jogging) were used as a part


percentile of anger scores, state anger in both the groups showed
         
      
Hence, the study reveals that physical exercises were effective and
can be used to control the anger [24,25].
How much a person can perform physical Exercise?
British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences carried a
-
lines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical
Activity for Health, A stand for all healthy adults, B stand for Be-
ginners, and C is for Conditioned individuals. All healthy adults
aged 18–65 years should aim to take part in at least 150 min of
moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, or at least 75 min
of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or equivalent com-
binations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Moderate-
intensity activities are those in which heart rate and breathing are
raised, but it is possible to speak comfortably. Vigorous-intensity
activities are that in which heart rate is higher, breathing is heavier,
and conversation is harder. Aerobic activities should be undertak-
en in bouts of at least 10 min and, ideally, should be performed on

meeting the physical activity levels recommended for all healthy
adults. Conditioned individuals who have met the physical activ-
ity levels recommended for all healthy adults for at least 6 months
 
more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, or 150 min
or more of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity each week, or equiv-
alent combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic
activities. Children and young people aged 5–16 years should ac-
cumulate at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity aerobic
activity per day, including vigorous-intensity aerobic activities [26].
         
school age who are capable of walking unaided should be physical-
ly active daily for at least 180 minutes (3 hours), spread through-
out the day. For The age of 5-18 years children and young people
should engage in moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity
for at least 60 minutes and up to several hours every day. For Adults
and older adults (65+ years) activity should add up to at least 150
minutes (2½ hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10
minutes or more – one way to approach this is to do 30 minutes on
at least 5 days a week [27].
           -
 
  
150 minutes of moderate intensity activity a week or equivalent,
for adults aged 18 or above [28,29].
Discussion

        
[30].




active [31].
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
135
Exercise regulates the activity of nervous system by stimulat-
ing a cascade of neuroplastic mechanisms that further support im-
provement in hippocampus functioning [32-36].
      -
naling and angiogenesis. A greater dorsal striatal volume is related
to enhance cognitive and emotional control [37,38].
Physical exercise increases the basal metabolism and improves
the blood circulation in all parts of body. Exercise also uses extra
calories; along with promote a sense of well- being by secreting
endorphins [39].
Increase physical activity not only raised the level of nor-epi-
nephrine and endorphin but also positively affects the mood, self
[40-41].
Studies have revealed that aerobic exercise results in mood
   
scores on vigor subscale combined with low scores on negative
emotion states such as anger, confusion, fatigue and tension [42].
Joseph., et al did a qualitative study to assess the effect and de-
terminants of exercise. Each participant actively participated in a
10- week individualized exercise training program with the aim to


self- esteem, improvement in mental health and also exercise gives
a sense of achievement [43].
Researchers showed that exercise -based therapeutic interven-
        -
sure by minimizing the frequency of frustration, anger, sadness
and anxiety [44,45].
A study done by Gerber, found that after doing a twelve week
   
0.001) their psychopathological symptoms like emotional exhaus-
tion, depersonalization etc. This further improved mood state con-
siderable from before to after a single exercise session [46].
Exercise intervention could improve the patient’s positive cop-
ing level and reduce the negative coping level of patients. Exercise
as an activity characterized by neural excitation and thus could
 -
sources of the participants. Changes in coping ability indicated the
positive role of the collective exercise on their mental health [47].
A study done by Roh, showed that Pilates, a slow exercise, pro-
vides a psychologically positive and calming effect [48].
Data suggesting that a mild to moderate exercise regimen may
-
hance cognitive and executive functioning as well as positive affect.
Exercise results in overall improvements in psychological well-
being improve mood, self- esteem, and overall self-control ability.
Physical exercise also decreases the psychologically symptoms of
anger, gives positive energy and at the same time promote relax-
ation [49].
Conclusion
Anger is an internal, cognitive – emotional-physiological expe-
rience, consisting of emotional feelings (feeling mad or furious),
physiological arousal (elevated heart rate, muscle tension) and cog-
nitive processes (attributions of intentional harm, blaming). Anger
appears in response to a range of external and internal factors. An-
ger also leads to personal, social, legal, educational and vocational
consequences. Based on the evidences and the various researches,
it was shown that physical exercise can be implemented as a way of
coping mechanism in order to manage the anger. A protocol related
to exercise can be developed and used for controlling anger in day
to day life as a routine practice.
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