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Space Syntax: A Network-Based Configurational Approach to Studying Urban Morphology

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In this chapter, I describe space syntax, a recent configurational approach to urban morphological studies that shows some conceptual similarities to the network analysis of structural sociology. First, I describe the basic concepts, methods, and measures of this configurational approach, focusing on the axial and segment map analyses—the two most commonly used methods of space syntax related to urban morphological studies. After this, I describe some of the recent mathematical developments of space syntax methods and measures. These mathematical developments include various normalization techniques for integration and choice—the two most important measures of space syntax; various clarifications on the relationships between the metric, geometric, and topological measures of axial and segment maps; various universal properties including scaling laws observed in axial and segment maps; various ways to reduce and/or eliminate the effects of boundary on space syntax measures; various ways to take into account the shape as well as the 3D of the built environment within space syntax; and, finally, various ways to integrate space syntax with GIS. Following mathematical developments, I describe various applications of space syntax methods and measures in urban morphological studies. Here, I discuss how space syntax methods and measures have been applied to describe the syntactic types and cores, and the whole and the parts relationships of spatial configurations; the processes of spatial production and reproduction of social relations, functions, and knowledge; the generative functions of spatial configurations; the relationships between spatial configurations and social capital; and the experiential aspects of urban morphological history. I conclude the chapter by highlighting the fact urban morphological studies, though an important part of the space syntax corpus, are only one of many areas of research where space syntax methods and measures have been applied in recent years.

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... Its theories and methods can reveal the role of spatial configurations in shaping different social phenomena and urban forms (Hillier, 2005(Hillier, , 2008Hillier & Hanson, 1989;Hillier & Iida, 2005;Peponis et al., 1989;Rashid & Shateh, 2012). Space syntax distinguishes itself from other morphological methods using quantitative methods and measurements (Rashid, 2019). Space syntax analysis has evolved from the original axial analysis method, which can be interpreted as shifting from street-like elements (Turner et al., 2005) to segment analysis (Turner, 2007). ...
... Axial lines are straight lines of movement and visibility using the minimal set of axial lines. In comparison, segments are parts of the axial lines broken at the intersection points with other axial lines (Rashid, 2019). The configuration of lines from axial and segment maps allows the researcher to analyze the pattern relation based on syntactic values or graph theory using assigned color ranges. ...
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As one of the fastest growing countries with the largest population in the ASEAN region, cities in Indonesia are constantly evolving and changing. Although the current political establishment is planning to relocate the country’s capital to the Kalimantan island, comparative research on Indonesian cities is very limited. Indonesia is an archipelago country that consists of 17,508 islands and at least 514 urban areas, of which 98 of them can be categorized as cities. This paper will focus on examining variations in provincial capital cities from Indonesia’s 6 regions: Sumatera, Java-Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku-Papua. The paper uses OpenStreetMap (OSM) vector datasets to study the geometric properties of street centerlines and the regression techniques on the Landsat satellite images of these cities processed in GIS to study land-use patterns. The paper also uses the method of patterns classification from volunteered geographic information systems (VGI) to study street orientational patterns utilizing OSMnx. Finally, the paper uses space syntax methods to describe the topological features of natural street networks of the cities. The results of this study show that there are statistically significant regional variations among cities in Indonesia. They also show that street network orientations are correlated with global integration values indicating that movement potentials could be affected by spatial shape patterns in these cities.
... More generally, space syntax refers to a body of theory, methods, techniques, and measures that can be used in the study of buildings and cities based on the "hidden" structures of perception, use, and experience (for an early theoretical and methodological introduction to space syntax, see [17,18]). Since the 1970s, a substantial body of research has used space syntax to measure street network properties and their effects on social, economic, cultural, and historical processes [19,20]. ...
... To end this paper, it should be noted that among many topological properties of urban form and structure, the study used only some, which were defined using space syntax techniques. In addition to paying attention to those space syntax measures that were not utilized in this study [19,20], urban planners and policy makers will also need to pay attention to many other topological properties of urban form and structure [40][41][42][43][44][45][46] in future studies to enhance our understanding of the spatial mechanisms of social equity. Data Availability Statement: A significant part of the data used in this study were provided in the publications by Elizabeth Burton cited in this paper. ...
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In several publications between 1998 and 2003, Elizabeth Burton examined whether urban compactness promotes social equity. Based on an extensive literature review, Burton developed numerous urban compactness and social equity measures. Using a sample of 25 free-standing English cities of different sizes, her studies found that urban compactness measures are often statistically correlated with social equity measures in these cities. Extending Burton’s studies, this study explores the correlations between the measures of street networks, urban compactness, and social equity in the same 25 cities that Burton studied. Correlational analyses revealed that street network measures are correlated differently with different urban compactness and social equity measures. Some street network measures are not statistically correlated with social equity and urban compactness measures. Some are statistically correlated with urban compactness measures, but not with social equity measures. Yet others are statistically correlated with social equity measures, but not with urban compactness. Still others are statistically correlated with both social equity and urban compactness measures. Therefore, it was concluded that spatial mechanisms may work differently for different aspects of social equity. The implications of these findings are discussed.
... Numerous empirical studies have indicated the significance of space syntax for the understanding of urban structures. Evaluation of the existing literature found many studies that cover related matters to this research such as socio-economic activities and physical structure influences in urban forms, the spatial configuration of the urban form, the configurational approach to analytical urban design, and morphological evolution of the urban cores [3][4][5][6][7]. However, they do not sufficiently illustrate the morphological variations of the syntactic urban cores at the local level, investigating how the physical structures and socio-economic activities affect urban development and its forms. ...
... In space syntax, the term "configuration" is mostly used to indicate the fact that, as a network of spaces, while shown in the plan of an environment, all feasible ways in which spatial units are demonstrated to interrelate with each other, though the configuration represents a network state that describes relationships between separate spatial units. Space syntax assumes that the spatial networks can be defined as dissimilar configurations for analytic purposes, however, these configurations coincide in social reality [7]. The spatial configurations of a city are governed by the spatial distribution of movement that is "naturally" formed by the spatial layout. ...
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Urban morphology studies generally study how a city grows and transforms to embody its embedded history. This study examines the potentials of using space syntax and GIS methods to study the morphological evolution of traditional city centers throughout the historical periods. Using space syntax properties, human activities and movement patterns in the city can be investigated, typically by considering the degree to which urban spaces are integrated and connected. Through the syntactic analysis of street networks, urban planners can derive a better comprehending of the evolution of urban growth, and gain new insights to help with the new urban development. Space syntax theory and tools can extend the modeling capabilities of GIS, particularly in terms of the development of new advances and experimentation in the analysis of street network systems. Indeed, this study brings academic rigor and attention to details in the spatial growth and morphological evolution in the case of Famagusta city. The finding of this study will redound to the advantage of society considering that socio-economic processes and physical configuration play a significant role in the evolution of a city.
... Other investigative research has used configurational urban morphology, commonly using space syntax methods (i.e., to analyze urban configurations) such as spatial categories and structures, aerial differentiation, and other urban structural sub-systems, to better understand these areas. Such an analysis is essential in understanding the relationship between urban structural configuration and social capital [19]. The historico-geographical approach is concerned with the physical forms of cities, the agents, and processes that shape those forms over time [14]. ...
... Some of the new concepts like urban green spaces are becoming more mainstream and are gaining traction in how cities are designed [27,28]. Other concepts such as smart cities incorporate Internet-based development, e.g., digital infrastructure, renewable energy, data management systems, cloud computing, and the Internet of things [19,20,29]. In other cases, peri-urban areas in developing countries undergo physical transformations to become cities [30] in which urbanization is often linked to deforestation, flooding, and desertification [31,32]. ...
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Human settlements are comprehensive, i.e., shaped by human ecology and the relationship between humans as a social being and biological organisms and their interaction with their environments. This chapter explores urban morphology and landscape ecology as a pretext to a wider examination of the vast scholarship of why humans settle where they settle—with the focus on cities. The movement away from rural to urban is considered in conjunction with urban energy use, agriculture and food security, and sustainability. Maladaptation to climate change is considered in the context to urban environmental pollution, human health and well-being, and quality of life. Cities have a unique opportunity to advance policies that ensure the energy supply and food production are reliable, affordable, and environmentally sustainable. In terms of energy research, direct effects on people, communities, and countries in terms of economic growth, health, safety, the environment, education, and employment are investigated. Agricultural data is presented from a global perspective with specific land use and land cover specificities. Food security, food health, and food production are interfaced with regional populations and agricultural land use. An overview of cities from the Global North versus the Global South is assessed in terms developmental parameters—including city-to-city climate action. These city variances, specific to developed and developing countries, indicate megacities in the North have relatively high affluent and stable populations while those in the South have rapid expanding and overcrowded ones. Case-specific research into the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on informal settlements is looked at in terms of direct and indirect impacts. The complexity of these issues signposts different types of human settlements and conditions and veers toward piecing together the urban challenges and future development of the twenty-first century.
... Sejak masa 1970-an, space syntax telah sering digunakan sebagai metode mempelajari fisik dari morfologi kota dan hubungannya dengan fungsi kotanya (Rashid, 2019). Studi morfologi kota umumnya dilakukan dengan analisis korelasi antara konfigurasi spasial kota dengan fungsi perkotaannya (Xia et al., 2019). ...
... Integration mengukur seberapa mudah untuk bergerak dari satu garis ke semua garis lain dari jaringan dan menunjukkan potensi garis untuk pergerakan (Rashid, 2019). Integration (i) adalah ukuran untuk hubungan antara ruang satu dan semua ruang lain dalam sistem yang dihitung dengan rumus satu per nilai real relative asymmetry (RRA) (1) (Hillier & Hanson, 1984). ...
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Penelitian ini mengangkat permasalahan rawannya penurunan kualitas air dan udara pada kota tepian di seluruh dunia. Tanda penurunan kualitas air dan udara terlihat di Pontianak di mana kualitas air sangat buruk dan tercatat memiliki kualitas udara terburuk di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan mencari hubungan morfologi kota dan tingkat pencemaran lingkungan yang terjadi di Kota Pontianak melalui analisis korelasi. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode space syntax kombinasi analisis korelasi. Space syntax menganalisis morfologi kota dari segi faktor jaringan perkotaan dengan analisis integration dan analisis choice. Dalam penelitian ini, faktor tata fungsi lahan juga dipertimbangkan. Data pencemaran lingkungan di Kota Pontianak menggunakan data penelitian terdahulu berupa data hasil pengukuran tingkat polutan air dan udara pada beberapa titik lokasi yang tersebar di Kota Pontianak. Analisis korelasi menganalisis hubungan nilai dari variabel morfologi kota dengan variabel pencemaran lingkungan. Penelitian ini menemukan nilai korelasi yang bervariasi antara pencemaran lingkungan dengan morfologi kota. Secara umum, tingkat pencemaran air berkorelasi rendah dengan morfologi Nilai korelasi pencemaran air secara fisik dan kimia dengan analisis integration adalah sebesar 0,23 (rendah) dan -0,20 (rendah), secara berurutan. Sedangkan dengan analisis choice, nilai korelasinya sebesar 0,08 (tidak berkorelasi) dan 0,49 (sedang), secara berurutan. Di lain sisi, nilai korelasi antara tingkat pencemaran udara dengan morfologi kota memiliki nilai yang bervariasi tergantung pada jenis polutannya. CO (Karbon monoksida) berkorelasi tinggi dengan analisis integration dan choice dengan koefisien korelasi masing-masing 0,73(tinggi) dan 0,64 (tinggi). Sedangkan NO3 tidak memiliki korelasi dengan analisis integration (0,02 sampai dengan 0,16) tetapi berkorelasi rendah dengan analisis choice (0,30 sampai dengan 0,32).
... A space syntax elméleti-módszertani alapjait Bill Hillier és Julienne Hanson 1984-es könyve rakta le, aminek a címe a lehető legcélratörőbben fogalmazza meg azt, aminek a vizsgálatára a space syntax irányul: The Social Logic of Space (Hillier és Hanson 1984). A kötet megjelenése óta ugrásszerű fejlődés következett be mind a számítástechnikában, mind az elérhető adatok mennyiségében és minőségében, így a módszerek, alkalmazási területek jelentősen kibővültek, és mára számos célszoftver is rendelkezésre áll a vizsgálatokhoz (Rashid 2019). ...
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A XX. század második felében világszerte számos nagyvárosban tűntek el organikus, sűrű beépítésű, egészségtelennek és szociálisan problémásnak titulált városrészek, hogy modern vasbeton lakótelepeknek adják át helyüket. Több évtized távlatából visszatekintve nehéz objektíven megállapítani, hogy a városzövetnek ezek a drasztikus átalakításai meghozták-e az építésük idején remélt pozitív változásokat. A cikk a space syntax kvantitatív módszereit helyszíni megfigyelésekkel és a korabeli sajtó híradásainak elemzésével egy miskolci példán vizsgálja a kérdést.
... Moreover, the entropy values of the main streets increased after the combination, implying a decrease in order and increased complexity (Rashid, 2019). On the other hand, the combination of the planned grid network with old irregular gridirons led to an increase in the relative integration and choice values on the local scale and a decrease in local entropy showing better pedestrian-oriented intelligibility and, therefore, more walkability (Koohsari et al., 2017;Garau et al., 2020). ...
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Purpose The emerging concept of smart city is known to aim at sustainable urban development. One of the requirements for a smart city is to address accessibility inequalities. This study aims to investigate the accessibility level issues in urban transformation before and after combining different street networks for Penang, Malaysia, as a case study to reveal greater insight and helpful information into mobility and accessibility inequalities for future smart city planning. Design/methodology/approach Using DepthmapX software, two main quantitative methodologies of space syntax, namely, spatial integration accessibility (SIA) and angular segment analysis by metric distance (ASDMA), are employed to analyse the level of accessibility for the main streets of George Town site before and after combination with contemporary networks. Integration, choice and entropy values were calculated for the study analysis. Findings Results revealed the implications of combining old irregular gridiron structures with the existing planned grid structures. George Town seems to have gained a higher capacity for pedestrian accessibility; however, vehicle accessibility has lost its capacity. Findings further suggest that a combination of irregular structure and grid structure is essential for urban growth in similar historical contexts to improve accessibility and address mobility inequalities. Originality/value The study concludes by highlighting the importance of the analysis of street structure transformation to predict consequences and promote the potential to reduce current inequalities in vehicle accessibility.
... As a result, its form is not taken into account (Asif et al., 2018;Pafka et al., 2020). Spatial and social forms are in such a close relationship that a certain spatial configuration may define a number of social patterns, including the distribution patterns of land use, movement, urban crimes, and location of immigrants (Rashid, 2019). ...
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This article addresses issues associated with segregation and gender discrimination in the traditional culture of Iranian home. The concept of Iranian home with an emphasis on its territories and social characteristics, as well as segregation and gender aspects, was investigated. Using expert opinions, seven house samples were analyzed. Following a review of plans and maps, interviews, and visual observations, a content analysis of activities, social relations, and physical features was conducted. The results show that individual values have been forgotten, and the privacy is defined as a collective state for a family. Under the management of the father, home has a biological and economic nature. All household activities and social relationships are determined by gender. Among the things having distinct segregation attributes are permanent house elements, such as walls and entrances. Finally, it seems that the culture of Iranian home further emphasizes such concepts as confidentiality, purity, cooperation, and humility.
... After gaining the POI data of the different types of economic activity by the point location maps, the summary is described by applying the quadrant method (uniform grid cells) to explain the point data distribution by counting the amount of each economic activity in 100 × 100 m sized grids using the "Spatial Join" function of the QGIS Program [44,45]. This issue is followed by calculating the economic diversity by applying the value from Simpson's diversity index (SDI) to each grid as presented in Equation (1) below [46]. The computed value is between 0 and 1. ...
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Diversity in economic activity can be found at different spatial scales in cities' urban morphology. Spatial capital is defined as the area's physical appearance, which is important for enhancing economic activities in urban areas. It addresses how urban form, as a result of urban design, influences urban life-that is, how it supports and creates the potential for variations of urbanity and spatial diversity. The aims of this study are (i) to measure the economic diversity based on Simpson's diversity index by using points of interest (POI) data, which can reflect economic activity functions in the tourist city of Surat Thani, which is mainly used as a jumping off point for land travel to other islands off the east coast of Thailand; (ii) to explore the space syntax to measure the values of urban morphology by integrations with DepthMapX Software; and (iii) to investigate the relationship between measures of the degree of spatial morphology configuration and patterns of spatial diversity of economic activities using the Pearson's correlation coefficient. The study found that measuring the values of urban morphology can generate variations in spatial accessibility that are positively related to the variety of economic diversity, especially in terms of the availability of convenience stores, shops, and bank branches. This research is beneficial to planners in identifying important economic areas of the city, whose complex spatial interactions between commerce and urban morphology influence the current demand for economic space.
... The current urban structure of Xi'an is outlined by three ring roads: the inner ring of the City Wall, the outer ring of the boundary between urban and suburban areas, and the intermediate ring as the transition (Li and Zhang 2012). Boundary determination has been debated for long in spatial analysis, and researchers of space syntax have proposed several solutions to the issue, such as adding buffer zones, using local analysis, and creating contextual area (Park 2009;Rashid 2019). However, as noted by Gil (2017), while analysis results tend to vary with changes in boundaries, they do not suggest using certain boundaries can be more effective than using others. ...
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The space syntax approach has been widely applied in urban studies and practices to investigate urban form and predict pedestrian movement patterns. Prior research has identified the ‘circular causality’ associated with the ontology of space syntax, indicating that network structure and functional attractors are mutually reinforced by movement patterns in urban spaces. Using the city of Xi’an as a case study, this research aims to deepen the understanding of urban form and human movement patterns from a new perspective that integrates the space syntax approach with multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). To quantify the city’s attractors and gauge their impacts on its urban form, this research uses available open urban datasets, including street networks from OpenStreetMap (OSM) and Point of Interest (POI) data. Facilitated by sensitivity analysis (SA), the findings suggest that the functional distinctiveness of districts plays a nuanced role in attracting and generating pedestrian flow. It is therefore essential to introduce a ‘real-time’ representation of urban spaces to supplement our conventional understanding.
... Spatial configuration is commonly measured through spatial network analysis, which is widely used in morphological studies (Gu, Yu, & Ostwald, 2017;Rashid, 2019;Shen & Karimi, 2016;Tsou & Cheng, 2013). In recent years, there has been an increasing interest among researchers in the capability of the physical and spatial configuration on shaping and affecting some aspects of social life (Sun, Wang, Wang, & Soltani, 2020). ...
Article
Spatial configuration is an important element of a neighborhood design due to its impact on social behavior, density, and physical arrangement. However, current studies usually overlook this aspect when exploring the impact of densification on the social sustainability indicators, including safety, social interaction, sense of place, community stability, and community participation. Therefore, this study undertakes two interrelated case studies i) to identify the patterns of interaction between spatial configuration factors, density, and social sustainability indicators using the first case study, and ii) to examine and validate these patterns in a different context using the second case study. Computational analysis has been conducted to extract the spatial configuration followed by statistical analysis to explore the potential social patterns. The outcomes confirm the integral role of spatial configuration on social sustainability in finding strong associations between safety, sense of place, and social interaction with spatial configuration measurements. Community participation and community stability have not been strongly affected by spatial configuration, but they helped in explaining the contextual impact. The outcomes of this study can assist planners, policy makers, and designers to strategically prioritize social sustainability in their urban densification development plans by considering spatial configuration.
... Diagrams can be used to visually present data that represent the associations between spatial and social elements. It also enables the underlying spatial mechanisms and socio-economic phenomena to be analysed, described and explained using exploratory spatial models [28,29]. This is precisely the link between cause and effect that was lacking in previous studies of ancient capitals. ...
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Space syntax has been widely used in studies with historical components to developing a common analytical language for the comparative study of urban morphology across time and space by visual diagrams. This paper uses space syntax to analyse the inner and outer city parts of the daily life of residents in the capital cities of two dynasties, Tang and Song, to reveal the impact of changes in urban planning on the overall spatial structure of the city, the structure of commercial space, and the role of urban squares in the two dynasties under centralised rule. Based on the quantitative analysis, the results show significant differences between the Tang and Song dynasties in all three aspects of comparison. The changes in the Tang and Song dynasties’ capital cities result from the interaction between the materiality of the ancient Chinese capital city form and the spatial function of the city, and the analysis of space syntax is useful for interpreting their relevance.
... As streets both connect and separate neighbourhoods and districts of cities, they have increasingly been involved in attempts to influence the values of the ensuing spatial networks in terms of connectivity and accessibility [17][18][19][20][21]; understanding streets' physical and spatial properties thus contributes to improving the quality of urban life and visual frameworks [22][23][24]. For the current research, Al-Iskan Street, one of the most important commercial streets in Kerbala, was selected as a case study ( Figure 2). ...
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Iraqi cities, especially the holy city of Karbala, suffer from visual pollution caused by various distortions and violations resulting from individuals' and organizations' unawareness of beauty standards, which creates an imbalance between various city elements and the overall urban context. This chaos supports the establishment and imposition of scientific standards that can be used to develop a reintegration process for these distorted city elements to restore city aesthetics. In this research, advertisements and commercial signs were studied as one of the urban visual elements that contribute to the distortion of the city's visual landscape. This research thus examines the possibility of creating an evaluation tool to quantify the distortion of the current visual scene of the city, in order to use these results to achieve a more balanced urban display. Furthermore, the research aimed to identify which regulations could control the operation and the physical proportions of advertisement signs on buildings, a measure predicted to help improve users' awareness of the effects of using these signs and to thus restore the aesthetic visual image of these urban areas. Finally, this research reviews the aesthetic standards used in similar successful international experiences to help with the creation and adoption of new organisational standards to help restore balance to these distorted cities.
... As streets both connect and separate neighbourhoods and districts of cities, they have increasingly been involved in attempts to influence the values of the ensuing spatial networks in terms of connectivity and accessibility [17][18][19][20][21]; understanding streets' physical and spatial properties thus contributes to improving the quality of urban life and visual frameworks [22][23][24]. For the current research, Al-Iskan Street, one of the most important commercial streets in Kerbala, was selected as a case study ( Figure 2). ...
Article
Iraqi cities, especially the holy city of Karbala, suffer from visual pollution caused by various distortions and violations resulting from individuals’ and organizations’ unawareness of beauty standards, which creates an imbalance between various city elements and the overall urban context. This chaos supports the establishment and imposition of scientific standards that can be used to develop a reintegration process for these distorted city elements to restore city aesthetics. In this research, advertisements and commercial signs were studied as one of the urban visual elements that contribute to the distortion of the city’s visual landscape. This research thus examines the possibility of creating an evaluation tool to quantify the distortion of the current visual scene of the city, in order to use these results to achieve a more balanced urban display. Furthermore, the research aimed to identify which regulations could control the operation and the physical proportions of advertisement signs on buildings, a measure predicted to help improve users’ awareness of the effects of using these signs and to thus restore the aesthetic visual image of these urban areas. Finally, this research reviews the aesthetic standards used in similar successful international experiences to help with the creation and adoption of new organizational standards to help restore balance to these distorted cities.
... The high/low measure of the "inherent intelligibility" (Penn, 2003;Li & Klippel, 2016) of a spatial configuration is used as a predictor/explanation of the strong/weak association of space syntax analysis with movement rates in intelligible/"unintelligible", 2D, and 3D BE (Chang & Penn, 1998;Penn, 2003). For a recent, extensive review and contextualization of the concepts, methods, and analyses of space syntax, see Rashid (2019) and Oliveira (2016). ...
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Wayfinding behavior and pedestrian movement pattern research relies on objective spatial configuration representation and analysis, such as space syntax, to quantify and control for the difficulty of wayfinding in multi-level buildings and urban built environments. However, the space syntax's representation oversimplifies multi-level vertical connections. The more recent segment and angular approaches to space syntax remain un-operationalizable in three dimensional space. The two dimensional axial-map and segment map line representations are reviewed to determine their extension to a novel three dimensional space line representation. Using an extreme case study research strategy, four representations of a large scale complex multi-level outdoor and indoor built environment are tested against observed pedestrian movement patterns N = 17,307. Association with the movement pattern increases steadily as the representation increases toward high three-dimensional space level of definition and completeness. A novel hybrid angular-Euclidean analysis was used for the objective description of three dimensional built environment complexity. The results suggest that pedestrian wayfinding and movement pattern research in a multi-level built environment should include interdependent outdoor and indoor, and use full three-dimensioanal line representation.
... In other words, NACH represents the likelihood of a street segment to be part of a particular path. Thus, high choice values channel high flow between an origin and a destination [95], affecting movement and social transactions, and consequently, the transmission of tacit knowledge. Two radii were used: the city-wide radius N, depicting the logic of the whole campus, and the local radius 800 m, representing a 10 minute walk. ...
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To date, little is known about the spatial aspects of the creativity of university campuses and their public spaces. This study recognises that creativity is the fourth sustainability, because the spatial configuration of campuses and city-university accessibilities are 'creative solutions' conceived for human needs. At the same time, creative ideas depend on interactions between individuals and the built environment. Therefore, based on the theoretical framework of the scholars who have explored the spatial aspects of creativity, this study empirically investigates Zernike Campus, Groningen, and its public spaces using a mixed-methods approach that involves (1) a space syntax analysis of the campus's spatial configuration, (2) volunteered geographic information (VGI) of the users' perceptions, and (3) non-participatory observations of the interactions between people and the built environment in public spaces with high and low 'potential for creativity'. The results show that creativity cannot be explained simply by analysing spatial configurations, but that it also depends on the combination of the land-use mix, physical features, positive experiences, and perceptions of a sense of place which enable trust and interactions, and which facilitate creative encounters. Therefore, the mixed-methods approach applied here can help urban planners and designers to address public spaces more effectively, integrating conditions that support creativity.
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China's rapid urbanization involves the large-scale relocation of rural villagers and the production of concentrated resettlement communities in urban areas. This new urban population's post-resettlement adaptation and socio-economic situations raise concerns for urban scholars and policymakers alike. This paper invokes the concept of deprivation and aims to establish indices of multiple deprivations (IMDs) for such communities. In doing so, this research use accessibility as a proxy and integrates the space syntax approach with multi-criteria decision analysis to construct the IMDs of concentrated resettlement communities in Hangzhou, China. The findings suggest that material deprivation may not be the primary concern for residential segregation of resettlement communities in urban areas. Besides, the accessibility to different services reflects diverse deprivation patterns among resettlement communities. Moreover, various stakeholder groups' perceptions of deprivation may lead to different results of the IMDs. The diverse criteria or domains of deprivation contribute differently to the deprivation, which requires a tailored treatment strategy when constructing IMDs, such as the sensitivity analysis used in this research. The proposed measurement of deprivation has important policy implications for sustainable urban development in China.
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THEME: Methodological Development and Modeling Abstract ABSTRACT: There has been great interest in the use of linkographies to describe the events that take place in design processes with the aim of understanding when creativity takes place and the conditions under which creative moments emerge in the design. Linkography is a directed graph network and because of this it gives resemblance to the types of large complex graphs that are used in the space syntax community to describe urban systems. In this paper, we investigate the applications of certain measures that come from space syntax analyses of urban graphs to look at linkography systems. One hypothesis is that complexity is created in different scales in the graph system from the local sub‐graph to the whole system. The method of analysis illustrates the underlying state of any system. Integration, complexity and entropy values are measured at each individual node in the system to arrive at a better understanding on the rules that frame the relationships between the parts and the whole.
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Outline of a Theory of Practice is recognized as a major theoretical text on the foundations of anthropology and sociology. Pierre Bourdieu, a distinguished French anthropologist, develops a theory of practice which is simultaneously a critique of the methods and postures of social science and a general account of how human action should be understood. With his central concept of the habitus, the principle which negotiates between objective structures and practices, Bourdieu is able to transcend the dichotomies which have shaped theoretical thinking about the social world. The author draws on his fieldwork in Kabylia (Algeria) to illustrate his theoretical propositions. With detailed study of matrimonial strategies and the role of rite and myth, he analyses the dialectical process of the 'incorporation of structures' and the objectification of habitus, whereby social formations tend to reproduce themselves. A rigorous consistent materialist approach lays the foundations for a theory of symbolic capital and, through analysis of the different modes of domination, a theory of symbolic power.
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Foreword.- Preface.- Introduction.- Part I: The Culture of Cities.- The Two Cultures of Cities.- The First Culture of Cities.- The Second Culture of Cities.- Complexity Theories of Cities (CTC).- Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age: Achievements, Criticism, and Potentials. Part II: Complexity, Cognition and the City.- Cognition, Complexity and the City.- SIRN - Synergetic Inter-Representation Networks.- Shannonian Information and the City.- Semantic Information and the City.- Notes on the Category 'City'.- Complex Artificial Environments.- Part III: Complexity, Cognition and Planning.- The Two Cultures of Planning.- Complexity, Cognition, and Planning.- Learning from Paradoxes about Prediction and Planning in Self-Organizing Cities.- CTC, Social Theory Oriented Urban Theory, and Planning.- A Self-Planned City.- Part IV: Complexity, Cognition and Urban Simulation Models.- Revisiting Cognitive Dissonance and Memes-Derived Urban Simulation Models.- CogCity (Cognitive City): A Top-down -> Bottom-up USM.- Pattern Recognition, SIRN and Decision Making.- Decision Making, Conflicts and Time in a Synergetic City.- Concluding Notes: Complexity Theories of Cities at the Gate of the 2010s.- Bibliography.
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Since The social logic of space was published in 1984, Bill Hillier and his colleagues at University College London have been conducting research on how space features in the form and functioning of buildings and cities. A key outcome is the concept of ‘spatial configuration’ — meaning relations which take account of other relations in a complex. New techniques have been developed and applied to a wide range of architectural and urban problems. The aim of this book is to assemble some of this work and show how it leads the way to a new type of theory of architecture: an ‘analytic’ theory in which understanding and design advance together. The success of configurational ideas in bringing to light the spatial logic of buildings and cities suggests that it might be possible to extend these ideas to other areas of the human sciences where problems of configuration and pattern are critical.
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The most obvious way that history is embedded in cities is experienced visually, through the styles and fabric of its buildings, and the history of a city as a piece of architecture is often considered through a notion of layering – cities seen as townscapes composed of the overlaid fragmentary remains of previous historical states, defined by architectural style and period. Another approach is to see spatial structure as produced by and conditioning modes of use in historical sequence. In these sequences, the space and its configurational structure related to and modified by one mode, form the inherited circumstances faced by the next. The spatial modification and expansion of the city is conditioned by the interaction between inherited spatial circumstance and contemporary usage and everyday culture. Historical studies and plans are used to trace the spatial/functional legacy written into the spatial layout of the centre of the city of Amsterdam by everyday processes and spatial patternings at the city's beginnings.
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This study compared physical and visual accessibilities and their associations with staff perception and interaction behaviors in 2 intensive care units (ICUs) with open-plan and racetrack layouts. For the study, physical and visual accessibilities were measured using the spatial analysis techniques of Space Syntax. Data on staff perception were collected from 81 clinicians using a questionnaire survey. The locations of 2233 interactions, and the location and length of another 339 interactions in these units were collected using systematic field observation techniques. According to the study, physical and visual accessibilities were different in the 2 ICUs, and clinicians' primary workspaces were physically and visually more accessible in the open-plan ICU. Physical and visual accessibilities affected how well clinicians' knew their peers and where their peers were located in these units. Physical and visual accessibilities also affected clinicians' perception of interaction and communication and of teamwork and collaboration in these units. Additionally, physical and visual accessibilities showed significant positive associations with interaction behaviors in these units, with the open-plan ICU showing stronger associations. However, physical accessibilities were less important than visual accessibilities in relation to interaction behaviors in these ICUs. The implications of these findings for ICU design are discussed.
Book
This book presents a compendium of the urban layout maps of 2-mile square downtown areas of more than one hundred cities in developed and developing countries—all drawn at the same scale using high-resolution satellite images of Google Maps. The book also presents analytic studies using metric geometrical, topological (or network), and fractal measures of these maps. These analytic studies identify ordinaries, extremes, similarities, and differences in these maps; investigate the scaling properties of these maps; and develop precise descriptive categories, types and indicators for multidimensional comparative studies of these maps. The findings of these studies indicate that many geometric relations of the urban layouts of downtown areas follow regular patterns; that despite social, economic, and cultural differences among cities, the geometric measures of downtown areas in cities of developed and developing countries do not show significant differences; and that the geometric possibilities of urban layouts are vastly greater than those that have been realized so far in our cities.
Article
With increased interest in the use of network analysis to study the urban and regional environment, it is important to understand the sensitivity of centrality analysis results to the so-called “edge effect”. Most street network models have artificial boundaries, and there are principles that can be applied to minimise or eliminate the effect of the boundary condition. However, the extent of this impact has not been systematically studied and remains little understood. In this article we present an empirical study on the impact of different network model boundaries on the results of closeness and betweenness centrality analysis of street networks. The results demonstrate that the centrality measures are affected differently by the edge effect, and that the same centrality measure is affected differently depending on the type of network distance used. These results highlight the importance, in any study of street networks, of defining the network's boundary in a way that is relevant to the research question, and of selecting appropriate analysis parameters and statistics.
Chapter
The rationale of this book follows dilemma (see introduction, this volume): The last four decades have witnessed the emergence of CTC (complexity theories of cities) —a domain of research that applies complexity theories to the study of cities. Studies in this domain have demonstrated that, similarly to material and organic complex systems, cities exhibit the properties of natural complex systems and, that many of the mathematical models developed to study natural complex systems also apply to cities. But there is a dilemma here as cities are large-scale artifacts and artifacts are essentially simple systems. So what makes the city a complex system? To answer this question I first draw attention to the ways in which cities differ from natural complex systems and suggest that, as a result, we have to include the cognitive capabilities of urban agents in theorizing and simulating the dynamics of cities. In particular, I draw attention to the fact that urban agents are typified by chronesthesia, that is, the ability to mentally travel in time, back to the past and forward to the future. From the recognition of this cognitive capability follows, firstly, a novel view on the dynamics of cities and the role of urban planners and designers in their dynamics. Secondly, a potential for a new field of study in which planning and design are not treated as external interventions in an otherwise spontaneous and complex urban process, but rather as integral elements in its dynamics.
Article
A configurational theory of architecture (CTA) from a situated observer's viewpoint (SOV) is discussed. It includes the levels of description, representation, and interpretation and takes a bottom-up approach because a situated observer, who is on the ground with a building, typically builds his or her understanding of the building using immediately available elements, called perceptual primitives. Evidence from geometry, psychology or cognition, and spatial reasoning suggests that the level of description of a CTA from a SOV must include unambiguously defined perceptual primitives and their perceivable elementary topological and projective relations. Subsequently, in the levels of representation and interpretation any complex relational properties of buildings must be constructed and their meanings must be explained using these perceptual primitives. Early space syntax (SS), with its foundations defined using such perceptual primitives as convex space and axial lines, helps capture the structure of visual experience of buildings but has limitations regarding a CTA from a SOV. More recently, SS theorists have revised the foundations of SS using much simpler perceptual primitives in an attempt to integrate the apparently disparate techniques of SS into a coherent mathematical system. As a result, they have eliminated many limitations of early SS regarding a CTA from a SOV. However, in order to become a CTA from a SOV, SS will still need to explain the importance of these newly defined perceptual primitives, and provide a framework for configurational studies using the mathematical system developed using these primitives.
Article
A common objection to the space syntax analysis of cities is that even in its own terms the technique of using a nonuniform line representation of space and analysing it by measures that are essentially topological ignores too much geometric and metric detail to be credible. In this paper it is argued that far from ignoring geometric and metric properties the ‘line graph’ internalises them into its structure of the graph and in doing so allows the graph analysis to pick up the nonlocal, or extrinsic, properties of spaces that are critical to the movement dynamics through which a city evolves its essential structures. Nonlocal properties are those which are defined by the relation of elements to all others in the system, rather than those which are intrinsic to the element itself. The method also leads to a powerful analysis of urban structures because cities are essentially nonlocal systems.
Article
The relationship between settlement form and the historical persistence of concentrations of diverse socio-economic activity in Greater London's suburban centres through successive phases of rapid urban transformation is examined. Particular consideration is given to the development of three suburbs in Greater London: Barnet, South Norwood and Surbiton. Conzenian and space syntax approaches are combined within an integrated GIS environment. Both these approaches identify the historical grain of settlement forms as the key to understanding how socio-economic activity becomes organized in the built environment. Using Surbiton as a case study the analysis demonstrates firstly, how the configuration of Greater London's historical road network relates to the persistence of socio-economic activity in the built environment over time, and secondly, how diverse, localized patterns of such activity are accessible at a range of morphological scales. It is concluded that the relationship between suburban built form and socioeconomic activity is both configurational and historical in nature
Chapter
Henri Lefebvre’s argument that “(social) space is a (social) product” inadequately theorized in terms of its surface geometry has been highly influential in inspiring the “spatial turn” in social theory that has made such an impact on historical studies. The development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a method available to historical geographers and historians stands in ambivalent relation to this project. On the one hand Historical GIS (HGIS) offers historians a powerful way to organize, query and visualize spatial data, enabling them to “think spatially”. On the other hand, it comprises a technically complex set of quantitative methods that is vulnerable to the accusation that it sustains the formalist fallacies of modernism and the division of space into exclusive “subjective” and “objective” epistemologies that Lefebvre did so much to overcome. This chapter does not seek either to vindicate or condemn the use of GIS in historical research so much as to raise a series of epistemological issues that arise for traditional modes of historical explanation when doing so and to argue that these require further consideration. It is argued that if these can be addressed, a significant contribution of HGIS to future historical research lies in its potential to provide an appropriate methodological platform for the identification of rich descriptions of historical “spaces of practice” through archive-based empirical research. Such spatial descriptions that pertain primarily to the non-representational qualities of everyday practices and touch on the embodied nature of historical experience can help to redress the prevailing emphasis on modes of spatial representation. However, the challenge remains for HGIS to avoid an uncritical emphasis on visualization and to encourage the emergence of an open-ended method for including spatial description in historical explanation while avoiding simplistic models of environmental causation in which the “spatial” and the “social” become artificially polarized.
Article
This paper examines factors affecting the form of development in four conservation areas in the West Midlands since 1968. Data have been obtained from the records of planning applications held by local authorities and used to identify the types of change and the agents involved in each change. It is shown that the provenance of agents active in these areas is usually restricted to the immediate locality, particularly for residential areas. Agents active in commercial areas are rather more widespread. Agents of change are divided into two groups, those having direct influence on changes (principally the initiators of plans and their architects), and indirect agents, including planning authorities and the public. It is felt that the influence of the second group is relatively small. The styles of new buildings constructed vary considerably, but reflect a national trend towards 'historicist' styles, with neo-Georgian and neo-Tudor being popular, and historicist elements being used in the post-Modern style. Agents from outside the study areas are most likely to make stylistic innovations, which are then adopted, often speedily, by local developers and architects. In general terms, the implications of the observed processes of change for conserved townscapes appear to be that local architects and developers are inherently conservative in their styles: this explains the enduring popularity of neo-vernacular and the rapid adoption of historicist styles. By contrast, external agents, who may be unfamiliar with the characteristics of an area, generally introduce 'new' styles.