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Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning 3rd VPL Biennale, 7.-8.5.2019 Berlin

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Abstract

Digital open badges are gaining popularity as a means of identification and recognition of competences acquired differently. Meanwhile new ways to motivate, scaffold and assess competence-based learning processes in professional development are emerging. This article offers a summary of the first European doctoral dissertation to address digital open badges and digital open badge-driven learning. The thesis represents a novel application of descriptive statistical methodology to the context of educational research. The primary results culminate in defining digital open badge-driven learning process grounded on the badge constellation of competences. The entity of badge-driven learning includes learning materials, badge criteria, instructional badging, scaffolding and peer support.
Ph.D. Senior Lecturer Sanna Brauer
University of Oulu, Faculty of Education
Oulu University of Applied Sciences,
School of Professional Teacher Education
Digital Open Badge-Driven
Learning
Track 7: Research and Projects - Academic Research - Berlin - 7-8 May 2019
Digital Open Badges
In the future, there will be increasingly numerous ways to develop
competences.
Digital open badges offer novel possibilities in identifying and recognising
different competences independent of how they were acquired.
Badges (e.g., Mozilla Open Badges) also may refer to the student’s (the
earner’s) participation in training or certificate completion (Rughiniş &
Matei, 2013).
Digital badges are used in learning to encourage students, to pinpoint
progress and to support credentialing (McDaniel & Fanfarelli, 2016). The
attached metadata explain the learning experience to those outside the
social context (Gamrat, Bixler, & Raish, 2016) in which the competence
was acquired.
Effective badge design is complex by nature with different mechanics
and psychological factors affecting the identification and recognition of
competences and eventual earning of badges (McDaniel & Fanfarelli,
2016).
electronic microcredentials to identify
and promote excellence and mastery
EVEN IF COMPETENCES ARE ACQUIRED
DIFFERENTLY, THEY SHOULD BE ASSESSED
EQUALLY
This study is the first European doctoral dissertation to address
digital open badges and digital open badge-driven learning.
1.What motivates students in the digital open badge-driven
learning process?
2.How do students experience scaffolding in badge-driven learning?
3.What triggers learning in the badge-driven process?
4.How do learners experience the competence-based approach in
the badge-driven learning process of professional development?
Achievement Goals
Triggers of
Online Learning
Intrinsic and
Extrinsic motivation
optional study paths (17)
progressive challenges and
the extent of required performance (91)
enthusiasm for
badge-driven learning (67)
study progress (58)
inspiring gamification (55)
Total
122
Total
119
Total
75
Brauer, Siklander & Ruhalahti, 2017
Competence-based Approach to Motivation, Gamification and Triggers of
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Conceptualising Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Five-stage model from Salmon 2018 / cf Brauer, Korhonen, Siklander, 2018
Stages of the badge-driven learning process
Brauer, 2019; cf. Salmon, 2018
Photo by Buster Benson
Brauer, 2019
Badges explain
Triggers offer to affect learning arousing and maintaining interest
(Hidi & Renninger, 2006; Järvelä & Renninger, 2014; Renninger &
Bachrach, 2015) until final completion of the desired learning action
(Dichev et al., 2014).
Triggers allow students to continue studying after completing the initial
task (Dichev et al., 2014; Werbach, 2014).
WHAT STUDENTS EXPERIENCE, LEARN AND THEN APPLY
The prompting trigger of learning might help students visualise
their learning as a reward badge (Brauer, Siklander, &
Ruhalahti, 2017, Fitz-Walter et al., 2011; Gamrat et al., 2016;
Hamari, 2017; Montola et al., 2009; Reid et al., 2015).
Students also gain a sense of excitement similar to that of
playing games (Deterding, 2012; 2015). They benefit from
facilitators’ interaction, collaboration and feedback during
the learning process (Siklander et al., 2017).
In-Service and Pre-Service Teachers’ Ways of Experiencing
the Competence-Based Approach in Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning
Team Player
Assignment Doer
Badge Enthusiastic Team Builder
Simply
grades!
Profiling Badge Earners
Brauer, 2018
From participation awards to addictive learning
and competence-based assessment
OppiminenOnline.com How to
Play?
”Learning Online” is a national competence development program designed for
vocational teachers. 21000 competence-based badges since 2014.
Identification and recognition of teachers’ ICT competences (defined in accordance
with UNESCO’s ICT-CFT) through 50 different badges and three levels of requisite
skill sets: Level I SoMe-Novice equals 10 badges/2 ECTS; Level II SoMe-Expert
25 badges/2 ECTS; and Level III – SoMe-Developer 45 badges/5 ECTS.
The badge anatomy and architecture are simplistic.
Badges are assessed based on an application. Requirements vary from practical
skills demonstrating to demanding strategic planning. The metadata describes the
principles of judgement and explain how the competence in question should be
demonstrated.
The level badges are granted automatically based on non-assessed milestones.
Digital open badge-driven learning process encourages students to assess their
recent performance as well as achieved competences, including prior learning and
competences.
Digital competence framework for educators: Areas and scope (Redecker, 2017, p. 15).
UNESCO’s ICT Competency Framework for Teachers (UNESCO, 2011, p. 3)
The standards and frameworks
describing the desired
competence levels are important
at the national and international
levels in order to set the direction
for development. However, official
guidelines are not always the best
tool for individuals seeking to
identify personal competences or
to comprehend the needs of
development in practice.
“Different digital
pedagogical competence
frameworks seek to support
teaching personnel,
educational institutions and
policymakers in developing
effective and meaningful
criterion-based
competence development
(Kools & Stoll, 2016).”
Chips For Game Skills -project focuses on identifying the
needs of the game industry and develop the education
on the basis of them. The goal is to create a common
evaluation criteria – a digital open badge system – which
clarifies the definition and understanding of the learning
objectives in the games industry.
’Work-Integrated
Pedagogy in
Higher Education’
(WORKPEDA)
Identification and
Recognition of
Desired
Competences
Oulu
The ESCO Skills/Competences classification
Competitive Skills - National Open Badge -constellation of
problem solving in technology-rich environments (PSTRE)
The aim of the project is to develop a nationwide open badge constellation, which enables the verification of adults’
problem solving skills in technology-rich environments (PIAAC) by identifying and recognising competences acquired
outside the formal education system, at different levels of education, and in transition phases of the education
structure. In addition, the project provides a requirement framework of competence (determining the composition of
objectives, core contents and assessment criteria) for securing IT-related problem-solving skills in formal and non-formal
education.
DEMO: https://invis.io/8XNRS737TF9
#openrecognition
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Thesis
Full-text available
Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning – Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers Rovaniemi: University of Lapland 2019, 175 p. Acta Universitas Lapponiensis 380 Thesis: University of Lapland, Faculty of Education ISBN 978-952-337-109-5 ISSN 0788-7604 In the digital era, institutions of vocational education and training (VET) have emerged as transformational and flexible development environments; consequently, it is important to develop digital professional learning opportunities for vocational teachers who need to meet the requirements of their working lives. More research regarding such opportunities is needed in order to find new tools for planning and conducting studies on continuing professional development and to achieve and maintain the versatile competences required in vocational teachers’ demanding careers. This study aims to fill a research gap regarding advanced competence-based professional development by investigating the process of digital open badge-driven learning in the context of professional teacher education (vocational teacher education). The research question considers how digital open badges structure the gamified competence-based learning process in the continuing professional development of vocational pre- and in-service teachers. Theoretically, this study draws attention to the motivational effects of digital badging, gamification and the competence-based approach. The research aimed to explore vocational teachers’ different ideas, views and experiences of the competence-based approach to professional development of digital pedagogical competences; it also sought to investigate the structure and process of digital open badge-driven learning. The data were collected from Finnish pre- and in-service vocational teachers (n=29) in 2016 via group online interviews (n=6) and via online questionnaires in 2017 (n=329). The study draws on descriptive mixed research methodologies: qualitative content analysis, constrained correspondence analysis (CCA) and phenomenography. All of these approaches provide researchers with deep conceptual understandings and opportunities to draw new concepts and derive implications for novel educational practices. Further, the latter two studies provide a strong underpinning for further research related to the descriptive quantitative methodology and CCA. 8 • Digital Open Badge-Driven Learning – Competence-based Professional Development for Vocational Teachers The aim of the first sub-study was to reveal what motivates students in the badge-driven learning process. The study focused on mapping students’ experiences of stimulating and supportive digital open badge-driven learning, ultimately determining motivational factors affecting the digital open badge-driven learning process. The findings present a multifaceted model of recognising competence and embracing gamified learning to encourage students’ achievement orientation and intrinsic motivation. In the second sub-study, we viewed the process from the perspective of guidance and scaffolding, asking how students experience scaffolding in badge-driven learning. The results indicate that a stage model of scaffolding and instructional badging holds value in structuring the badge-driven learning process. The third study aimed to identify students who were particularly motivated by digital open badge-driven learning. The research question sought to explore what triggers learning in the badge-driven process, with results indicating similarities and differences in experiences based on the achieved skill-set level and competence-development continuum for vocational teachers. The findings also suggest the value of applying gamification and digital badging in the professional development of both pre- and in-service teachers. Based on our findings, we propose digital open badge-driven learning triggered by flexible study options that include customising studies and learning new and up-to-date competences. The final and fourth study further describes vocational pre- and in-service teachers’ experiences of the competence-based approach in digital open badge-driven learning. By explaining different aspects of the phenomenon, the study employed both constrained correspondence analysis and phenomenography to deepen our existing knowledge of digital open badge-driven learning. The results describe the impact of the competence-based approach on teachers’ professional development during the digital open badge-driven learning process. Each of the four sub-studies contribute to answering the study’s overarching research question: how do digital open badges structure the gamified competence-based learning process in the continuing professional development of vocational pre- and in-service teachers? The primary results from the various sub-studies and theoretical approaches culminate in defining digital open badge-driven learning process grounded on the badge constellation of competences. The entity of digital open badge-driven learning includes learning materials, badge criteria, instructional badging, scaffolding and peer support. This study offers insights into the process structure and layered design for applying the competence-based approach, digital open badges and gamification in professional development. Further, the process approach embodies the ideal of study path customisation and personalisation in order to meet teachers’ personal needs for their working lives. Keywords: Digital Open Badges, Competence-based Approach, Motivation, Gamification, Professional Development, Vocational Teachers
Book
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As the teaching professions face rapidly changing demands, educators require an increasingly broad and more sophisticated set of competences than before. In particular the ubiquity of digital devices and the duty to help students become digitally competent requires educators to develop their own digital competence. On International and national level a number of frameworks, self-assessment tools and training programmes have been developed to describe the facets of digital competence for educators and to help them assess their competence, identify their training needs and offer targeted training. Analysing and clustering these instruments, this report presents a common European Framework for the Digital Competence of Educators (DigCompEdu). DigCompEdu is a scientifically sound background framework which helps to guide policy and can be directly adapted to implement regional and national tools and training programmes. In addition, it provides a common language and approach that will help the dialogue and exchange of best practices across borders. The DigCompEdu framework is directed towards educators at all levels of education, from early childhood to higher and adult education, including general and vocational training, special needs education, and non-formal learning contexts. It aims to provide a general reference frame for developers of Digital Competence models, i.e. Member States, regional governments, relevant national and regional agencies, educational organisations themselves, and public or private professional training providers.
Article
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"Digital open badges describe in detail the expertise and professional competencies achieved in digital environments. “Learning Online” is a Finnish national professional development programme (PDP) of digital pedagogical competencies for vocational teachers. This study aims to identify the students who are particularly motivated by digital open badge-driven learning. The research question asks what triggers learning in such a badge-driven process." Read more https://www.abdn.ac.uk/eitn/journal/545/
Article
Full-text available
Brauer, S., Kettunen, J., & Hallikainen, V. (2018). “Learning Online” for vocational teachers - visualisation of competence-based-approach in digital open badge-driven learning. The Journal of Professional and Vocational Education: Vocational education and training in the Nordic countries, 20(2), 13-29. URN:NBN:fi:amk-2018111317076 Vocational education in Finland is based on competence-based qualification requirements. Meanwhile, digital open badges promote competence-based assessment and shared expertise in digital environments. The educational setting supports gamified learning solutions and enhances student motivation. The current study aims to examine how learners experience the competence-based approach in the badge-driven learning process of professional development. The theoretical framework focuses on the concept of instructional badging in the competence-based approach. Coordinated by the country’s northernmost school of vocational teacher education, “Learning Online” is a national professional development program (PDP) of digital pedagogical competences for vocational teachers in Finland. The data were collected in 2017 from in-service trained professional teachers and pre-service students (n=329) of vocational teacher education who had earned digital open badges in a Learning Online PDP. A questionnaire was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data. The study provides an example of using two different methods to build knowledge describing participants’ experiences. The study employed constrained correspondence analysis and phenomenography to analyse participants’ different experiences. Both used methods highlight the badge learners’ experiences and offer to deepen the existing knowledge of digital open badge-driven learning complementing one other by explaining different aspects of the phenomenon. The results describe the impact of the competence-based approach on teachers’ professional development in digital open badge-driven learning.
Conference Paper
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Digital pedagogy means applying new technologies to teaching and learning in online, hybrid and face-to-face learning environments. Digital open badges, a set of micro-credentials, support equal and egalitarian competence-based assessment models. Criterion -based digital badging combined with gamification promise learning solutions that have the potential to improve learning outcomes substantially. The aim of this study is to investigate how a competence -based assessment process in an open badge management system enhances learning and guides students to improved learning outcomes. The theoretical framework is focused on concepts of gamification and instructional badging
Article
Full-text available
Brauer, S., Siklander, P. & Ruhalahti, S. (2017). Motivation in digital open badge-driven learning in vocational teacher education. Ammattikasvatuksen Aikakauskirja, 19(3), 7–23. Available free from: https://akakk.fi/wp-content/uploads/AKAKK-3.2017-NET.pdf Digital open badges, a set of micro-credentials, have recently been introduced as tools for digital identification and recognition of expertise acquired in practice or through studies. The current study aims to examine what motivates students in the badge-driven learning process. The theoretical framework focuses on concepts of achievement goals, triggers of learning, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Data were collected in 2016 from group interviews (n=6) of in-service trained professional teachers (n=17) and pre-service students of vocational teacher education (n=12) who earned 645 badges over one year in a Learning Online PD program. The research was conducted via data-driven content analysis. Results revealed several variables affecting motivation: progressive challenges and the extent of required performance, enthusiasm for the badge-driven learning, study progress, inspiring gamification, the option to study regardless of time and place, and optional study paths. This paper informs future researchers aiming to understand how badge-driven learning supports motivation. Keywords: motivation, digital open badges, vocational teacher education, digital pedagogy, professional development
Article
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Background. Digital badges are used in games and simulations for purposes such as incentivizing learning, identifying progress, increasing time on task, and credentialing. Designing effective badges is complicated by psychological factors mediating the processes of recognizing, orienting toward, and acquiring badges. Aim. This article analyzes digital badges through mechanics and psychology. This approach involves understanding the underlying logics of badges as well as the experiential nature of badges-in-use. The proposed model provides additional insight about badges and recommends design strategies to complement existing scholarship. Procedure. This article examines an existing model of completion logic for digital badges. This model is expanded upon by pairing these formal mechanics with relevant psychological theory, summarizing key principles that pertain to how people interact with badges. It then considers three dimensions of badgesin- use—social, cognitive, and affective—reviewing examples and analyzing the relationship of badging to debriefing. Outcome. Understanding the relationships between formal completion logics and the psychological experience of badging allows designers to better design, deploy, and critique badging systems, leading to more effective implementations within simulation and gaming contexts. A design matrix and a series of design recommendations for badging are derived from the presented perspectives.
Article
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Digital badges are being adopted widely in educational settings as an alternative assessment model, but research on their impact on motivation is scarce. The present study examined college undergraduates (n = 53) enrolled in first-year writing courses, where badges represented essential course outcomes. Participants were categorized as either high or low expectancy-values, and intrinsic motivation to earn badges was measured repeatedly during the 16-week semester. Participants’ attitudes toward digital badges also were investigated. Findings reinforced previous research that digital badges function differently according to the type of learner. Results indicated a generally positive view of badges in English courses, though levels of intrinsic motivation to earn the badges increased for high expectancy-value learners only. It is suggested that incorporating digital badges as an assessment model benefits learners who have high expectations for learning and place value on learning tasks, but badges also could disenfranchise students with low expectancy-values. Digital badges are viable as assessment tools but heavily dependent upon individual learner types.
Conference Paper
We discuss digital badges in education, focusing on two functions of badge architectures: mapping a learning system and offering a vocabulary to present one’s achievements. We have designed, implemented and evaluated two badge architectures; our research findings support the conclusion that students see these medals less as extrinsic motivations than as signposts that point out relevant learning targets. Also, because trainers and students define badges mainly as fun, locally relevant prizes, there is little concern for how they can be used to communicate merits outside the learning community. Badge architectures can be designed to support local or public reputations; if public visibility is desired, the system should assist holders’ work of claiming merit.
Chapter
In order to be productive at home, school, or work, and in their free time, learners are constantly involved in communicating, collaborating, problem solving, and thinking critically. They need to master these skills to participate fully and effectively in society (McLaughlin, 2008). International organizations (e.g., OECD, EU, UNESCO), public-private partnerships (P21, ACTS), educational organizations (e.g., ISTE, NAEP), and researchers have formulated frameworks describing the skills necessary to contribute to the 21st century, and how to design learning environments to foster these skills (e.g., Trilling & Fadel, 2009). However, the roles of interest, motivation, and engagement that enable the development of these skills has not been carefully examined. In general, learners elect to engage in tasks and activities in which they feel competent and confident, and avoid those in which they do not (e.g., Bandura, 1997). Challenging tasks can lead some learners to feel they are not able to learn; for others, challenge is a reason to persevere. However, only those who believe that their actions will result in the consequences they desire have the incentive to engage (Schunk, 1995). Decades of research have shown that learners with a strong sense of their own competence approach difficult tasks and situations as challenges to be mastered, rather than as threats to be avoided (Zimmermann & Schunk, 2011). Past experience solving problems and individual interest impacts their ability to work with challenge or failure (Tulis & Ainley, 2011). Research on group learning, for example, has shown that learners’ interpretations can be positive and lead to increased motivation and engagement for group activities; and, alternatively, that learners’ perceptions can be negative and lead to de-motivation and withdrawal (Van den Bossche, Gijselaers, Segers, & Kirchner, 2006).