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Abstract

For the individuals to enrich their livelihoods opportunities and to achieve the desired goals and objectives in a satisfactory manner, it is necessary to acquire educational qualifications. But when the individuals are not able to get enrolled in schools and training centres to acquire educational qualifications, then it is crucial for them to enhance the basic literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. The primary objective of this research paper is to generate awareness in terms of types of literacy. The various types of literacies that have been taken into account in this research paper include, computer, vernacular, digital, visual, school, media, health, emotional, cultural and moral. In the present existence, apart from getting enrolled in educational institutions and training centres to acquire academic knowledge and develop competencies and abilities, the individuals, belonging to all age groups, categories and backgrounds are augmenting their knowledge and skills in terms of all the above stated literacy skills. When individuals are able to augment their knowledge and understanding in terms of types of literacies and enhance their literacy skills, then they are able to promote welfare of their families and communities.
Types of Literacy
Dr. Radhika Kapur
Abstract
For the individuals to enrich their livelihoods opportunities and to achieve the desired
goals and objectives in a satisfactory manner, it is necessary to acquire educational
qualifications. But when the individuals are not able to get enrolled in schools and training
centres to acquire educational qualifications, then it is crucial for them to enhance the basic
literacy skills of reading, writing and arithmetic. The primary objective of this research paper
is to generate awareness in terms of types of literacy. The various types of literacies that have
been taken into account in this research paper include, computer, vernacular, digital, visual,
school, media, health, emotional, cultural and moral. In the present existence, apart from
getting enrolled in educational institutions and training centres to acquire academic
knowledge and develop competencies and abilities, the individuals, belonging to all age
groups, categories and backgrounds are augmenting their knowledge and skills in terms of all
the above stated literacy skills. When individuals are able to augment their knowledge and
understanding in terms of types of literacies and enhance their literacy skills, then they are
able to promote welfare of their families and communities.
Keywords: Computer, Cultural, Digital, Educational institutions, Emotional, Health,
Individuals, Literacy, Media, Moral, School, Skills, Vernacular, Visual
When conducting research on modernizations, developments and good measures in
educational administration, it is essential to acquire an efficient understanding of significance
of education and types of literacy. The individuals, belonging to all categories and
backgrounds have the major objective of augmenting their skills and abilities, and to enhance
their livelihoods. The individuals get enrolled in educational institutions and training centres,
based upon their interests in the fields. The various types of literacies are, computer,
vernacular, digital, visual, school, media, health, emotional, cultural and moral. The
acquisition of knowledge and information in terms of all types of literacies, would prove to
be beneficial to the individuals in number of ways. These are, sustaining their living
conditions in a better way, generating awareness in terms of various areas, able to form
effective terms and relationships with others, within and outside the home and inculcating
among themselves the traits of morality and ethics.
Individuals get enrolled in schools to acquire academic skills, therefore, in this case
school literacy is considered vital. Whereas, individuals get enrolled in computer training
centres to develop their knowledge and skills in terms of computers and technology. Hence,
computer literacy is regarded significant. Individuals usually acquire health literacy, as health
is considered as a crucial factor for all individuals. This may be attained either through
enrolment in educational institutions or consulting health care specialists or accessing other
sources, such as, books, internet etc. Throughout the country, there have been establishment
of educational institutions and training centres, which are either initiating programs and
courses in terms of one particular field or multiple fields. Students have the right to apply to
the courses, based upon their interests. Merits, and qualifications of the students are usually
considered when they are given admission. In some cases, particularly in short-term courses
or programs, admission even takes place on first come and first served basis.
In order to enhance the system of education, it is necessary to introduce modern and
innovative methods, strategies and approaches. These are vital in the teaching-learning
methods, instructional strategies and in management, governance and administrative
functions. When the members of the institutions are aware of these methods, then they are not
only able to improve the implementation of tasks and activities, but also lead to an increase in
the enrolment of students. In addition, staff members and teachers are also able to inculcate
the feeling of job satisfaction. The educational administration is different in all educational
institutions and training centres. When the students seek enrolment, their primary objective is
to learn. They will be able to improve their learning, when the educational administrative
functions will get implemented in a well-organized manner. In other words, it can be stated
that for all educational institutions to achieve the desired goals and objectives, it is necessary
to carry out the administrative functions in an appropriate manner.
Computer Literacy
In the present existence, computer literacy is regarded as indispensable for the
individuals, engaged in any occupation or task. In various fields, education, management,
administration, law, medical, health care, science, technology, engineering, and so forth,
functions and job duties are carried out through making use of computers. The most common
use of computers is made, when individuals are required to search information, through
internet, communicate or prepare reports, articles, documents, letters or projects. When the
individuals apply for various jobs in offices or organizations, then apart from minimum
educational qualifications, it is the job requirement that they should possess computer literacy
skills. In the case of computer literacy, there are three categories, basic, which is the
foundational computer literacy skills; intermediate is the second level, which involves the
concepts, beyond the foundation and proficient, and third is, competency, beyond the
intermediate level, which is applied in educational and employment settings (Computer
Literacy Skills, n.d.).
When the students are acquiring computer skills, they are expected to be diligent and
resourceful. Research has indicated that when individuals acquire computer literacy skills,
they tend to feel apprehensive and vulnerable. It is essential for them to get engaged in
thorough practice to enhance their computer skills. They are expected to make use of
technology in an ethical manner. When technology is made use of, then it is vital for them to
first of all possess adequate knowledge and information in terms of hardware. The computer
comprises of monitor, central processing unit (CPU) and keyboard. Keyboarding is a
foundational skill, i.e. related to motor skills. The students should be able to make use of
keyboard in an effective manner with the objective of making complete use of technology.
However, it is up to the individual school systems to determine the appropriate age, when
keyboard instruction can begin for the individuals. Normally, students are encouraged to
acquire computer literacy from the stage of early childhood.
Procedures in Computer Literacy
The computers are of two types, desk-top computers and lap-top computers. When the
instructors are imparting knowledge to the students in terms of computer literacy, then they
are required to follow the necessary procedures, which have been stated as follows:
(Computer Literacy Skills, n.d.).
Turning On and Off the Computer – First of all, the computers, desk-tops and lap-tops
need to be turned on. When the individuals have turned them on, then the basic literacy skills
begins with generating awareness in terms of concepts such as, calculator, accessories,
notepad, draw and paint and so forth. After the computer has been made use of, it is essential
to turn it off. Clicking the shut-down button is the appropriate manner of turning off the
computer.
Parts of the Computer – The different parts of the computer are, computer (CPU),
monitor, mouse, keyboard, CD/DVD drive, printer, headphones, micro-phone, and speakers.
When the students are understanding, how to operate the computer, they need to learn how to
make use of the input device (mouse). This include, point, drag, click, double click, click,
select and hold, drag and drop, move cursor, type letters and numbers, recognize and use
icons and functions and use special function keys, such as, delete, shift, arrow keys, space,
return and enter.
Locate and Retrieve Files – MS Word is the software that is used to prepare articles,
documents, reports, projects, letters, files and so forth. After providing information in terms
of various concepts of the computer, the students are taught how to type in MS Word. In this
case, the various aspects in terms of which students need to be made aware of are, Home,
Insert, Design, Page Layout, References, Mailings, Review, and View. Hence, there are
number of concepts which individuals learn, but they make use of the ones, which are mostly
required.
Recognize and Save Documents in Various Formats – The recognition and saving of
the files in various formats is another concept, which is learned. These are, .bmp, .jpg, .pdf,
.html and so forth. Folders are created to recognize the files, renaming the files and deleting
the files. When the individuals are preparing files and documents, then it is vital for them to
acquire an efficient understanding of methods that are used to prepare the file, i.e. font size,
page layout, header and footer, inserting tables and so forth.
Attachment of Peripheral Devices – Attachment and use of peripheral devices include
the devices which are, scanners, projectors, digital cameras, media storage, and flash drive.
When these are made use of, then file properties need to be viewed to determine the memory
size. Locate and use of accessibility features, as needed, such as, magnifier and sticky keys.
Multi-tasking is carried out in a variety of ways and compressed file is saved as .zip.
Creating Databases – Open an existing database file. Enter the data in a content-
related databases, using the database template or form. Search for specific data or information
by field and preview and print a datasheet. Furthermore, the other functions that are carried
out are, modifying database fields, adding and deleting records, setting field attributes,
managing headers and footers, use the find and sort functions, form a query, filter data, and
generate a report of data gathered from database sources.
Using Digital Imaging Tools – Use tools to create original images, change image
colours and patterns, add text to describe an image, save or download digital images to a
computer, change the size or shape of an object, change the pattern or colour of an object,
rotate and flip objects, insert, move or resize an image in the document or presentation, adjust
pixels or resolutions of an image to adjust quality and file size, edit photos and images and
create and edit movies and animations.
Using Email – When the individuals are learning how to use email, then they need to
create an email ID. When sending a message or any document or report, the communication
should be carried out in an appropriate manner. The documents and reports are usually send
as attachments. In the case of email, the individuals need to generate awareness in terms of
various factors, such as, inbox, send items, delete and so forth. Creation and addressing of
distribution list is another important aspect that needs to be learned in using email. The
emails are also organized into folders.
Creating Multimedia Presentations – In the creation of multimedia presentations, it is
necessary to apply pre-production organizational concepts, such as, storyboarding and visual
organizers, opening and closing a presentation or presentation template, saving a presentation
file, creating an original presentation or using a template, rearranging the slides, using slide
sorter or a storybook feature to organize a presentation, using help feature to troubleshoot the
formatting problems, modifying the tool bars to reflect current use of the tools and formatting
the text, using spacing, line spacing, margins and tabs.
Using and Creating Spreadsheets – In the case of using and creating spreadsheets, the
procedures that are implemented are, selecting a cell, entering data into the cell, and
formatting of cells and data is done using, font size, colour, style, alignment, decimal spaces,
currency, date, time, percent, creation of basic chart or graph. The spreadsheets are used for
assessment, productivity and problem solving. The calculations of mean, median and mode
are also carried out, making use of formulas. Saving of the files are done in various formats,
such as, .html, .pdf and so forth.
Vernacular Literacy
Vernacular literacies in the present include articles and it begins with writing. The
development of new models in terms of vernacular literacy begins with writing. As when the
students are provided with articles, they first of all learn to read and comprehend them.
Previously, mass literacy was almost exclusively described from the reading perspective. But
in the present existence, one is making an entry into a period of deep writing, mainly due to
the advent of globalization and implementation of scientific, innovative and modern
strategies and approaches in the performance of tasks and activities. Furthermore, there have
been changes taking place in the nature of works and jobs of the individuals. Writing has
emerged to be a critical skill of consequence in daily life, in the second stage of mass literacy
(Edlund, Edlund, & Haugen, 2014). When the individuals are learning English language
skills, then, it is crucial to make provision of writing materials. When they would practice
reading and writing, then they would be able to augment their skills and abilities.
Through the acquisition of vernacular literacy, the individuals are able to acquire
basic cognitive skills. Above all, the individuals need to possess adequate knowledge in terms
of making use of these skills that contribute to socio-economic development, to developing
the capacity for social awareness, and critical reflection as the basis for personal and social
change. There are four main concepts that need to be understood with the main objective of
developing the vernacular literacy skills. These are, literacy is the autonomous set of skills,
literacy as applied, practiced and situated, literacy as the learning process and literacy as text.
One of the aspects that is of utmost significance is, maintaining and developing oral skills,
can be a means of language preservation. Since many languages do not have or are less
compatible with equivalent textual scripts and it operates the risk of extinction, as younger
generations adapt to written languages that are employed in educational institutions (Chapter
6, 2006).
The most common understanding of vernacular literacy is, it is the set of tangible
skills. The tangible skills include, particularly the skills of reading and writing. These are
independent of the framework, in which they are attained. The background of the individuals
is regarded as critical, when they are acquiring vernacular literacy skills. The emphasis that
has been put upon meaning has recently given way to a scientific attention to phonetics, word
recognition, spelling and vocabulary. This approach has been put into practice to conduct
research in the cognitive sciences, particularly in terms of the important feature of human
memory. Another vital aspect that is focused upon is, how the brain processes reading
patterns and techniques, such as, phonological awareness, training and making provision of
reading tasks at a rapid pace. A tendency to favour the scientific principles of phonetics has
given rise to claims that writing is the transcription of speech and therefore, it is regarded as
superior to it. Some claim that alphabetic system is superior to the other forms of script
(Chapter 6, 2006).
The transition that takes place from oral to written modes has a fundamental impact
on human consciousness. It not only allows for the representation of words by signs, but also
gives a linear shape to thought and make provision of a critical framework, within which they
form their analytical thinking. Whereas, rational consciousness is often taken to be a given
good, it derives from the classical epistemology, which may be less appropriate for the
societies, founded on different patterns of thoughts and interactions. Consequently the
understanding of literacy that put some emphasis on social skills is regarded to be less
desirable (Chapter 6, 2006). The notion of multiple literacies is not something novice, the
individuals focus upon the emphasis of literacy skills from the stage of early childhood. Some
researchers have suggested that a more useful concept is that of multiple literacies. These
include ways of reading the world in specific frameworks.
Vernacular literacy is no longer seen as a simple skill or competency or process. When
the individuals are inculcating within them the vernacular literacy skills, they are required to
possess adequate knowledge in terms of technology, reading and writing skills and so forth.
World Vision offers literacy programs, using a broad approach to education that encourages
support for out of school youth and vulnerable adults. The programs put emphasis upon
vocational and livelihood education. The individuals that pursue these programs are children
in crisis, youth, women and adults. Literate societies enable the free exchange of text-based
information and make provision of a range of opportunities for lifelong learning. Literate
societies are more than locales offering access to printed matter, written records, visual
materials and advanced technologies (Chapter 6, 2006).
Digital Literacy
Digital literacy is defined as making use of technologies to find, use and disseminate
information. It is observed from different perspectives, depending upon the disciplines.
However fundamentally, it focuses upon more on literacies than media and involves finding,
using and disseminating the information in the digital world. With the utilization of digital
media sources, one is able to implement the daily activities in personal and professional life.
The complexity, choice of work, range, and information can be overwhelming. Navigation
skills and information management can ensure that up-to-date pertinent sources are located in
an accessible format and sources are well-organized and documented to enable efficient
retrieval and when needed. The absolute influence and ubiquity of digital media mean that
synthesis and critical assessment of a variety of array of resources are also key skills. Further,
ethical and legal use of information and maintaining the security and privacy of the user’s and
other’s information is of utmost significance.
Digital literacy is not a stationary concept. Information and communications
technologies (ICT) undergo changes with the advent of modernization and globalization.
When the individuals are digitally literate, they are required to develop and apply the skills in
new technologies for the discovery of information, transfer, analysis, review and
communication. When this literacy is integrated within the course curriculum, then it renders
an effective contribution in the participation of the students in premium cloud and located
learning environments. These skills also have an influence upon the employability factors of
the students. The recruitment is being undertaken via social media and a professional digital
identity being the primary aspect to future networking within a profession, seeking
opportunities and guaranteeing mobility over a career. It is apparent that individuals need to
pay adequate attention towards the development of digital literacy skills. When an individual
is pursuing an educational program or is engaged in employment, it is vital for him or her to
enhance the digital literacy skills (Digital Literacy, n.d.).
Aspects of Digital Literacy
The aspects of digital literacy have been stated as follows: (Digital Literacy, n.d.).
Underpinnings – Underpinnings include, functional literacy, basic ICT skills.
Background Knowledge – Background knowledge includes, the nature of information,
forms, sources, origins, understanding publication chains, authorship and provenance.
Central Competencies – Central competencies include, finding, searching, navigating,
synthesizing, critically analysing, creating and communicating.
Perspectives – Perspectives include, independent learning, ethical use of information
(respect for privacy) and ethical behaviour in digital communication.
Within the environmental conditions of higher educational institutions, foundational
literacy and basic ICT skills are regarded as student pre-requisites and they are not part of the
digital programs.
Teaching Digital Literacy
Digital literacy can be built on the concepts, in terms of which students have already
been provided training. This is particularly, where the current curriculum is based upon
already taught, enquiry-based learning and learning practices, such as evidence-based
practice, problem-based learning, case-based learning, project-based and design-based
learning. These have been stated as follows:
Evidence-based Practice (EBP) – This literacy requires the students to make clinical
decisions, informed by the most pertinent, valid and robust evidence. The teaching methods
comprise of lectures and case-based tutorials. In these tutorials, the students are provided
with relevant information in terms of scenarios and questions and are asked to find evidence
in terms of supporting hypothetical decisions.
Problem-based Learning (PBL) – This learning encourages the participation of
students in the real world problems. Each PBL assessment involves the students to acquire an
understanding of the scenario, the activities are needed to support the learning needs of the
students and additional sources on the topic or general related area.
Case-based Learning (CBL) – This type of learning focuses upon the analysis of case
narratives that may include wide-ranging information or require the students to conduct
further research. Through the presentation of a topical case, case-based learning in the case of
Bachelor of Health Sciences encourages the students to reflect upon their skills and identify
the learning gaps. The approach requires the learners to find and evaluate appropriate
information to assist in the development of knowledge.
Digital Literacy Potential Performance Standards
The digital literacy potential performance standards have been stated as follows:
Digital Proficiency – Digital proficiency involves appropriate, efficient and effective
use of technologies. Furthermore, the individuals should possess the appropriate skills to
select and make use of contemporary technologies to assess, organize, share and
communicate information.
Determine the Extent of Information Needed – Effectively defining the scope of the
research enquiry, identification of main concepts and selection of relevant sources are the
important aspects that need to be put into practice to determine the extent of information
needed. Students analyse and deconstruct the research topic, identify the main concepts and
ideas and plan their search and discovery approach.
Accessing the Required Information – Effectively accessing, appropriate and pertinent
sources, making use of well-defined search strategies are important tasks in accessing the
required information. Students access quality sources and demonstrate the evidence of the use
of these sources in their assessment tasks.
Sources and Evidence – Sources and evidence include, making use of quality, relevant
and credible sources to support and develop the ideas and viewpoints. Assessment tasks
require the students to support the evidence of their ability to make the selection of the most
appropriate and pertinent sources of information that are vital to their discipline or area of
research.
Critical Evaluation of Information – Critical evaluation of information involves
discrimination between opinion and information is substantiated by evidence, identifying and
rectifying logical fallacies and errors. Students apply critical judgment, when evaluating
wide-ranging information, sources for currency, reliability, authority and perspective.
Using Information in an Effective Manner to Accomplish a Purpose – When
information is to be used in an effective manner to accomplish a purpose, then it involves
effectively communicating, managing and synthesising information from a comprehensive
range of resources, establishing communication management processes and developing skills
to organize and manage information. This is implemented by making use of information
management tools.
Accessing and Using Information Critically and Ethically – In this case, one needs to
know, respect and comply with ethical and legal aspects, and make use of published and
unpublished information, in accordance to the terms in open and restricted licenses. When
students are writing papers and working on projects, then they are required to make use of
information in an appropriate manner.
Digital Communication – The technologies need to be made use of in an appropriate
manner to establish effective communication terms with others. The assessment may include,
participation in online discussions, contributing via social media, industry tweet ups,
professional industry and open forums.
Visual Literacy
Visual literacy is referred to the group of vision competencies that the human being
can develop by seeing and at the same time having and integrating other sensory experiences.
The development of these competencies is fundamental to normal human learning. When the
individuals are able to effectively develop these, then they are able to discriminate and
interpret the visible actions, objects and symbols that are natural and man-made. These exist
within the environmental conditions of the individuals. Through the creative progression and
use of these competencies, the individuals are able to form communication terms with others.
These competencies help the individuals in facilitating visual communication (Tillman,
2012). The study of the visual processes involved in visual perception has both encouraged
and reinforced the advocates of visual literacy. Research has indicated that seeing is not
simply the process of passive reception of stimuli, but also involves active construction of
meaning (Felten, 2008).
An individual, for example may observe the line drawing of a cube to have three
dimensions. One’s eyes project depth into the flat service, by assembling a familiar shape
from a two-dimensional drawing on a sheet of paper. Proponents of visual literacy contend
that if the physical act of seeing involves active construction, then the intellectual act of
interpreting what is seen must require a critical viewer. Just as writing is regarded as essential
to textual literacy, the capacity to manipulate and make meaning with images is a core
component of visual literacy. The transformations that have taken place in technology have
made it possible for the individuals, belonging to all categories and backgrounds. These
include ordinary people as well as professionals. In schools and educational institutions of all
levels, primary emphasis has been traditionally placed upon textual literacy. Pedagogy and
academic training put emphasis upon the words and texts as the source of knowledge. This is
particularly, when the instructors are imparting knowledge and information to the students in
terms of comprehensive range of methods and strategies (Felten, 2008).
Visual Literacy and Educational Objectives
In 2003, the North Central Regional Educational Library, prepared a list of basic
visual literacy objectives, for use by the educators that incorporates analysis, interpretation
and creation of visuals. The main objectives are, understanding the basic elements of visual
design, technique and media, generating awareness in terms of emotional, psychological, and
cognitive influences in the perception of visuals, comprehend representational, explanatory,
abstract and symbolic images, inform viewers, critics and consumers of visual information,
impart knowledge in terms of designing, composing and producing visual information,
producing efficient visual communicators and inculcating among them expressive and
innovative thinking skills and problem solving skills (Tillman, 2012).
At the most basic level, when the child observes the picture, then he or she is able to
observe and react to his own surroundings. Some of the ways of acquiring visual literacy
proficiency can be developed through social interaction and observation. However, leaving
the achievement of visual literacy proficiency can be developed through social interaction
and observation. However, leaving the achievement of visual literacy to chance can lead to
gaps in knowledge and comprehension of students. During the initial stage, individuals learn
to associate the image with the meaning. The reason being, they are unable to read and write.
(Tillman, 2012). This is the main reason, when the individuals begin learning, they are shown
pictures of objects. By looking at good and attractive pictures, children are able to stimulate
their mind-sets and develop enthusiasm towards learning.
Although integrating visual images into the reading comprehension is the step in the
right direction. Reading comprehension instruction are regarded as crucial in addressing the
lowest cognitive functions of remembering and understanding. To augment ones visual
literacy skills in terms of traditional texts and in visuals, it is vital to address and apply higher
cognitive functions. Ultimately, visual literacy must be included within the school
curriculum. This is regarded as essential, if the students need to be prepared in an adequate
manner for the world that is surrounded by and driven by images. The visual images of the
text can render a significant contribution in the development of vocabulary skills, as students
establish a connection between the visual concepts and words. As improvements come about
in the vocabulary of the individuals, they are able to initiate connections with the concepts in
order to explore them well (Tillman, 2012).
The design and technology needs to be put into operation to augment visual literacy.
In the production and manufacturing of products that are necessary to augment visual literacy,
it is vital for the individuals to ensure that they make use of designs and technologies in an
appropriate manner. The individuals develop their capabilities and aptitudes, through the
analysis of the product and evaluation, development and use of appropriate knowledge and
understanding, and development of practical skills, as they work with the variety of tools,
materials and equipment. In addition, there have been formation of connections with the other
relevant subjects, and investigating social, cultural and environmental issues. The individuals
from the initial stage are taught that they need to adequately conduct an analysis of the
objects, texts and materials that are used in the case of visual literacy (Tillman, 2012).
When one is acquiring an understanding of visual literacy, then it is essential for the
individuals to develop positive perspectives and viewpoints. In one’s daily life activities, the
individuals are required to form links with the objects and materials, which may not be
appreciated, but they need to make use of them to implement certain tasks and activities. One
needs to be aware of the fact that when one is making use of any materials or tools in the case
of implementation of one’s own tasks and activities, then it is necessary to possess adequate
knowledge and information and form positive thinking and viewpoints. When the individuals
are employed in hazardous occupations in industries and factories, then it is crucial for them
to possess satisfactory knowledge and information in terms of use of machines, tools and
equipment. Furthermore, it is essential for them to inculcate the traits of morality and ethics.
The development of these traits would enable them to enhance visual literacy skills.
School Literacy
When the individuals think in terms of acquisition of education and enhancing one’s
literacy skills, then they think about schools. School is an institution, where students get
enrolled with the main purpose of augmenting their literacy skills. School literacy is regarded
as one of the foundations for the development of other forms of literacy skills. The learning
of the individuals takes place through getting enrolled in pre-schools. In pre-schools, learning
begins with play. When the students are enrolled, they are young and hence it takes time to
acquire an efficient understanding of all the aspects. At the initial stage, children are given
playthings. When they make use of playthings, they are able to develop a foundation for
learning. In early childhood education, the individuals are able to enhance their language
skills and create a base for learning academic concepts. When the children make an entry into
the formal school, then they are able to augment their academic skills.
School literacy is regarded as a social activity. It has become a popular aspect in the
field of education over the past three decades. From this perspective, literacy is no longer
framed as the discrete set of individual cognitive skills. The literacy skills are regarded as
essential to get engaged in any tasks or activities. When the individuals possess the basic
literacy skills, they are able to put into operation various tasks and activities and meet their
livelihoods opportunities in an appropriate manner. In schools, the individuals are not only
able to enhance their literacy skills, but are also able to develop knowledge and
understanding in terms of other aspects such as, effective communication skills, manners and
etiquettes, morals, values, standards, principles and ethics. The school literacy is regarded as
an instrument that helps the individuals to achieve their personal and professional goals
(Blikstad - Balas, 2013).
Aspects of School Literacy
The major aspects of school literacy have been stated as follows:
Academic Concepts – The academic concepts are regarded to be of utmost
significance in schools. In schools, the various academic subjects that are taught to the
students include, mathematics, science, social science, English, and Hindi. In these subjects,
students are taught various concepts and they are able to augment their literacy skills. When
they acquire an efficient understanding of the concepts, they are able to score good grades in
tests and exams. Furthermore, they make selection of one particular subject in higher
educational institutions. Academic concepts are in some cases difficult to learn. But it is vital
for the students to pay adequate attention in class, make effective use of the teaching-learning
materials and get engaged in thorough practice to augment their understanding.
Extra-curricular Activities – In schools, apart from academic concepts, the
participation of students need to be encouraged in extra-curricular activities. These include,
singing, dancing, sports, physical activities, artworks, handicrafts, and role plays. The
participation of students in different types of extra-curricular activities is regarded essential.
The reason being, when they participate and develop their skills in these activities, then they
are able to stimulate their mind-sets and get motivated towards learning. One feels
pleasurable and contented and is also able to develop interest and enthusiasm in academic
learning. Research has indicated that when students develop keen interest and enthusiasm in
these activities, then they even make a career in any one or more of these activities, in which
they are most proficient.
Competitions – In schools, the organization of competitions are crucial. The main
objective of competitions is to see how much the students have learned and how well, they
are able to depict their skills and abilities. These are organized with regards to academic
subjects, extra-curricular activities, poetry and so forth. When the students are participating in
competitions, then they are required to be efficiently prepared. They usually get engaged into
thorough practice and prepare themselves well for competitions. In some cases, participation
in competitions may make the individuals apprehensive and vulnerable. But when they
participate, they are able to put in more confidence within themselves.
Activities and Picnics – In schools, there are organization of activities and picnics. In
such cases, the students are able to explore different places and augment their understanding
in terms of various concepts. The activities and picnics are classified into two categories,
recreational and academic. In the case of recreational picnics, students are normally taken to
parks, playgrounds and other places, which they enjoy and get engaged in leisure activities.
On the other hand, academic activities and picnics are the ones, which facilitate the
understanding of academic concepts. For example in history, when the students are learning
in terms of historical rulers and monuments, then they are able to enrich their understanding
when picnics are organized to historical monuments.
Morality and Ethics – When the individuals get enrolled in schools or higher
educational institutions, it is vital for them to inculcate the traits of morality and ethics. In
terms of morality and ethics, students develop an effective understanding of values and
principles, which they are required to implement not only within the course of pursuance of
education, but also in the acquisition of employment opportunities and in the implementation
of other tasks and functions. Furthermore, in communicating and dealing with other
individuals within as well as outside the home, it is vital for the individuals to be honest,
sincere, polite and truthful. It is comprehensively believed that when the individuals would
put into operation morality and ethics, then they are able to form good terms and relationships
with others and achieve professional and personal goals.
Peaceful Conflict Resolution Methods – Within schools, public places and homes,
individuals in some cases do get involved in conflicts. These may take place among family
members, relatives, friends, neighbours, and community members. In occurrence of
conflicting situations, individuals are required to put into operation peaceful conflict
resolution methods. These are the methods that are taught to the students, which they need to
peacefully implement. In this case, it is vital for the individuals to remain calm and
communicate with others in a polite and decent manner. When someone has said something,
which is not appreciated, then it is vital for the individuals to communicate the viewpoint in a
peaceful manner. In most cases, disagreements and opposing viewpoints and perspectives are
the causes of conflicts. Therefore to resolve them, it is vital for the individuals to possess
adequate listening skills, give their ideas and suggestions and come to a conclusion in a
peaceful manner.
Self-Monitoring and Self-Regulation – The students are required to enhance their
skills and abilities in terms of self-monitoring and self-regulation. Gradually, students are
taught that they should not depend upon their parents for each and everything. They should
learn to make their own decisions and carry out self-monitoring and self-regulation. When the
students are taught academic concepts, principles and values, then they need to ensure that
they implement these throughout their lives. For example, when an academic concept is
difficult to understand, then the teachers as well as the parents recommend that they should
first learn the concepts and then give themselves a test in order to acquire an efficient
understanding of the academic concepts. Self-monitoring and self-regulation enables the
students to identify the flaws and inconsistencies and put into practice the methods to bring
about improvements.
Communication Skills – Communication skills are regarded to be of utmost
significance. The individuals are required to communicate with others not only to implement
their tasks in an appropriate manner, but to enrich the overall quality of lives. Effective
communication processes enables them to obtain support and assistance. It takes place within
as well as outside the home. The communication of the individuals takes place in two forms,
verbal and written. Verbal communication takes place either face to face or through phone.
Whereas, written communication is the communication that takes place through letters,
emails, messages, notices, pamphlets and so forth. In schools, in order to enhance their
literacy and academic skills, students are required to communicate in an appropriate manner
with their teachers, fellow students as well as other staff members. The development of
effective communication skills enables the individuals to form good terms and relationships
with others and achieve the desired goals.
Manners and Etiquettes – The individuals need to ensure that they acquire an efficient
understanding in terms of manners and etiquettes. The primary aspects regarding which they
need to possess efficient knowledge is smiling, wishing, saying thank you, apologizing when
they have done something wrong and so forth. The implementation of manners and etiquettes
helps the individuals to acquire appreciation and establish effective terms and relationships
with others. These are taught to the individuals, when they get enrolled in pre-schools.
Another vital aspect in terms of which students are required to augment their understanding is
management of finances. The children should ensure that they should not try to spend their
parent’s money on things which they do not require. As individuals get enrolled in colleges
and higher educational institutions, they usually tend to get engaged in jobs and make money
to meet their expenses. This is particularly vital with regards to individuals, belonging to
marginalized and socio-economically backward sections of the society.
Social Activities – The main objective of social activities is to work efficaciously and
render a meaningful contribution towards promoting well-being of the community. By
encouraging the participation of students in social activities, the educators enable them to
understand that they need to work towards promoting well-being of the communities. The
participation of students in social activities is more common in higher educational
institutions. In schools too, they are encouraged to participate in social activities, but in
colleges and universities, they are given significance. The various forms of social activities
that students are involved in include, providing free tuition classes to children, belonging to
deprived, underprivileged and economically weaker sections of the society; organizing
seminars, workshops, competitions and activities for these students in creative and extra-
curricular activities, so they are able to enhance their skills and abilities, providing medical
and health care facilities, helping the individuals, who have been victims of crime and
violence, providing items such as food, clothing, bags, stationary and so forth to poverty
stricken individuals and those, who have been victims of natural calamities and disasters.
Media Literacy
It is of utmost significance within the society that the individuals are not only able to
identify but also facilitate the acquisition of skills and abilities. These are required by the
population to make use of information and communication technologies in an appropriate
manner. These skills and abilities are much debated in the labour markets, home, education,
leisure, communications environments and so forth. The individuals, working in different
sectors are required to possess different types of skills and educational qualifications. But in
all sectors, the use of technology has acquired prominence. The individuals need to possess
technical skills, especially including typing, installing a modem, getting an ISP and operating
the electronic program device. In addition to these, skills need to be possessed in terms of
making use of internet, generating awareness in terms of various concepts, preparing
documents and reports and rendering an indispensable contribution towards one’s culture,
values, norms, principles and standards (Livingstone, 2004).
Significance of Media Literacy
The significance of media literacy has been identified as the ability to access, analyse,
evaluate and create messages across the variety of frameworks. The four-component model is
identified, which has the advantage of applying equally well to print, broadcasting and
internet. These have been stated as follows: (Livingstone, 2004).
Access – Access rests on the dynamic and social process. It is not a one-off act of
provision. Once initial access is established, development of literacy skills enables the users
to alter significantly and continuously the conditions of access. These include, upgrading,
updating, and extending the hardware and software applications. The socio-demographic
inequalities in material, social and symbolic resources, inequalities in access to online
knowledge, communication processes and participation would continue to take place.
Furthermore, it is vital for the individuals to possess computer literacy skills and remain
updated in terms of events and occurrences.
Analysis – The participation of the individuals in both print and audio-visual media
has been shown to rely upon the range of analytic competencies. Within the audio-visual
domain, these include an understanding of the agency, groupings, classifications,
technologies, representations, illustrations, signs, and audiences for media. In the present
existence, not only is the parallel account of internet-analytic skills in an under-developed
state on a large scale. But the individuals are required to develop such skills, so as to make
the most use of the online opportunities. In the case of analysis, it is vital for the individuals
to conduct an analysis of situations and opportunities and put into operation the strategies that
would be most advantageous.
Evaluation – Evaluation is referred to assessment. The main objective of evaluation is
to identify the flaws and inconsistencies and put into operation the methods and approaches
to bring about improvements. In the implementation of evaluation processes, the individuals
are required to ensure that they are able to identify the limitations in an appropriate manner.
The methods and approaches that are necessary in the case of evaluation are different in
various fields. In the education field, the teachers put into operation the methods to evaluate
the performance of students. These include, class and homework assignments, tests, exams,
competitions and so forth. Through these methods, the teachers are able to acquire an
efficient understanding of how much the students have learned.
Content Creation – In the case of content creation, it means creating content online.
The individuals, belonging to various fields make use of technology to prepare documents,
reports and projects. In addition, computer graphics are made use of to create images. These
are some of the aspects of content creation. Although not all definitions of media literacy
include the requirement to create, and produce symbolic texts. It is believed that individuals
acquire a deeper understanding of the conventions and merits of professionally used
materials, if they have direct experience of content production. Secondly, internet par
excellence is the medium, which makes provision of opportunities for the individuals to
create online content.
Measures to Promote Media Literacy
The measures to promote media literacy have been stated as follows:
Education – In educational institutions at all levels, emphasis has been put upon the
utilization of technology, innovative and modern methods that are necessary to provide not
only media literacy, but all forms of literacies to the individuals. In the education sector,
children in nursery and elementary schools and adults in higher educational institutions are
assessed in terms of their performance through the organization of tests and exams. When one
has to acquire an efficient understanding of media literacy, formal curriculum needs to be
delivered in an appropriate manner. The instructors should possess adequate knowledge and
awareness in terms of the concepts that they are imparting to the students (Livingstone,
2004).
Public Understanding of Science – In the present existence, science and technology
have gained prominence. The individuals adopting these fields are able to enrich their lives
appropriately. The public understanding of science model is a sizeable research program that
is used to evaluate the knowledge of the adults in terms of science. The understanding of the
adults is augmented regarding the systems and processes, by which electronic media are
made available, regulated and received. The development of survey methods established to
measure the aspects in terms of public understanding and knowledge in the scientific domain
may make provision of an appropriate methodology (Livingstone, 2004).
Basic Literacy Skills – The individuals need to possess the basic literacy skills of
reading, writing and numeracy. These skills are regarded as indispensable, particularly when
the individuals are acquiring knowledge and information in terms of various areas. In the case
of acquisition of media literacy, the basic literacy skills are regarded indispensable. In some
cases, media literacy may make the individuals feel apprehensive. But with thorough
practice, the individuals are able to enhance their media literacy skills.
Health Promotion – Health is regarded to be of utmost significance for all individuals.
The individuals belonging to all categories and backgrounds are required to generate
awareness and possess adequate knowledge and information in terms of health and well-
being. In rural communities, there have been establishment of medical and health care
centres, which primarily focus upon recruitment and selection of qualified and experienced
health care professionals and facilities. When the individuals are in good health, they are able
to become achievement-oriented.
Health Literacy
Health literacy is the literacy that entails knowledge and understanding among the
individuals in terms of health and well-being. They are able to improve their competencies to
access, understand, appraise, and apply health information to make judgements and
implement decisions in one’s daily life in terms of health care, disease prevention, health
promotion (Kickbusch, Pelikan, Apfel, & Tsouros, 2013), obtaining medicines, diet and
nutrition, exercise, physical activities, remaining free from stress and creation of a pleasant
and amiable environmental conditions within homes. The individuals are required to take care
of their physical as well as psychological health conditions. In order to take care of one’s
physical health conditions, it is vital for the individuals to pay adequate attention towards
their diet, physical activities, medical check-ups, positive thinking and when experiencing
any health problems and illnesses, they are required to obtain medicines. In old age, normally
individuals begin to experience health problems and illnesses. Furthermore, they also
experience a decline in the usage of words and vocabulary. Hence, it is vital for them to
obtain medical check-ups on a regular basis and obtain assistance from family members and
caregivers.
Psychological health conditions are concerned with the mind-sets of the individuals. It
means remaining free from stress, pressure, anxiety and trauma. These factors tend to impose
unfavourable effects upon the mind-sets as well as physical health conditions of the
individuals. In order to take care of one’s psychological health and well-being, it is vital for
the individuals to pay adequate attention towards ones daily life routines. One should remain
occupied in various tasks and activities that give them pleasure and satisfaction. Apart from
being occupied in various tasks and activities, the individuals need to form effective terms
and relationships with others, within as well as outside the home. The individuals are required
to establish positive thinking and communicate with others in an appropriate manner. The
inculcation of traits of morality and ethics are regarded important in maintaining
psychological health and well-being.
Measures to Promote Health Literacy
The measures to promote health literacy have been stated as follows:
Medical and Health Care Centres – The medical and health care centres are
established with the main objective of providing knowledge and information to the
individuals in terms of measures and facilities that are needed to improve their health care
and well-being. In these centres, there are recruitment of qualified medical practitioners and
health care specialists, which have the primary objective of catering to health care needs and
requirements of individuals and providing them efficient knowledge and information.
Educational Institutions – In educational institutions of all levels from nursery to
higher educational institutions, students are provided with adequate knowledge in terms of
health and well-being by their educators. From the stage of early childhood, the teachers
educate students in terms of measures, which they should put into practice to take care of
their health care requirements. As individuals get enrolled in formal schools and higher
educational institutions, they need to possess adequate knowledge and information in terms
of health and well-being. When they will maintain good health, then they will be able to
achieve educational goals in an appropriate manner.
Counselling and Guidance – The individuals take counselling and guidance from
professionals and experts in terms of various areas. These include, career counselling,
depression counselling, counselling in terms of coping with academic problems and so forth.
Another vital area in terms of which they obtain counselling and guidance is health care
requirements. In the case of health counselling, they are provided with relevant information
in terms of factors such as, diet and nutrition, physical activities, positive thinking, and so
forth.
General Public – The general public organize health care camps and services that are
meant to provide services to the public free of cost. Individuals belonging to rural
communities and among deprived, marginalized and socio-economically backward sections
of the society, who are not literate are the ones, who need to be made aware of factors that are
needed to promote health literacy. These individuals normally make visits to urban areas to
obtain medical treatment and health care services. The reason being, health care facilities in
rural communities still are required to be improved.
Health Professionals – Research has indicated that in old age, individuals usually tend
to get engaged in some sort of social work. When they are from a medical background, they
tend to provide medical services to the individuals free of cost. In making provision of
assistances and services, the individuals also provide them knowledge that would help them
in taking care of their health and well-being in future.
News and Electronic Media – News and electronic media are also regarded as helpful
sources that make provision of knowledge and information to the individuals in terms of
health care and well-being. Through these, they are able to acquire information in terms of
various medicinal plants, herbs, nutrition, health counselling and so forth.
Academic Community – Research has indicated that when individuals get enrolled in
educational institutions and training centres, even to learn a skill of manufacturing a
handicraft, then too, when they form good and amiable relationships with other members,
then they are able to acquire knowledge in terms of health care. Hence, academic community
renders an important contribution in augmenting health literacy skills among individuals.
Employment Settings – When the individuals seek employment in organizations, they
are required to undergo training and development programs. In these programs, they are
provided all the information in terms of the organizations, i.e. job duties, departments,
personnel, goals and objectives and so forth. In some cases, apart from this information, they
are also provided knowledge in terms of health literacy. This is particularly, when individuals
are to get engaged in manual tasks. Hence, within employment settings too, individuals are
able to augment their health literacy skills.
Religious Organizations – Religious organizations also provide knowledge regarding
health literacy skills. In these organizations, normally yoga and meditation classes are
conducted. Yoga and meditation are regarded as useful strategies, which are meant to promote
physical as well as psychological well-being of the individuals. In addition, the individuals
are also provided knowledge in terms of benefits of healthy and nutritious diet.
Non-Government Organizations – There have been establishment of non-government
organizations that provide help to children and adults, particularly belonging to deprived,
marginalized and socio-economically backward sections of the society. Apart from
implementation of services that are necessary to promote their well-being, knowledge is also
provided to the individuals in terms of health care. When the individuals are poverty stricken
or malnourished or experiencing illnesses and diseases, then health literacy skills would help
them in alleviating these problems.
Emotional Literacy
Emotions are an integral part of individuals. These are referred to feelings, sentiments,
reactions, passions, excitements and sensations. The emotions are of two types, positive and
negative. Positive emotions tend to make the individuals feel pleasurable and contended.
Whereas, negative emotions are the ones that makes them feel depressed, frustrated and
angry. Emotional literacy is the literacy that is necessary for the individuals to acquire
personal power and authority that are indispensable to participate in various tasks and
activities. The emotional literacy skills include, speaking in terms of one’s emotions and
causes; development of empathetic intuition capacity and apologizing for the unfavourable
effects that are caused by one’s emotional mistakes (Steiner, 2003). Emotional literacy skills
are acquired by the individuals within homes from their family members, as well as
educational institutions. Apart from these, the individuals also obtain adequate knowledge in
terms of these through participation in community, religious, cultural, social, political and
economic activities and tasks.
Power is generally thought of as control. Primarily the ability to control individuals
and financial resources (Steiner, 2003). To develop emotional literacy skills, it is vital for the
individuals to exercise power and control upon the other individuals and financial resources.
When the individuals are exercising power and control upon others, then it does not mean
that they are exercising power and authority in a negative manner or making decisions on
behalf of them, but it refers to establishing appropriate terms and relationships with other
individuals and carrying out various tasks and activities in co-ordination. Through emotional
literacy, one should obtain adequate knowledge in terms of expressing emotions in a
productive manner. One aspect that is of utmost significance is, one should establish positive
thinking and carry out tasks and functions with diligence and enthusiasm with the purpose of
obtaining better outcomes.
Measures to Promote Emotional Literacy
The measures to promote emotional literacy have been stated as follows:
Effective Communication Skills – When one is acquiring or imparting emotional
literacy skills, then it is vital for them to communicate in an effective manner. Effective
communication skills involves listening, responding and giving feedback. Furthermore,
whether it is in a verbal or written form, it should take place in a decent and ethical manner.
Effective communication generates pleasure and satisfaction within the mind-sets of the
individuals. These are regarded as positive emotions.
Development of Positive Thinking - The individuals should learn to develop positive
thinking in terms of various aspects. In one’s daily life, there are number of aspects and
instances which do not give pleasure and which are not appreciated by individuals. In such
cases, they should possess the abilities among them to effectively cope up with these
situations and develop positive thinking. Positive thinking helps the individuals to alleviate
stress and anxiety.
Morality and Ethics – Morality and ethics are referred to as the principles and
standards that help the individuals to become good human beings, carry out their tasks and
activities in a well-organized manner, maintain good relationships with others and achieve
personal and professional goals. When the individuals possess adequate knowledge in terms
of these aspects, then they are able to enhance emotional literacy skills. The main reason
being, they are able to generate serenity and contentment.
Acquisition of Good Education – In the present existence, individuals have recognized
the significance of education. The individuals, belonging to all categories and backgrounds
aspire to acquire educational qualifications. Through the acquisition of good education,
individuals are able to differentiate between appropriate and inappropriate, implement tasks
and activities in a well-organized manner and sustain ones living conditions satisfactorily.
Furthermore, good education enables the individuals to make effective use of the knowledge
and information that is required to enrich their lives.
Acquisition of Employment Opportunities – Employment opportunities are regarded to
be of utmost significance for the adequate sustenance of the living conditions. Whether the
individuals possess less academic skills or higher educational qualifications, they aspire to
get engaged in employment opportunities. Within the employment settings as well,
individuals are able to develop emotional literacy skills. This is apparent that to retain their
jobs, they are also required to remain friendly and kind to individuals, even those, who may
not be very supportive or approachable.
Socialization – Socialization is regarded to be of utmost significance for individuals,
belonging to all age-groups and backgrounds. It is regarded as one of the crucial aspects that
helps the individuals to develop emotional literacy skills. Through socializing with others,
individuals are able to generate awareness in terms of various emotions, information and
perspectives that are commonly observed in one’s daily lives. When children get enrolled in
nursery schools, they are taught that beyond their home also there is a world, with which they
have to interact.
Participation in Programs and Functions – From the stage of early childhood,
individuals are encouraged to participate in various programs and functions. These include,
social, political, cultural, economic, and religious. The individuals, belonging to all age
groups and backgrounds participate in these programs. Through participation in these
programs, they are able to develop emotional literacy skills. They need to possess a pleasant
and sociable attitude and carry out the tasks with interest and enthusiasm.
Alleviating Conflicts and Disputes – The occurrence of conflicts and disputes are
regarded as aspects that enables the individuals to feel stressed and disappointed. They may
express their disappointment and stress through either anger or frustration or simply by
keeping to themselves and not getting involved in any form of communication with anyone.
These situations tend to give rise to negative emotions among individuals. Hence, to develop
positive emotions, it is vital to alleviate conflicts and disputes and put into practice conflict
resolution methods in a peaceful manner.
Participating in Leisure and Recreational Activities – When the individuals
participate in leisure and recreational activities, they tend to develop positive emotions. The
individuals get engaged in various forms of leisure and recreational activities in accordance
to their interests. These include, watching television shows, movies, listening to music,
reading, sports, preparing meals, producing handicrafts, artworks and so forth. Therefore, it
can be stated that participation in leisure and recreational activities, enables the individuals to
develop positive emotions and alleviate negative emotions.
Transactional Analysis – Transactional analysis is regarded as the powerful technique
that is used to investigate human relationships. This is carried out primarily by focusing upon
the precise content of interactions among individuals. It is regarded as the influential way of
conducting an analysis in terms of how the individuals deal with each other. Another vital
benefit of this technique is, individuals are able to bring about transformations in their
behaviours by identifying the mistakes (Steiner, 2003).
Cultural Literacy
Culture includes the system of beliefs, values, attitudes, customs, norms, traditions,
principles, institutions, social relations and standards. Every society is influenced by culture.
Within all communities, the individuals are required to carry out the activities and functions
in accordance to the cultural traits. Culture is regarded as the pillar of sustainability. It acts as
a glue that holds social, economic and environmental pillars. The individuals are required to
possess an important skill for dealing with cultural diversity and this is known as cultural
competence. Cultural competence includes the practices, attitudes and approaches that are
needed in cultural situations. The central thrust for most cultural competence work involves
flexibility on the part of the individuals to appropriately assess and provide respectful and
courteous treatment to all individuals in an effectual manner and which is in accordance to
their cultures. When one is understanding cultural literacy, then first and foremost aspect is,
individuals need to acquire an efficient understanding of morality and ethics. When one
depicts morality and ethics in implementation of tasks as well as in coping with individuals,
then it is stated that individuals are adequately implementing cultural traits (Polistina, n.d.).
Cultural literacy includes cultural competence, but adds to it the ability to critically
reflect upon and if necessary bring about changes within the cultural traits. It also includes
the ability to conduct an analysis of the behaviours of dominant cultures in relation to other
cultures. For instance, the influence of globalization or cross-cultural partnerships on local
cultures throughout the world. In addition, there may be presence of exploitative elements for
sustainable development partnerships that may be implemented by western multi-national
corporations in developing countries. In cultural literacy, the individuals are not only able to
acquire an effective understanding of their own cultures, but also are able to obtain an
efficient understanding in terms of other cultures (Polistina, n.d.). The four major cultural
literacy skills have been stated as follows:
Cross Cultural Awareness
Throughout the world, there are numerous cultures that exist. The cultures are
primarily meant to fulfil human needs from the local environment. The ways that are
implemented to fulfil these are sustainable. They are more sustainable as compared to
consumerism-based cultures. Cultural literacy therefore, includes the ability to examine other
cultures critically and obtain ideas and perspectives in terms of sustainability from them.
Learning in terms of other cultures can be as simple as making use of the internet, reading
academic books, articles, documents or popular media. When one is learning in terms of other
cultures, then they are able to acquire an in depth understanding and a more respectful
learning regarding sustainability. The discussions that are organized in terms of culture and
sustainable development, can lead to topics such as race and sustainability. In addition,
establishing a local sense of place and cultural identity, community versus individualistic
cultural value systems, imperialist definitions of sustainability, neo-liberalism and sustainable
development and the impact of globalization on local cultures. These aspects are useful for
acquiring an efficient understanding of cultural issues and significance of cultural literacy for
sustainability (Polistina, n.d.).
Local Cultural Awareness
Cultural awareness and respect is not just a cross-cultural skill, but helps in
sustainability of cultures. The ability to esteem, revere, appreciate and accept knowledge in
terms of other cultures and communities is also another important aspect for augmenting
cultural literacy. The development of knowledge, proficiencies and skills is required for the
adequate development of cultural literacy. There may be development of knowledge and
skills that are necessary for the appropriate sustenance of the living conditions that are
already embedded in the traditions of local cultures and passed on inter-generationally
through non-formal education. Formal education tends to provide less significance upon
values, skills and knowledge, preferring instead abstract, technical or generalizable skills that
are suitable for further advancing industrialization and economic expansion. Education for an
ecologically sustainable future requires a transformation towards valuing and revitalizing
local knowledge in terms of building of self-reliant communities and protecting this
knowledge from the forces of commercialization and consumerism. Outdoor learning is
particularly regarded to be suitable for drawing on the grassroots expertise in sustainability
that are found in local communities (Polistina, n.d.).
Critical Reflection and Thinking
Opposing to a culture of specificity and difference is one of hyper-culture and
indifference. This hyper-culture imposes unfavourable consequences upon sustainability
literacy, as it licenses the need for self-critique, self-reflection, or reflection upon the
trajectory that the society is undergoing. Critical reflective thinking is the dialogue that
between the learners and educators on aspects of cultural and social discourse. It considers
the experiences of the group as a whole and provides a way for accounting own-selves. It
demonstrates the awareness that actions and events are located in and explicable by reference
to multiple perspectives as well as influenced by multiple historical and socio-political
frameworks. One of the possible exercises that is undertaken to encourage critical reflective
thinking consists of making provision of piece of discourse to the learners regarding
sustainability from popular media. The various sources that are made use of are, magazines,
websites, advertisements and newspapers. Through these sources, the individuals are not only
able to acquire an efficient understanding of concepts, and generate awareness in terms of
various aspects, but they are also able to augment cultural literacy skills (Polistina, n.d.).
Personal Skills for Coping with being a change Agent
Changes and transformations do take place within cultural traits within a course of
time. These changes take place in the values, norms, principles, and beliefs. In India,
individuals, belonging to rural and tribal communities are the ones that follow cultural
practices more rigidly. With the advent of globalization and industrialization, there have been
advancements taking place in these communities and individuals are enhancing their skills
and abilities in terms of scientific, modern and innovative strategies and approaches. These
are being made use of in their occupations as well as in the implementation of various tasks
and activities. Therefore, it can be stated that when individuals are making use of modern and
innovative strategies and approaches in the adequate sustenance of livelihoods, they are also
developing personal skills for bringing about improvements in cultural traits. For instance, in
some rural communities, it was believed that girls and women should possess the
responsibility for carrying out household chores and education and employment opportunities
are not meant for them. But changes have been brought about in these perspectives and in the
present existence, girls and women too, belonging to rural communities are acquiring higher
educational qualifications and are getting engaged in employment opportunities.
Moral Literacy
Moral literacy is the literacy that is related to the presence of moral knowledge. It is
essential for everyone to be acquainted with this moral knowledge. Every individual has the
main objective to live a meaningful life and to render an effective participation towards
promoting well-being of the community. The individuals, are different in terms of numerous
aspects. Some of them include, caste, creed, race, religion, gender, ethnicity, age and socio-
economic background. Furthermore, they are different from each other in terms of their
natures, attitudes, viewpoints, perspectives, cultures and beliefs. Other differences are
depicted in terms of educational qualifications and employment opportunities. Apart from
differences in terms of all these aspects, it is vital for the individuals to inculcate the traits of
morality and ethics. In these traits, it is vital for them to possess efficient understanding in
terms of honesty, righteousness, goodness, truthfulness and principles. When the individuals
are able to inculcate these traits, they are able to achieve professional and personal goals.
Concepts regarding moral literacy are provided to the individuals from the initial
stage. From the stage of early childhood, children are imparted concepts in terms of moral
literacy within home by their parents and in schools by their teachers. When students are able
to effectively understand these concepts, they are able to benefit in the long-term period. It is
vital for the individuals to acquire knowledge and work wholeheartedly towards development
of their academic skills as well as generate awareness in terms of moral literacy. Within
home, children require assistance and support from their parents. It is apparent, when they
would be moral and ethical in their behaviour, only then they would be able to form effective
terms and relationships with the family members. On the other hand, outside the home in
schools as well as within the community, individuals need to communicate with others in an
effective manner, be friendly and approachable in attitude and depict honesty and
truthfulness.
Moral literacy takes into consideration the body of knowledge that is needed to be
attained by all citizens. In other words, what does it take to be morally literate? To be morally
literate, individuals read books, documents, texts, stories, poetries, traditions, practices and
establish interaction with others (Franklin, 2004). In addition, the individuals make visits to
religious places, listen to the sermons of religious leaders and acquire moral literacy. In
schools also, there is a subject of moral science. In this subject, students are provided with
knowledge and information in terms of morality and ethics. In India, there are variety of
norms, values, cultures and traditions. The individuals live their lives in accordance to the
values and cultures. Through the values, norms, cultures, beliefs, principles and standards,
they are able to acquire an efficient understanding in terms of morals and ethics.
Aspects of Moral Literacy
The aspects of moral literacy have been stated as follows:
Effective Communication – When the individuals are communicating with each other,
whether through verbal or written form, then they are required to ensure that they are polite,
decent and truthful. Moral literacy is characterised by making use of respectful words in the
communication processes.
Kindness – Kindness means benevolence, generosity, compassion, thoughtfulness,
humanity, consideration and gentleness. The individuals need to depict these traits for all
human beings. Depicting kind-heartedness towards the individuals, particularly the ones, who
are in a deprived and disadvantaged state is learned in moral literacy.
Helpfulness and Co-operative – It is essential for the individuals to possess a helpful
and a co-operative nature from the initial stage. These traits are depicted in a variety of ways.
A student can depict these traits by giving a stationary item to the fellow student. Whereas,
other individuals can depict these by giving monetary donations or other items.
Confidence – Individuals in some cases, feel hesitant in the implementation of certain
tasks and activities. Therefore, moral literacy teaches individuals to overcome any form of
apprehension and vulnerability and carry out tasks and activities with confidence. Tasks that
are carried out confidently helps in achieving desired goals.
Courage – Courage is referred to as audacity and bravery. The individuals in some
cases are required to carry out their tasks and activities, regarding which they need to be
courageous and bold. Moral literacy teaches that when the individuals are courageous, they
are able to carry out even hazardous tasks in an appropriate manner.
Controlling Anger Anger is regarded as a negative feeling, which may impose
detrimental effects upon the lives of the individuals, when assuming a major form. All
individuals experience anger at some point of time. Moral literacy teaches that individuals
need to exercise control upon their anger and prevent it from assuming a major form. When
an individual learns how to exercise control upon anger, then they are able to enrich their
lives in an appropriate manner.
Not Imposing Any Harm upon Anybody – The individuals need to understand that they
should not impose any harm upon anybody and treat everyone with respect and courtesy.
Moral literacy teaches that all human beings are good and one need to be kind and benevolent
to all.
Alleviating the Feelings of Jealousy and Hatred – Moral literacy teaches that
individuals should not possess the feelings of jealousy and hatred within their mind-sets in
terms of anybody. These feelings are regarded as barriers within the course of attainment of
desired goals and objectives. Therefore, the individuals should not possess these feelings
against anybody, particularly when others have not caused any form of disadvantages.
TruthfulnessThe individuals normally experience cases, when they are unable to
speak the truth. This is usually because of safeguarding themselves, or when they possess ill
feelings against anybody and so forth. Moral literacy provides knowledge and information to
the individuals regarding the significance of truthfulness. It states that individuals should be
truthful in every situation or circumstance. Inculcating the traits of truthfulness, honesty and
righteousness will enable the individuals to bring about improvements in their overall quality
of lives.
Fairness and Justice – The individuals need to be fair and just towards others,
irrespective of caste, creed, race, religion, ethnicity, gender, age and socio-economic
background. There should not be any form of discrimination and equal rights and
opportunities should be provided to all individuals. This aspect needs to be taken into
consideration within as well as outside the home in educational institutions, employment
settings and so forth.
Conclusion
When one is acquiring an understanding of implementation of modern, innovative and
scientific methods in the system of education, then it is necessary to understand types of
literacies. In different types of literacies, the methods, approaches and strategies implemented
are different. These literacy skills are acquired by the individuals within as well as outside the
home. The various types of literacies are, computer, vernacular, digital, visual, school, media,
health, emotional, cultural and moral. Computer literacy provides knowledge to the
individuals in terms of up-gradation of computer skills. Vernacular literacy is regarded as
acquisition of knowledge in terms of language skills. Digital skills are referred to making use
of technologies to define and disseminate information. Visual literacy is referred to the group
of vision competencies that individuals develop by seeing and at the same time having and
integrating other sensory experiences. School literacy provides knowledge to the individuals
in terms of academic concepts as well as norms, values and principles.
Media literacy is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create messages across
the variety of frameworks. Health literacy imparts knowledge and information to the
individuals in terms of all the ways that are essential to take care of one’s health care needs
and requirements. Emotional literacy is the literacy through which the individuals are able to
acquire an efficient understanding in terms of expressing one’s emotions in an appropriate
manner. Cultural literacy makes provision of knowledge and information in terms of values,
norms, morals, ethics, beliefs, principles and standards. Moral literacy makes provision of
knowledge and information to the individuals in terms of morality and ethics. Finally, it can
be stated that acquisition of knowledge and information in terms of various types of literacies
would help the individuals to not only carry out their tasks and activities in an appropriate
manner, but also turn out into moral and ethical human beings and sustain their living
conditions appropriately.
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