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Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management Mini Review



Anger is a basic emotion, experienced by almost all the human beings in response to the unwanted behavior of others. Everyone had angry feelings at sometimes or other. It is a normal reaction when circumstances are not fair or our expectations are not met. It is a healthy human reaction and in its healthy form, anger provides a warning signal to the brain that something is wrong and supplies the body with energy in the form of adrenaline to correct the situation. But sometimes anger becomes negative when people deny it, suppress it or express it inappropriately. Anger can be of state or trait type. State anger is situational specific and is not stable. On the other hand, trait anger is stable personality trait that leads to angry reactions. Various pharmacological as well as non –pharmacological measures can be used to control the episodes of anger. One of the effective and with non- side effects treatment for anger management is regular practice of exercises. Physical exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especially if person feel that they are about to burst. Present article had shown the positive impact of exercise on anger management. Key words: Exercise, Anger, Anger Management.
Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2019
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
Priyanka Malhotra*
MSc. Nursing in Mental Health Nursing From PGIMER, Chandigarh, Presently Working as Nursing Tutor, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Priyanka Malhotra, MSc. Nursing in Mental Health Nursing From PGIMER, Chandigarh, Presently Working as
Nursing Tutor, AIIMS, Rishikesh, India. E-mail:
Mini Review
Received: April 01, 2019; Published: April 23, 2019
Anger is a basic emotion, experienced by almost all the human beings in response to the unwanted behavior of others. Everyone
had angry feelings at sometimes or other. It is a normal reaction when circumstances are not fair or our expectations are not met. It is
a healthy human reaction and in its healthy form, anger provides a warning signal to the brain that something is wrong and supplies
the body with energy in the form of adrenaline to correct the situation. But sometimes anger becomes negative when people deny
the other hand, trait anger is stable personality trait that leads to angry reactions. Various pharmacological as well as non –pharma-
 
management is regular practice of exercises. Physical exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especially if person feel
that they are about to burst. Present article had shown the positive impact of exercise on anger management.
Keywords: Exercise; Anger; Anger Management.
All of us experienced anger. Anger is a completely normal,
healthy human emotion. Anger often serves important functions,
such as motivating the individual to take protective action and
achieve goal or overcome obstacles but when it gets out of control
and turn destructive, it can lead to various physiological, psycho-
logical and behavioral problems [1]. Anger overcomes us when
something goes wrong or when we think something has gone
wrong. Anger can lead to problems in work, in one’s personal rela-
tionships and in the overall quality of one’s life [2,3].
What does Anger Mean?
Anger is ‘an emotional state that varies in intensity from mild
irritation to intense fury and rage [7] 
emotional state experienced as the impulse to behavior in order to
protect, defend or attack in response to a threat or a challenge [8].
comes problematic only when experienced with such a frequency
or intensity that it detrimental to health. Problematic anger, associ-
ated with poor impulse control, is commonly evident in domestic
violence and other forms of criminal behavior [9]. Di Giuseppe et al
   
associated cognitions and physiological arousal patterns” [10].
Anger is one of the most common, powerful and perplexing hu-
man emotion. The things that make people angry are as diverse as
   -
personal communication. For a relationship to last and two people
to take pride and delight in their togetherness, sooner or later they
have to deal with and have to manage the experience and expres-
sion of anger [4]. Due to excessive anger, some of us have cringed
under the rage in our families, struggled with it in our souls, felt it
towards our friends, co- workers and loved ones. Some of us have
shocked others with volcanoes of anger [5]-
ing and saying things we don’t want to do. We don’t know where
the button to turn our anger down or off. A study conducted by
someone’s property out of anger [6].
Why does Anger exist?
     
are likely to be an interaction of both internal and external factors.
DOI: 10.31080/ASMS.2019.03.0278
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
These commonly include a family history of violence, expression
of bullying and experience of physical, sexual or emotional abuse.
In addition to psychosocial factors, biological predisposition may
also play a crucial role. Physiological response is that triggered
in the autonomic nervous system by adrenalin, which produces
        
which are common to all emotions. It is the individual’s labeling
        
emotions [11,12]. Some brain circuits are of central importance in
anger. Anger involves the activation of the papezs circuit, which in-
cludes sites in the amygdale, the ventrolateral hypothalamus and
down to place in the midbrain (the periaqueductal gray matter).
Activity of the circuit is supported by the neuropeptide substance
P. In human the stimulation of these location showed irritation
and report violent rage attack [13-16]. Anger, like other emotional
     
physiology. Cognitions involved in an angry response commonly
include thinking errors such as personalizing- ‘he did it deliber-
ately to upset me’- and catastrophizing- ‘it’s awful: I will never get
example, that the life should be unfair or that one is entitled to take
     
can include ‘adaptive’ responses such as problem solving, asser-
tiveness, tactical withdrawal and maladaptive responses such as
social withdrawal, self –harm and verbal and physical aggression.
External or social factors also have a role in determining anger, for
  
factors such as noise, over- crowing or poor living conditions can
   [11-13]. Thus anger has bio-
logical, psychological as well as social origin.
Dimensions of Anger
       
and control. Experiences of anger are conceptualized as hav-
        
       
feelings that vary in intensity from mild irritation to intense fury
 
in disposition to perceive a wide range of situations as frustrating
and by the tendency to respond to such situations with elevation in
state anger. State anger has three components- feeling angry, feel
like expressing anger verbally, feel like expressing anger physically.
Trait anger has two components: angry temperament, which is a
general prosperity to experiences and express anger without spe-
        
express anger when criticized or treated unfairly by other individu-
 -
ponents: the anger expression-out component involves the expres-
  
and the second component is anger directed inwards i.e. holding
in or suppressing angry feelings. Anger control is also conceptual-
control-in. These two components show the individual differences
in the extent to which a person attempts to control the expression
of anger [7-8,17].
Development and Expression of Anger (Harris and Rowlins,
1992) [18]
Figure 1
How to Manage Anger?
The goal of anger management has to reduce our emotional feel-
ings and physiological arousal that anger cause. We can’t get rid of
or avoid, the things or people that enrage us, nor can change them,
but we can learn to control our reactions [2,3]. Thus, the aim of
therapy for anger problems is the control of anger, not its suppres-
sion. Various strategies can be used to manage anger but exercise is
a promising treatment option with no side-effects.
      
for different target groups. Physical exercise can be used both as
early prevention, and as part of a continuous treatment process.
Physical activity stimulates various brain chemicals that leave the
feeling of happiness and relaxation. Person also feels better when
    -
prove self-esteem. Physical and mental health are linked with each
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
other. Improving physical condition helps to better manage emo-
    
anger management strategies, it helps to control anger and frus-
tration [19,20].
According to psychologist Kelly Wilson in her book "Things
Might Go Terribly, Horribly Wrong," hundreds of studies have dem-
onstrated that exercise reduces anger that is the result of frustra-
tion by burning off excess energy and releasing powerful endor-
phins that can help in altering mood. Exercise also reduces blood
pressure. High blood pressure can make the person to feel angry,
and may also be the consequence of excessive anger. Physical exer-
cise is one of the most effective methods for reducing anger. Physi-
cal exercise provides an opportunity to release emotions, especial-
ly if person feel that they are about to explode [19,20].
Aerobic exercise relies on oxygen to produce energy and is gen-
erally performed for several minutes or more. Aerobic exercises in-
clude a host of workouts that raise heart rate. Because aerobic ex-
ercise increases the heart rate and exercise the pulmonary system,
it is particularly effective at lowering blood pressure and reducing
anxiety which result in decreasing the episodes of anger. Various
level [21,22]-
    
the scores of anger among study participants [23].
Malhotra P., et al did a study to assess the effect of physical ex-
 
State- Trait Anger Expression Inventory- 2TM (STAXI-2TM). In
the experimental group, Physical exercises (Surya namaskar and
aerobic exercise- Brisk walking and Jogging) were used as a part
percentile of anger scores, state anger in both the groups showed
         
      
Hence, the study reveals that physical exercises were effective and
can be used to control the anger [24,25].
How much a person can perform physical Exercise?
British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences carried a
lines that health professionals might use. In the ABC of Physical
Activity for Health, A stand for all healthy adults, B stand for Be-
ginners, and C is for Conditioned individuals. All healthy adults
aged 18–65 years should aim to take part in at least 150 min of
moderate-intensity aerobic activity each week, or at least 75 min
of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity per week, or equivalent com-
binations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities. Moderate-
intensity activities are those in which heart rate and breathing are
raised, but it is possible to speak comfortably. Vigorous-intensity
activities are that in which heart rate is higher, breathing is heavier,
and conversation is harder. Aerobic activities should be undertak-
en in bouts of at least 10 min and, ideally, should be performed on
meeting the physical activity levels recommended for all healthy
adults. Conditioned individuals who have met the physical activ-
ity levels recommended for all healthy adults for at least 6 months
 
more of moderate-intensity aerobic activity per week, or 150 min
or more of vigorous-intensity aerobic activity each week, or equiv-
alent combinations of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic
activities. Children and young people aged 5–16 years should ac-
cumulate at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity aerobic
activity per day, including vigorous-intensity aerobic activities [26].
         
school age who are capable of walking unaided should be physical-
ly active daily for at least 180 minutes (3 hours), spread through-
out the day. For The age of 5-18 years children and young people
should engage in moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity
for at least 60 minutes and up to several hours every day. For Adults
and older adults (65+ years) activity should add up to at least 150
minutes (2½ hours) of moderate intensity activity in bouts of 10
minutes or more – one way to approach this is to do 30 minutes on
at least 5 days a week [27].
           -
 
  
150 minutes of moderate intensity activity a week or equivalent,
for adults aged 18 or above [28,29].
        
active [31].
Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
Exercise regulates the activity of nervous system by stimulat-
ing a cascade of neuroplastic mechanisms that further support im-
provement in hippocampus functioning [32-36].
      -
naling and angiogenesis. A greater dorsal striatal volume is related
to enhance cognitive and emotional control [37,38].
Physical exercise increases the basal metabolism and improves
the blood circulation in all parts of body. Exercise also uses extra
calories; along with promote a sense of well- being by secreting
endorphins [39].
Increase physical activity not only raised the level of nor-epi-
nephrine and endorphin but also positively affects the mood, self
Studies have revealed that aerobic exercise results in mood
   
scores on vigor subscale combined with low scores on negative
emotion states such as anger, confusion, fatigue and tension [42].
Joseph., et al did a qualitative study to assess the effect and de-
terminants of exercise. Each participant actively participated in a
10- week individualized exercise training program with the aim to
self- esteem, improvement in mental health and also exercise gives
a sense of achievement [43].
Researchers showed that exercise -based therapeutic interven-
        -
sure by minimizing the frequency of frustration, anger, sadness
and anxiety [44,45].
A study done by Gerber, found that after doing a twelve week
   
0.001) their psychopathological symptoms like emotional exhaus-
tion, depersonalization etc. This further improved mood state con-
siderable from before to after a single exercise session [46].
Exercise intervention could improve the patient’s positive cop-
ing level and reduce the negative coping level of patients. Exercise
as an activity characterized by neural excitation and thus could
 -
sources of the participants. Changes in coping ability indicated the
positive role of the collective exercise on their mental health [47].
A study done by Roh, showed that Pilates, a slow exercise, pro-
vides a psychologically positive and calming effect [48].
Data suggesting that a mild to moderate exercise regimen may
hance cognitive and executive functioning as well as positive affect.
Exercise results in overall improvements in psychological well-
being improve mood, self- esteem, and overall self-control ability.
Physical exercise also decreases the psychologically symptoms of
anger, gives positive energy and at the same time promote relax-
ation [49].
Anger is an internal, cognitive – emotional-physiological expe-
rience, consisting of emotional feelings (feeling mad or furious),
physiological arousal (elevated heart rate, muscle tension) and cog-
nitive processes (attributions of intentional harm, blaming). Anger
appears in response to a range of external and internal factors. An-
ger also leads to personal, social, legal, educational and vocational
consequences. Based on the evidences and the various researches,
it was shown that physical exercise can be implemented as a way of
coping mechanism in order to manage the anger. A protocol related
to exercise can be developed and used for controlling anger in day
to day life as a routine practice.
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Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
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Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management
Volume 3 Issue 5 May 2019
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Citation: Priyanka Malhotra.Exercise and its Impact on Anger Management". Acta Scientific Medical Sciences 3.5 (2019): 132-137.
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This study aims to examine the effect of a 16-week Pilates exercise program on the ego resiliency and depression in elderly women. Before participating in Pilates exercise programs, researcher explained the purpose and the intention of the research to elderly women who were willing to participate in this research. A total of 148 elderly women agreed to participate in the program and they filled in ego resiliency and depression questionnaires. Then, the elderly participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program and completed the same questionnaires afterwards. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS ver. 20.0 program and results of paired t-test were as follows; there were statistically significant differences in all subvariables of the ego resiliency such as self-confidence (t=7.770, P<0.001), communication efficiency (t=2.690, P<0.01), optimistic trait (t=1.996, P<0.05), and anger management (t=4.525, P<0.001) after elderly women participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program, there was a statistically significant difference in depression of elderly women who participated in the 16-week Pilates exercise program (t=−6.506, P<0.001) which was statistically lower than before their participation in the program. Consequently, participating in the Pilates exercise program can help improve the ego-resiliency and alleviate depression of the elderly women.
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Background: There is a strong association between certain exercises and anger management. Persons with a high tendency towards anger often abuse substances. Alcohol and drug abuse is one of the most common behavioural problems that occur due to uncontrolled anger. Substance dependence subjects when frustrated would show anger. Aim: To assess the anger among substance dependence subjects and the effect of physical exercises (surya namaskar and aerobic exercises) on anger management. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh. Specific exercise was planned for anger management based on a thorough literature review, which consisted of surya namaskar and aerobic exercises (brisk walking and jogging) to be taught in a two-week period. Results: Anger was assessed by using standardised tool and after intervention for fifteen days, significant reduction in anger score was found in experimental group. Conclusion: Physical exercises were found to be effective for managing the anger among substance dependence subjects.
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Background: Previous qualitative studies have found that exercise may facilitate symptomatic and functional recovery in people with long-term schizophrenia. This study examined the perceived effects of exercise as experienced by people in the early stages of psychosis, and explored which aspects of an exercise intervention facilitated or hindered their engagement. Methods: Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with early intervention service users who had participated in a 10-week exercise intervention. Interviews discussed people's incentives and barriers to exercise, short- and long-term effects, and opinions on optimal interventions. A thematic analysis was applied to determine the prevailing themes. Results: The intervention was perceived as beneficial and engaging for participants. The main themes were (a) exercise alleviating psychiatric symptoms, (b) improved self-perceptions following exercise, and (c) factors determining exercise participation, with three respective sub-themes for each. Conclusions: Participants explained how exercise had improved their mental health, improved their confidence and given them a sense of achievement. Autonomy and social support were identified as critical factors for effectively engaging people with first-episode psychosis in moderate-to-vigorous exercise. Implementing such programs in early intervention services may lead to better physical health, symptom management and social functioning among service users. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN09150095 . Registered 10 December 2013.
Research has demonstrated that left-prefrontal cortical activity is associated with positive affect, or approach motivation, and that right-prefrontal cortical activity is associated with negative affect, or withdrawal motivation. In past research, emotional valence (positive-negative) has been confounded with motivational direction (approach-withdrawal), such that, for instance, the only emotions examined were both positive and approach related. Recent research has demonstrated that trait anger, a negative but approach-related emotion, is associated with increased left-prefrontal and decreased right-prefrontal activity, suggesting that prefrontal asymmetrical activity is associated with motivational direction and not emotional valence. The present experiment tested whether state-induced anger is associated with relative left-prefrontal activity and whether this prefrontal activity is also associated with aggression. Results supported these hypotheses.
Aerobic exercise (AE) has been widely praised for its potential benefits to cognition and overall brain and mental health. In particular, AE has a potent impact on promoting the function of the hippocampus and stimulating neuroplasticity. As the evidence-base rapidly builds, and given most of the supporting work can be readily translated from animal models to humans, the potential for AE to be applied as a therapeutic or adjunctive intervention for a range of human conditions appears ever more promising. Notably, many psychiatric and neurological disorders have been associated with hippocampal dysfunction, which may underlie the expression of certain symptoms common to these disorders, including (aspects of) cognitive dysfunction. Augmenting existing treatment approaches using AE based interventions may promote hippocampal function and alleviate cognitive deficits in various psychiatric disorders that currently remain untreated. Incorporating non-pharmacological interventions into clinical treatment may also have a number of other benefits to patient well being, such as limiting the risk of adverse side effects. This review incorporates both animal and human literature to comprehensively detail how AE is associated with cognitive enhancements and stimulates a cascade of neuroplastic mechanisms that support improvements in hippocampal functioning. Using the examples of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder, the utility and implementation of an AE intervention to the clinical domain will be proposed, aimed to reduce cognitive deficits in these, and related disorders.
Although previously functioning as a leader in advanced practice, the specialty of psychiatric- mental health nursing became internally focused around the mid-1990s due to tensions surrounding roles, titles, and certifying examinations. Much debate centered on the question of having more than one entry to advanced practice. The question arose as to whether there should there be a psychiatric mental health clinical nurse specialist (PMHCNS) or a psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner (PMHNP), or both. Through much work at the organizational level, momentum built toward educating a PMHNP workforce by 2000. The American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN), the International Society of Psychiatric Mental Health Nurses (ISPN), and the American Psychiatric Nurses Association (APNA) recognized changes in the practice front in PMH nursing, with its increased emphasis on prevention, primary care, and community-based treatment. Although much controversy surrounded the development of the PMHNP national certification exam by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC), the NP role is becoming the single entry to advanced practice. Although certified PMH clinical nurse specialists will be allowed to continue re-certification, the PMHCNS exam will retired at the end of 2014. The PMHNP will play a vital role in screening and treatment of individuals of all age groups, as well as provision of services to populations at risk, such as the homeless mentally ill and military veterans and their families. Additionally, the PMHNP offers valuable consultation services to nurses in emergency and primary care settings.
Philipe de Souto Barreto argues that, to reduce premature mortality, policies should focus on getting fully inactive people to do a little physical activity rather than strive for the entire population to meet current physical activity recommendations As part of their Global Action Plan in 2013 to reduce the avoidable burden of non-communicable diseases the World Health Organization proposed a 25% relative reduction in the risk of premature mortality from cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases by 2025.1 The Global Action Plan recognised the importance of four risk factors in achieving this goal—smoking, harmful use of alcohol, unhealthy diet, and physical inactivity. WHO’s main goal regarding physical activity is to achieve a 10% relative reduction in the prevalence of insufficient physical activity, which is defined as <150 minutes of moderate intensity activity a week, or equivalent, for adults aged 18 or over (box 1). #### Box 1: Definitions of physical activity WHO’s policy focuses on the ideal goal of 150 minutes of moderate activity a week, but here I argue that getting inactive people to do a little bit of physical activity, even if they don’t meet the recommendations, might provide greater population health gains. Physical activity promotes physical and mental health in different populations of all ages2 3 4 and is associated with the prevention of several non-communicable diseases5 6 7 …
BackgroundA relevant, but overlooked question is if self-reported physical activity and aerobic fitness are differently related to mental health.PurposeTo examine the relation between mental health and level of self-reported physical activity (SRPA) and aerobic fitness (AF), and whether AF mediates the relation between SRPA and mental health.Methods Participating in the study were 177 voluntary subjects (49% men, 51% women) with a mean age of 39 years. Symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale, and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) was used to evaluate self-reported symptoms of burnout. Leisure time SRPA during the last three months were measured using a single item. AF was measured by using the Åstrand bicycle test.ResultsSelf-reported physical activity, but not AF, was significantly related to self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Light to moderate physical activity that is performed regularly seems to be associated with more favorable mental health pattern compared with physical inactivity. No support was found for the mediating effect of AF of the physical activity–mental health relationship.Conclusions Self-reported behavior of regular physical activity seems to be more important to monitor than measures of AF when considering the potential preventive effects of physical activity on mental health.