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STUDY ON EGGSHELL AND FRUIT PEELS AS A FERTILIZER

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The present study deals with the utilization of eggshell and fruit peels for effective growth of the plant. The aim of this paper is to study and analyse the Carbon, Nitrogen and Hydrogen content from eggshell powder and fruit peels using CHNS Analyzer. This experimental study proves that eggshell powder and Fruit peel powder can be used as fertilizer with no cost bearing as this peels are collected from household waste
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Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD 2019)
In Association with Novateur Publications IJIERT-ISSN No: 2394-3696
ISBN. No. 978-93-87901-05-6
February, 14th and 15th, 2019
25 | P a g e
ICSD/17
STUDY ON EGGSHELL AND FRUIT PEELS AS A FERTILIZER
Mayur Dattatray Khairnar
1Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.R.H.C.E.T, University of Mumbai, India
Sagar Sreekumar Nair
2Department of Mechanical Engineering, B.R.H.C.E.T, University of Mumbai, India
Abstract
Repetitive use of soil for farming losses its nutrients. Fertilizer is organic material added to soil to supply essential
nutrients to the growth of the plant. The present study deals with the utilization of eggshell and fruit peels for effective
growth of the plant. By experimenting eggshell and fruit peels formulation for assessment of pH, we can regulate the
amount of eggshell powder, sweet lime powder and banana peel powder required for a particular soil. The aim of this
paper is to study and analyze the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H) content from eggshell powder and fruit
peels using CHNS Analyzer. The final result of this study showed that Sweet lime peel powder has a higher percentage
of nitrogen (1.197% in 2.114 mg) and carbon (38.053% in 2.114 mg) whereas Banana peel powder has a higher
percentage of hydrogen (6.153% in 2.256 mg) compare to remaining samples. This experimental study proves that
eggshell powder and Fruit peel powder can be used as fertilizer with no cost bearing as this eggshell and fruit peels
are collected from household waste
Keywords: Fertilizer, Eggshell powder, Sweet lime peel powder, Banana peel powder, CHNS Analyzer.
1. Introduction
Like every living thing, the plant also needs food for their
growth and development. Cultural practices, control of
diseases and insects play vital roles in the plant growth.
Domestic waste is classified into two types i.e. Dry waste
and wet waste. Some of the organic matter from household
waste can use to prepare fertilizer for agriculture field.
Every plant has a different range of nutrient requirement
level. Below this requirement level, plants start to show
nutrient deficiency symptoms. Soil pH indirectly affects the
nutrient availability and toxicity of soil. Generally, soil pH
ranges from 6.0-7.5 is acceptable for most plants as
nutrients [1]. The plant requires a total of 16 essential
nutrients. The Plant receives Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
from the atmosphere and soil water. The remaining
required elements are nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
calcium, magnesium, Sulphur, iron, zinc, manganese,
copper, boron, molybdenum, and chlorine [2]. Soil
minerals or organic matter or fertilizer are supplied to plant
to maintain a constant level of nutrition in the soil. Fertilizer
is one of the main sources of nutrition in the soil. It also
improves the immunity of soil because of a high source of
nutrition [2]. Chemical fertilizer makes soil impure and also
decreases the soil immunity.
Nitrogen is biologically combined with Carbon,
Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Sulphur to create amino acids,
which are the building blocks of proteins. Nitrogen is a play
a vital role in process of photosynthesis. Nitrogen plays a
key role in agriculture by increasing crop production also
improve food quality [3]. A single eggshell contains 2.07 ±
0.18 g of Ca. [4]. Eggshell has high calcium source.
Calcium regulates many metabolic process and
biochemical function. Calcium is chemical element for the
growth and development of plant without calcium the
development of shoot tissue new root stops the growth of
new root calcium has major role in formation of cell wall
membrane in the plant [1]. Calcium reduces soil acidity
which indirectly improves crop production [5]. Basically,
hydrogen comes from solidity water into hydrogen gas and
oxygen. Hydrogen is required in form of carbon
photosynthesis. Hydrogen plays important role in the
development of the plant. Organic carbon release nutrition
for plant growth, promote the structure, biological and
physical health to the soil. Carbon is one of the main
building blocks of plant and boosts the growth of plant and
development [6].
2. Methodology
Organic waste is generated daily which can be collected
from household, fruit juice vendor, Restaurants and hotels.
Organic waste is mainly found to be useful in the
agriculture field. Organic waste becomes one of the main
sources for nutrition for agriculture field. Sweet lime can
improve soil immunity due to its acidic nature also it
provides porosity in the soil which help to grow good
bacteria which helpful in agriculture process. Eggshell and
Fruit peels can improve the stiffness of soil and provide
good resistance to erosion
Fig 1: Process flowchart for egg shell and fruit peel for powder
preparation
Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD 2019)
In Association with Novateur Publications IJIERT-ISSN No: 2394-3696
ISBN. No. 978-93-87901-05-6
February, 14th and 15th, 2019
26 | P a g e
3. PREPARATION OF EGGSHELL
AND FRUIT PEELS POWDER
Eggshells and fruit peels were collected from household
wastage. To remove bacterial and viral contact, firstly
eggshell and fruit peel was washed in Luke warm water.
Later eggshell was treated with boil water for 5min.
Eggshells and fruit peels kept in sunlight around 72hrs (14
days - 5 Peak sunshine hour) to make it dry
Fig 2: A. Eggshell, B. Sweet lime peel, C. Banana peel
Fruit peel was crushed to small pieces to make powder.
Using grinder, fine powder was done from eggshell and
crushed piece of fruit peels as shown in fig 3.
Fig 3: A. Eggshell powder, B. Sweet lime pell powder,
C. Banana peel powder
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
Soil fertility and nutrients can be maintained by
adjusting its pH value. For evaluation of pH, Glass
electrode pH digital meter is used.
Table 1: Evaluation of pH of different formulation
SN.
Samples
Content
Formulation of sample
(mL)
pH
1
Egg Shell
1 g
1 g + 100 mL of Water
6.8
2
Sweet Lime
Peel
1 g
1 g + 100 mL of Water
6.4
3
Banana Peel
1 g
1 g + 100 mL of Water
8.1
The evaluation of pH in different formulation of samples
is shown in Table 1. By this evaluation result, we can
regulate the amount of eggshell and fruit peel powder
required for a particular soil. All three powders are
followed for analysis of nutrition content. To determine
carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen proportion in the samples,
CHNS analyzer is used. The CHNS Analyzer is used to
determine the percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen,
Sulphur and Oxygen of organic compounds, based on the
principle of Dumas method which involves the complete
and instantaneous oxidation of the sample by flash
combustion.
CHNS analysis is performed to determine for the
carbon(C), nitrogen (N) and hydrogen (H) constitution in
eggshell powder and fruit peel powder. Proportional
combination of the elements shown below
. Fig 4: Proportional combination of the elements
Present in Egg shell powder.
Fig 5: Proportional combination of the elements
Present in Sweet lime powder.
Proceedings of International Conference on Sustainable Development (ICSD 2019)
In Association with Novateur Publications IJIERT-ISSN No: 2394-3696
ISBN. No. 978-93-87901-05-6
February, 14th and 15th, 2019
27 | P a g e
Fig 6: Proportional combination of the elements
Present in Banana peel powder.
Fig.4, 5 and 6 represent the proportion combination of
the elements present in given sample. Retention time is the
amount of time a compound spends on the column after it
has been injected in presence of sample time used to detect
mass which flows through the chromatography column.
Usually, retention time for nitrogen (N) is 0-1 RT/min, 1-2
RT/min per carbon (C) and 2-4 RT/min for hydrogen (H).
Retention time for all samples is shown in Table 2.
Table 2: Retention Time per Minute.
Name of Sample
N
C
H
RT/min
RT/min
RT/min
Egg shell
0.8
1.192
3.308
Sweet lime peel
0.792
1.117
2.975
Banana peel
0.8
1.133
3.308
Determination of the elemental concentrations in a given
sample is shown in Table 3. About 12.601% carbon,
0.398% nitrogen and 0.26% hydrogen present in 2.819 mg
of eggshell sample. Sweet lime powder contains 38%
carbon, 5.5% hydrogen and 1.197% nitrogen present in
2.114 mg whereas Banana peel power 0.797% nitrogen,
6.153% hydrogen and 36.212% carbon present in 2.256
mg. From above observation nitrogen and carbon is more
available in sweet lime peel and banana peel contains more
hydrogen contain compare to remaining samples.
Table 3: Proportional combination of N, C and H in Samples
SN.
Name of
Sample
Total
weight
N
C
H
(mg)
%
%
%
1
Egg shell
2.819
0.398
12.601
0.26
2
Sweet lime
peel
2.114
1.1971
38.053
5.547
3
Banana peel
2.256
0.797
36.212
6.153
5. CONCLUSION
pH testing of samples shows eggshell is less acidic and
banana is alkaline in nature. Sweet lime is acidic due to the
availability of citric acid. By experimenting eggshell, sweet
lime peel and banana peel formulation for assessment of
pH, we can regulate the amount of eggshell and fruit peel
powder required for a particular soil. Eggshell has high
calcium source and regulates many metabolic process and
biochemical function [4].
CHNS analysis shows that nitrogen and carbon is more
available in sweet lime whereas banana peel contains more
hydrogen contain compare to remaining samples. This
experimental study proves that eggshell powder, sweet lime
peel powder and banana peel powder can be used as
fertilizer. All three powders have no cost bearing as this
organic waste samples are collected from domestic waste.
6. ACKNOWLEGEMENT
The authors are grateful to IIT-Bombay, SAIF Lab for their
support and cooperation to carry out certain analysis.
7. REFERENCE
1. Hiral J.Jariwala1, Huma S.Syed, Study on Use of Fruit Peels
Powder as a Fertilizer. Conference: Recent Advances in
Environmental Sciences and Engineering November 2016
2. Uchida, Essential nutrients for plant growth: Nutrient
functions and deficiency symptoms. In Plant nutrient
management in Hawaii soils, Honolulu: College of Tropical
Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii R.
2000.
3. Shah Jahan Leghari,Niaz Ahmed, Ghulam Mustafa
Bhabhan,, Khalid Hussain, Ayaz Ahmed Lashar, Role of
Nitrogen for Plant growth and development: Review.
Advances in Environmental Biology, September 2016,
Pages: 209-218
4. Lucas R. Brun, Maela Lupo, Damia´n A. Delorenzi,
Vero´nica E. Di Loreto and Alfredo Rigalli, Chicken
eggshell as suitable calcium source at home, Int J Food Sci
Nutr, Early Online: 1-4 2013 Informa UK Ltd. DOI:
10.3109/09637486.2013.787399
5. El Habbasha S.F. and Faten M. Ibrahim, Calcium:
Physiological Function, Deficiency and Absorption.
International Journal of Chem Tech Rese arch CODEN
(USA): IJCRGG ISSN: 0974-4290 Vol.8, No.12 pp 196-202,
2015
6. Soil Organic Carbon: the hidden potential. Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Rome, Italy
FAO 2017. ISBN 978-92-5-109681-9
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