Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Sanna Brauer
University of Oulu, Faculty of Education
Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
School of Professional Teacher Education
Digital Open Badge-Driven
Track 7: Research and Projects - Academic Research - Berlin - 7-8 May 2019
Digital Open Badges
•In the future, there will be increasingly numerous ways to develop
•Digital open badges offer novel possibilities in identifying and recognising
different competences independent of how they were acquired.
•Badges (e.g., Mozilla Open Badges) also may refer to the student’s (the
earner’s) participation in training or certiﬁcate completion (Rughiniş &
•Digital badges are used in learning to encourage students, to pinpoint
progress and to support credentialing (McDaniel & Fanfarelli, 2016). The
attached metadata explain the learning experience to those outside the
social context (Gamrat, Bixler, & Raish, 2016) in which the competence
•Effective badge design is complex by nature with different mechanics
and psychological factors affecting the identiﬁcation and recognition of
competences and eventual earning of badges (McDaniel & Fanfarelli,
electronic microcredentials to identify
and promote excellence and mastery
EVEN IF COMPETENCES ARE ACQUIRED
DIFFERENTLY, THEY SHOULD BE ASSESSED
This study is the ﬁrst European doctoral dissertation to address
digital open badges and digital open badge-driven learning.
1.What motivates students in the digital open badge-driven
2.How do students experience scaffolding in badge-driven learning?
3.What triggers learning in the badge-driven process?
4.How do learners experience the competence-based approach in
the badge-driven learning process of professional development?
optional study paths (17)
progressive challenges and
the extent of required performance (91)
badge-driven learning (67)
study progress (58)
inspiring gamification (55)
option to study regardless
of time and place (28)
Brauer, Siklander & Ruhalahti, 2017
Competence-based Approach to Motivation, Gamification and Triggers of
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Conceptualising Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Stages of the badge-driven learning process
Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018
•Triggers offer to affect learning arousing and maintaining interest
(Hidi & Renninger, 2006; Järvelä & Renninger, 2014; Renninger &
Bachrach, 2015) until final completion of the desired learning action
(Dichev et al., 2014).
•Triggers allow students to continue studying after completing the initial
task (Dichev et al., 2014; Werbach, 2014).
WHAT STUDENTS EXPERIENCE, LEARN AND THEN APPLY
•The prompting trigger of learning might help students visualise
their learning as a reward badge (Brauer, Siklander, &
Ruhalahti, 2017, Fitz-Walter et al., 2011; Gamrat et al., 2016;
Hamari, 2017; Montola et al., 2009; Reid et al., 2015).
• Students also gain a sense of excitement similar to that of
playing games (Deterding, 2012; 2015). They benefit from
facilitators’ interaction, collaboration and feedback during
the learning process (Siklander et al., 2017).
In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers’ Ways of Experiencing
the Competence-Based Approach in Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Badge Enthusiastic Team Builder
Profiling Badge Earners
From participation awards to addictive learning
and competence-based assessment
OppiminenOnline.com How to
•”Learning Online” is a national competence development program designed for
vocational teachers. 21000 competence-based badges since 2014.
• Identiﬁcation and recognition of teachers’ ICT competences (deﬁned in accordance
with UNESCO’s ICT-CFT) through 50 different badges and three levels of requisite
skill sets: Level I – SoMe-Novice equals 10 badges/2 ECTS; Level II – SoMe-Expert
25 badges/2 ECTS; and Level III – SoMe-Developer 45 badges/5 ECTS.
• The badge anatomy and architecture are simplistic.
•Badges are assessed based on an application. Requirements vary from practical
skills demonstrating to demanding strategic planning. The metadata describes the
principles of judgement and explain how the competence in question should be
• The level badges are granted automatically based on non-assessed milestones.
• Digital open badge-driven learning process encourages students to assess their
recent performance as well as achieved competences, including prior learning and
Digital competence framework for educators: Areas and scope (Redecker, 2017, p. 15).
UNESCO’s ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (UNESCO, 2011, p. 3)
The standards and frameworks
describing the desired
competence levels are important
at the national and international
levels in order to set the direction
for development. However, ofﬁcial
guidelines are not always the best
tool for individuals seeking to
identify personal competences or
to comprehend the needs of
development in practice.
frameworks seek to support
educational institutions and
policymakers in developing
effective and meaningful
(Kools & Stoll, 2016).”
Chips For Game Skills -project focuses on identifying the
needs of the game industry and develop the education
on the basis of them. The goal is to create a common
evaluation criteria – a digital open badge system – which
clarifies the definition and understanding of the learning
objectives in the games industry.
The ESCO Skills/Competences classification
Competitive Skills - National Open Badge -constellation of
problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTRE)
The aim of the project is to develop a nationwide open badge constellation, which enables the veriﬁcation of adults’
problem solving skills in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by identifying and recognising competences acquired
outside the formal education system, at different levels of education, and in transition phases of the education
structure. In addition, the project provides a requirement framework of competence (determining the composition of
objectives, core contents and assessment criteria) for securing IT-related problem-solving skills in formal and non-formal
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