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Background Soccer is a dynamic sport of high unpredictability that requires appropriate decision making for success, but intervening factors such as exposure time to smartphone applications can lead to a decline in cognitive performance and consequently in psychomotor tasks. Purpose The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of exposure time to smartphone applications on the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. Method The participants were 20 soccer athletes aged 18–35 years (M = 24.7 ± 3.6). This study was a controlled and randomized experimental within-subject investigation, consisting of four visits with a 1-week interval. Male soccer athletes participated in four randomized conditions throughout the four visits: control (CON), 15-min smartphone (15SMA), 30-min smartphone (30SMA), and 45-min smartphone (45SMA). The Stroop Task assessed the level of induced mental fatigue before and after each experimental condition. Then, the athletes played a simulated soccer game. The game was filmed for further analysis of passing decision-making performance. Results A condition effect (p < .001) was identified for passing decision-making performance, with impairment in 30SMA (p = .01, h2 = 0.6) and 45SMA (p = .01, h2 = 0.6) conditions. Conclusion We conclude that at least 30 min of smartphone application exposure caused mental fatigue, which impaired passing decision-making performance in male soccer athletes.

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... Some have started to address the potential implications of smartphone usage on athletes' performance. These studies suggest that athletes' use of smartphones and/or social media at various stages prior to sport performance can disrupt concentration (Encel et al., 2017), inhibit decision-making (Fortes et al., 2019), induce mental fatigue (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019), and delay sleep (Jones et al., 2019), in some instances, leading to performance decrements (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019;Jones et al., 2019). A distinct, but related stream of research has focused on competitive athletes' self-presentation and sharing behaviours on social media (e.g., Smith and Sanderson, 2015;Nankervis et al., 2018), as well as experiences and implications of using various platforms, particularly Twitter (David et al., 2018;Sanderson, 2018;Park et al., 2020). ...
... Some have started to address the potential implications of smartphone usage on athletes' performance. These studies suggest that athletes' use of smartphones and/or social media at various stages prior to sport performance can disrupt concentration (Encel et al., 2017), inhibit decision-making (Fortes et al., 2019), induce mental fatigue (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019), and delay sleep (Jones et al., 2019), in some instances, leading to performance decrements (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019;Jones et al., 2019). A distinct, but related stream of research has focused on competitive athletes' self-presentation and sharing behaviours on social media (e.g., Smith and Sanderson, 2015;Nankervis et al., 2018), as well as experiences and implications of using various platforms, particularly Twitter (David et al., 2018;Sanderson, 2018;Park et al., 2020). ...
... Some have started to address the potential implications of smartphone usage on athletes' performance. These studies suggest that athletes' use of smartphones and/or social media at various stages prior to sport performance can disrupt concentration (Encel et al., 2017), inhibit decision-making (Fortes et al., 2019), induce mental fatigue (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019), and delay sleep (Jones et al., 2019), in some instances, leading to performance decrements (Greco et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019;Jones et al., 2019). A distinct, but related stream of research has focused on competitive athletes' self-presentation and sharing behaviours on social media (e.g., Smith and Sanderson, 2015;Nankervis et al., 2018), as well as experiences and implications of using various platforms, particularly Twitter (David et al., 2018;Sanderson, 2018;Park et al., 2020). ...
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Varsity athletes are a group of high performers situated within a demographic notable for smartphone usage and media-multitasking. Surprisingly, little research has examined the impact of smartphones in the lives of varsity athletes. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to begin addressing this gap by investigating varsity athletes' experiences with smartphones. Varsity athletes (n = 21) from nine different sports participated in one of five focus groups, and data emerging from these discussions were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results indicate that smartphones are a mainstay of varsity athletes' experiences, as the athletes regularly use their smartphones to manage roles and demands across multiple contexts (e.g., sport, school, home). Themes pertained to concurrent negative (e.g., stress, distraction, disengagement) and positive (e.g., self-regulation, social connectedness) implications of smartphone usage, making it clear that athletes' relationship with their smartphone is a complicated one. Findings contribute to the limited studies of smartphone usage among athletes, and support the notion that implications of usage exist along a continuum, rather than in distinct categories of “good” and “bad”. Results can inform practical guidelines for optimising athletes' use of smartphones in and around the sport context.
... Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state characterized by feelings of tiredness and lack of energy after long periods of cognitive activity (Marcora et al., 2009;Martin et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2018). Common activities may induce mental fatigue, for example, driving a car for long periods (Ting et al., 2008;Zhao et al., 2012), use of social networks on smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019), and playing video games . Previous studies demonstrated that the response time on a Stroop Task was impaired under a state of mental fatigue (Fortes et al., 2019;Fortes et al., 2020;Smith et al., 2016). ...
... Common activities may induce mental fatigue, for example, driving a car for long periods (Ting et al., 2008;Zhao et al., 2012), use of social networks on smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019), and playing video games . Previous studies demonstrated that the response time on a Stroop Task was impaired under a state of mental fatigue (Fortes et al., 2019;Fortes et al., 2020;Smith et al., 2016). The Stroop Task is a classical indicator of cognitive interference control (Friehs et al., 2020). ...
... A stimulus of 30 words with 200 ms of the interval was provided between the response and a new stimulus. Tasks that require a cognitive interference response (e.g., the Stroop task, driving, playing videogame, and social media on smartphone use) might be expected to induce mental fatigue (Fortes et al., 2019;Penna et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2016). Considering that the Stroop task per prolonged period might induce mental fatigue, we decided to adopt a few trials (only 30 trials) to avoid increasing the mental fatigue level after the social network on smartphone use. ...
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The purpose is to analyze the effect of social networks on smartphones before and during velocity-based resistance exercise on the internal training load, heart rate variability (HRV), and cognitive interference control. Twelve trained adults volunteered to participate in this randomized and crossover design research study with three experimental conditions. The participants randomly performed a resistance exercise session, watching TV before (CON) the session or using social networks on a smartphone prior to (30SMA-P) and intra-session (SMA-INT). The participants underwent sets with repetitions [15RM load] up to 20% mean velocity loss. HRV indicators and cognitive interference control were measured before and 30-min after each experimental session. Internal training load was evaluated 30-min after each experimental session, which was calculated by the product between resistance exercise volume and RPE. No condition versus time interaction for HRV indicators (p > 0.05) was observed. It was not revealed a condition versus time interaction for cognitive interference control (p > 0.05). No condition effect for internal training load (p > 0.05) was observed. It was concluded that 30-min of social networks on smartphones before or intra-session resistance exercise had no effects on HRV indicators, cognitive interference control, and internal training load in trained adults.
... Another group of researchers (Fortes, Lima-Júnior, Gantois, Nasicmento-Júnior, & Fonseca, 2021;Fortes, Lima-Junior, Nascimento-Júnior, Costa, Matta, & Ferreira, 2019;Greco, Tambolini, Ambruosi, & Fischetti, 2017) have also discovered that mobile phone use before a sporting task has negative effects on subsequent sporting performance. Specifically, mobile phone use of 30 minutes or longer (for uses such as social media) just before a match/race was found to be detrimental to soccer players in terms of passing decision making and mental fatigue levels (Fortes et al., 2019), as well as ball control and running distance (Greco et al., 2017); and to swimmers in terms of their 100m and 200m freestyle race performance and mental fatigue levels (Fortes et al., 2021). ...
... Another group of researchers (Fortes, Lima-Júnior, Gantois, Nasicmento-Júnior, & Fonseca, 2021;Fortes, Lima-Junior, Nascimento-Júnior, Costa, Matta, & Ferreira, 2019;Greco, Tambolini, Ambruosi, & Fischetti, 2017) have also discovered that mobile phone use before a sporting task has negative effects on subsequent sporting performance. Specifically, mobile phone use of 30 minutes or longer (for uses such as social media) just before a match/race was found to be detrimental to soccer players in terms of passing decision making and mental fatigue levels (Fortes et al., 2019), as well as ball control and running distance (Greco et al., 2017); and to swimmers in terms of their 100m and 200m freestyle race performance and mental fatigue levels (Fortes et al., 2021). ...
... DesClouds and Durand-Bush (2020) suggested that the negative effect on sporting performance could have been due to the energy and attention that athletes devoted to their mobile phone use, which left reduced cognitive capacity for the sporting task at hand. This assertion was supported by several researchers (Fortes et al., 2019;Fortes et al., 2021) who found that athletes had increased mental fatigue levels after a prolonged period of mobile phone use (30 minutes or longer). ...
... The selected studies used a variety of different populations, ranging from untrained to trained to elite participants. The sports that were investigated by the selected studies included soccer [24][25][26][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48], sprint [49,50], shooting/aiming sports [23,51], racket sports [22,52,53], basketball [54], golf [55], and cricket [21]. ...
... One study used a Stroop task which was administered via "the Stroop effect" app for Android systems [45]. Other interventions that were used to induce MF were mainly other forms of a demanding cognitive task, such as a transcription task [49,50,55], smartphone use [43,48], playing video games [43], sustained attention to response task [23] and the AX-Continuous Performance Test (AX-CPT) [22]. One study [26] used a whole-body coordination task to induce MF. ...
... The control tasks used by the included studies varied widely and encompassed watching documentaries [23,24,45,52,53], movies [22], advertising videos [41,43], or coaching videos [48]; transcribing a neutral text [49,50]; performing light aerobic exercises [26], or relaxation [54]; reading shopping [55] or emotionally neutral magazines [21,25,46,47]; performing a modified (congruent) Stroop task [51]; a variety of the aforementioned interventions ("reading emotionally neutral magazines, watching non-arousing football highlights, talk to other participants") [42]; and no control task [44]. Most studies (n = 19) matched the duration of their control task with their mentally fatiguing task, except for the studies by Coutinho et al. [44], where no control task was used, and by Filipas et al. [46], which used a 15-min control task compared to a 30-min intervention. ...
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Background Mental fatigue (MF) is a psychobiological state that impairs endurance performance in healthy athletes. Recently, multiple studies indicated that MF could also impair sport-specific psychomotor performance (SSPP). Nevertheless, a systematic overview detailing the effects of MF on SSPP is currently lacking.Objective The objective of this study is to collate relevant literature and examine the effect of MF on SSPP. A secondary aim was to create an overview of the potential subjective and physiological factors underlying this MF effect.Methods PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus were searched (5th of November 2020). Studies were eligible when study outcomes encompassed any form of SSPP skill in a sport-specific context, the intervention was targeted to induce MF, and the population included healthy individuals. The presence of a manipulation check, to indicate the successful induction of MF, was obligatory for inclusion. Secondary outcomes were all outcomes (either physiological or psychological) that could explain the underlying mechanisms of the effect of MF on SSPP.ResultsIn total, 21 papers were included. MF was successfully induced in all but two studies, which were excluded from further analysis. MF negatively impacts a myriad of SSPP outcomes, including decision-making, reaction time and accuracy outcomes. No changes in physiological outcomes, that could underlie the effect of MF, were reported. Subjectively, only ratings of perceived of exertion increased due to MF in some studies.Conclusions Overall, the selected papers indicated that MF negatively affects SSPP. Research that assesses brain function, while evaluating the effect of MF on SSPP is essential to create further insight.
... Once duplicates were removed, a total of 6,079 articles were identified from the searches. After screening, eight articles were identified as meeting the eligibility criteria (Donohue et al., 2012;Chen et al., 2016;Huang et al., 2017;Tang et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019Fortes et al., , 2020Frost et al., 2019;He et al., 2020). The study selection process is outlined in Figure 1. ...
... The number of participants in each study ranged from 20 (Fortes et al., 2019) to 125 individuals (Tang et al., 2017), with an average of 54. Participants were largely sampled from primarily student and university affiliated populations. ...
... Of the eight included studies, four were rated as "good, " and four as "satisfactory" based upon the three assessment areas: selection, comparability and outcome (see Table 3). According to the NOS, five of the included studies (Huang et al., 2017;Fortes et al., 2019Fortes et al., , 2020Frost et al., 2019;He et al., 2020) obtained comparable groups based on study design or analysis, by including valid control groups or reporting adjustments made for confounding variables. The remaining three articles (Donohue et al., 2012;Chen et al., 2016;Tang et al., 2017) did not report any adjustments to account for confounds. ...
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Introduction: Screen-based and mobile technology has grown at an unprecedented rate. However, little is understood about whether increased screen-use affects executive functioning (EF), the range of mental processes that aid goal attainment and facilitate the selection of appropriate behaviors. To examine this, a systematic review was conducted. Method: This systematic review is reported in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus databases to identify articles published between 2007 and March 2020, examining the use of mobile technologies on aspects of EF in healthy adults aged 18–35 years. In total 6079 articles were screened by title, and 39 screened by full text. Eight eligible papers were identified for inclusion. Our methods were pre-registered on the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. Results: A total of 438 participants were included across the eight studies. Five of the eight studies examined more than one EF. Five studies measured inhibition, and four studies measured decision-making. Smartphone use was negatively associated with inhibition and decision-making. Working memory performance was found to be improved by increased time engaging in video games and by refraining from smartphone use prior to bedtime. Quality assessments indicated high risk of methodological biases across the studies and a low quality of evidence for determining the relationship between technology use and executive functioning. Conclusions: This review highlights the scarcity of the literature in this area. It presents a call for rigorous and objective research to further our understanding of the impact of mobile technology on different aspects of executive function.
... One such task might be smartphone use, as this is a common modern tool among young adults, with 3.6 billion smartphone users worldwide (Statista, 2020) . Some researchers have reported that prolonged exposure time to smartphones negatively affected cognitive functions (Fortes et al., 2019;Wilmer et al., 2017). ...
... In a recent literature review, Wilmer et al. (2017) suggested that exposure time to smartphones affects a wide range of cognitive functions, and recently, Fortes et al. (2019) showed that 30-and 45-minute exposure times to smartphone networking apps acutely reduced inhibition control and passing decisionmaking among professional soccer players. More recently, Fortes et al. (2021) also found that 30-minutes of continuous social media on smartphones induced mental fatigue in high-level swimmers (e.g., impaired Stroop task response time and increase perceived mental fatigue). ...
... This prior research motivated the current study; and, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effects of MF caused by prolonged exposure time to smartphone networking apps on performance during multi-sets of resistance exercise in recreationally trained adults. Based on whole-body endurance studies (Marcora et al., 2009;Pageaux et al., 2014;Smith et al., 2015) and the negative effects of prolonged social media use on cognitive and athletic performance (Fortes et al., 2019;, we hypothesized that (a) a 30-minute exposure to smartphone social network app use would reduce session volume-load and lead to higher RPE during the session, but (b) there would be no effect of this smartphone use exposure on the participants' intra-set mechanical performance or a change in their metabolic demand (blood lactate). This pattern of results would suggest that perceived effort changes, rather than biological changes. ...
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We investigated the acute effects of mental fatigue induced by 30-minute use of smartphone social network apps on volume load in resistance training among recreationally trained adults. Sixteen (n = 16) adults of both sexes performed three sets of a half back-squat exercise to failure with 80% of 15RM, interspersed with 3-minutes of passive recovery between sets, before and after two different cognitive tasks: (a) use of smartphone social network apps; and (b) watching a documentary. We assessed mechanical variables and ratings of perceived exertion during the strength exercise. Relative to the documentary-viewing control condition, a 30-minute exposure to smartphone social network apps led participants toward increased perception of mental fatigue ( p = 0.004) and lower volume-load during the strength exercise ( p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in perceived exertion between conditions ( p = 0.54), participants’ motivation ( p = 0.277), intra-set mechanical variables ( p > 0.05), or blood lactate concentrations ( p = 0.36). Our findings of an isolated possible higher-than normal RPE without changes in physiological variables, accompanying the lower volume-load in the mentally-fatigued participants support psychological, rather than physiological, bases for mental fatigue effects.
... Regarding the mental fatigue, it has been reported that video of tactical instructions (Filipas et al., 2021), playing sport-based videogames , and using social media on smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019) for a prolonged period (e.g., at least 20-min) might cause mental fatigue in athletes. Mentally fatigued athletes showed impaired decision-making (Gantois et al., 2020;Smith et al., 2016;Trecroci et al., 2020) and altered visual search behaviour (Alder et al., 2021;Smith et al., 2016). ...
... The videos were watched in pairs (i.e., same pair for VID experimental condition). Studies related to mental fatigue and human performance have long used these emotionally neutral documentaries in control conditions (Marcora et al., 2009;Moreira et al., 2018) because neither cognitive performance (Fortes et al., 2019;Lopes et al., 2020) or underlying brain mechanisms of mental fatigue were altered (Franco-Alvarenga et al., 2019). ...
... According to Smith et al. (2019), the mental fatigue's subjective rating is more sensitive than EEG or behavioural measures (e.g., flanker test), considering the psychobiological nature of mental fatigue. Moreover, it seems that taking at least 30min of high cognitive demand causes mental fatigue in team sports athletes (Fortes et al., 2019;Gantois et al., 2020). In the present investigation, a sport-based video game induced mental fatigue for a prolonged period (i.e., 60-min). ...
Article
The objective was to analyze the effect of mental fatigue induced by a prolonged period of a sport-based videogame on decisionmaking skill and visual search behaviour in basketball players. Sixteen male basketball players participated in the study. The experiment was a randomised counterbalanced crossover design. They underwent the two experimental conditions [Control (CON) and videogame (VID)], interspersed by a one-week washout interval. We measured decision-making skill and visual search behaviour before (baseline) and after cognitive manipulations (VID and CON) in the two experimental sessions. Accuracy decreased, and the decision-making response time increased only in the VID condition (p < 0.05). The number of fixations only changed for the VID condition (p < 0.05), while the duration of fixations remained similar in both experimental conditions (p > 0.05). The mental fatigue induced by sport-based videogame impaired decision-making and altered visual search behaviour in basketball players.
... These soccer-specific tasks will cause mental fatigue (MF) in players (Coutts, 2016), a psychobiological state characterized by the feelings of tiredness and lack of energy during/after long periods of cognitive activity (Boksem and Tops, 2008;Marcora et al., 2009). Recently, there has been a growing interest in MF on soccer performance with negative impacts on physical (Smith et al., 2015(Smith et al., , 2016aCoutinho et al., 2018;Filipas et al., 2020;Trecroci et al., 2020), technical (Badin et al., 2016;Smith et al., 2016aSmith et al., , 2017Greco et al., 2017;Filipas et al., 2020;Trecroci et al., 2020), tactical (Coutinho et al., 2017(Coutinho et al., , 2018Kunrath et al., 2018Kunrath et al., , 2020b, and cognitive (Smith et al., 2016b;Fortes et al., 2019Fortes et al., , 2020Gantois et al., 2020;Trecroci et al., 2020) performance of soccer players. ...
... It has been suggested that performance decrement during a cognitive task is the gold standard measure of MF (Hockey, 2011). Short versions of the Stroop task (50-62 stimuli, 2-3 min) have been validated and applied as tools for assessing MF by detecting the changes in response time and accuracy (Fortes et al., 2019(Fortes et al., , 2020Gantois et al., 2020). In this study, we also adopted the 3-min Stroop task to assess MF. ...
... The unchanged outcome of response accuracy during three sessions supports the earlier study by Gantois et al. (2020). However, the response time was kept steady after the inducement of MF, which was not in line with previous findings (Fortes et al., 2019(Fortes et al., , 2020Gantois et al., 2020). Although the reduction in cognitive performance is an indication of MF (Van Cutsem et al., 2017), it is suggested that cognitive performance does not necessarily need to worsen since compensatory effects may occur (i.e., an increase in brain activity and/or motivational component) (Van Cutsem et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Most studies investigating mental fatigue (MF) in soccer utilized a computerized Stroop task to induce MF. However, the traditional key-pressing task has been challenged for its lack of ecological validity. The limited relevance to real-life soccer made it difficult to bridge the gap between the research and the applied setting. Therefore, a novel soccer-specific inducing task is in urgent need. This study compared a novel MF-inducing task in soccer with the Stroop task and investigated the impact of induced MF on cognitive and soccer-specific skill performance. A randomized, counterbalanced crossover design was employed. Fifteen well-trained male soccer players randomly participated in three MF-inducing tasks. Two of them were motor tasks consisting of 10 repeated interval Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (10xLSPT or LSPT) in clockwise passing order (10xC-LSPT) with each block starting every 2 min. The two tasks share the same movement pattern, but C-LSPT is considered to have lower cognitive demands. The third was the 20-min Stroop task (Stroop-20). MF was assessed immediately before and after each task by visual analog scale (VAS), the cognitive performance in a 3-min Stroop task, and the skill performance in one LSPT. Subjective MF increased similarly after 10xLSPT and Stroop-20 (+ 25.4 ± 10.3 vs. + 23.4 ± 10.8 AU, p = 0.607). The induced MF by 10xLSPT and Stroop-20 had no impact on cognitive performance and movement time but similarly affected in a significantly negative manner on penalty time (+ 5.9 ± 4.9 vs. + 5.4 ± 4.2 s, p = 0.748) and passing accuracy (–1.4 ± 1.5 vs. –1.0 ± 1.3, p = 0.465). Two motor tasks shared similar intensity, but 10xC-LSPT was inefficient to induce MF. The results showed that the 20-min repeated interval LSPT could induce a similar MF as the Stroop task. The induced MF had detrimental effects on soccer skill performance. The novel motor task is recommended for MF studies in soccer as an inducement task. Practitioners should be cautious about the prolonged cognitive-demanding skill section of the pre-match warm-up to avoid the negative effect of MF on the upcoming match. This motor task pattern could be followed as a supplementary training protocol.
... It was reported that playing videogames or using social media on smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019) for a prolonged period might cause mental fatigue. ...
... Although the incongruent Stroop task per prolonged period causes mental fatigue (Queiros et al., 2021;;Van Cutsem et al., 2017), it seems that few trials may not increase the magnitude of mental fatigue. Previous studies did not show mental fatigue after 15-min of high cognitive demands for team sport athletes (Fortes et al., 2019;Gantois et al., 2020). Thus, it is reasonable assume that 45 stimuli for the Stroop task in the pre-and post-treatment (i.e., $2-min cognitive task) did not increase mental fatigue in the present study. ...
... Previous studies revealed an impaired response time on inhibitory tasks and increased subjective rating of mental fatigue following a cognitive task per prolonged period (Filipas et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2019). More recently, scientific investigations also showed impaired response time on inhibitory tasks and increased subjective rating of mental fatigue after social media use on smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019. ...
Article
The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of mental fatigue on mean propulsive velocity (MPV), countermovement jump (CMJ), 100, and 200-m dash performance in college sprinters. A total of 16 male athletes of sprint events (100 and 200-m dash) participated in this study. Each participant underwent two baseline visits and then running under the three experimental conditions. Assessments (MPV and CMJ) occurred both before and after either smartphone use (SMA) or Stroop task (ST), or watching a documentary TV show about the Olympic Games (CON). Then, the athletes ran the simulated race (i.e. the 100 and 200-m dash). There was no condition (p > 0.05) or time effect (p > 0.05) for MPV, CMJ, 100-m, or 200-m dash performance. In conclusion, the present study results revealed no mental fatigue effect induced by SMA or ST on neuromuscular, 100-m or 200-m dash performance in male college sprinters.
... Fortes et al. 7 Simulated Match (Official Rules) ...
... The authors demonstrated that 30 min of demanding cognitive activity was required to impair subsequent performance. Subsequently, these results were corroborated 7,8 with two investigations as they incorporated mentally fatiguing activities likely to be completed by athletes (e.g., video games and social media). Thus, it demonstrates higher ecological validity than 'artificial' mentally fatiguing tasks (as athletes are unlikely to undertake the Stroop test in their leisure time or before a match). ...
... However, there seems to be a concern in more recent studies to verify the effect of more ecological tasks. For example, Thompson et al. 11 , surveyed soccer young English athletes (i.e., U-14 to U-20), verifying that 2 h before the official games, the athletes used social networks (58%), used smartphones (12%), or played video games (9%), exactly the tasks used by Fortes et al. 7,8 . From this point forward, manipulation checks like VAS (e.g., subjective way) and Stroop task (i.e., behavioral way) can be used together, but an advance in this area would be the use of neurophysiological measures (i.e., electroencephalogram), and measure adenosine levels. ...
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Aim: This narrative review aimed to explore the effect of mental fatigue on physical, technical, and tactical performance in ball sports. Methods: Three Databases, PUBMED, SCOPUS, and SCIELO, were used to search for a scientific publication. The criterions adopted were: a) published in a peer-reviewed journal; b) adopted at least one manipulation check related to mental fatigue; c) mental fatigue induced by a cognitive task before the outcome task, and d) study participants were ball sports athletes. Result: The quality of this narrative review was rated at 11 (SANRA scale 0-12), and the papers analyzed were published between 2015 and 2022. Twenty-one experimental studies were included in this review. Most studies were in invasion sports (n = 13; 72%), and non-ecological tasks were used to induce mental fatigue (n = 15; 83%). Regarding performance in endurance tests, mentally fatigued athletes had performance impaired. However, when assessed during a small-sided or simulated game, data were inconclusive within the literature. Moreover, athletes presented attenuated perceptual skills (e.g., visual field). Consequently, this worsened motor skills, technical-tactical performances, and tactical behavior. Conclusions: Cognitively demanding tasks should be avoided before training and sports competitions because they can lead the athlete to mental fatigue and impair performance. This impairment is identified in physical performance (endurance tasks) and technical and tactical performance. Finally, it is recommended that athletes do not perform tasks that cause mental fatigue 2 h before the sports event.
... A reduction in attention and inhibitory control would be expected to impair performance, especially in races that require sustained effort (e.g., 100 and 200-m freestyle). A mentally fatigued athlete might experience reduced attention and inhibition control (Fortes et al., 2019;Franco-Alvarenga et al., 2019). ...
... Neural pathways such as the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, presupplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus, and medial superior parietal cortex are activated during executive function cognitive tasks of this kind (McMorris et al., 2018). Those tasks require an inhibition response and sustained vigilance (e.g., the Stroop task, reading, driving, playing video game, and smartphone use) and might be expected to induce mental fatigue (Fortes et al., 2019;Martin et al., 2018;Smith et al., 2018). ...
... Other research findings have suggested that using smartphones for a prolonged period might cause mental fatigue in athletes (Russell et al., 2019a). Recently, Fortes et al. (2019) showed that 30-min of social media apps on smartphones caused mental fatigue in soccer athletes. Although swimmers fatigue from smartphone use has not been investigated in the scientific literature, it is common for swimming athletes to use social network apps (e.g., Facebook, WhatsApp, and Instagram), including use just before official championship races. ...
Article
Discovering any performance degradation effect of racing swimmers' use of social media smartphone apps might lead to new training and race preparation protocols, including pre-meet smartphone avoidance. This study's objective was to analyze the performance effects of using smartphone social media apps on the 50, 100, and 200-m freestyle among 25 high-level swimmers. Each participant performed the three race distances in two conditions: with smartphone app exposure (50-MF, 100-MF, and 200-MF) and without (50-CON, 100-CON, and 200-CON). We randomized the order of these two conditions across participants. While smartphone app use was not associated with statistically significant performance differences on the shortest race (50CON versus 50MF), a repeated measures ANOVA showed a significant condition x time interaction for the swimmers'100-m freestyle performance (p = 0.01), with a significantly slower performance following smartphone app use evident in the last half of this race (p = 0.02) but not in the first half (p = 0.41). We also found a condition x time interaction in the same direction (slower for swimmers who used the smartphone app) for the 200-m freestyle performance (p = 0.01), with the slower performance occurring in the second (p = 0.01) but not the first (p = 0.91), third (p = 0.07) or fourth (p = 0.06) quarters of this race. Thus, prolonged smartphone social media app use was associated with reduced performance from elite swimmers on the 100-and 200-but not the 50-m freestyle.
... The findings of the present investigation indicated that the use of social media smartphone apps (Whatsapp V R , Instagram V R , or Facebook V R ) for 30-min increases the subjective rating of mental fatigue, corroborating the literature findings (Fortes et al., 2019). MF caused by social networks presented similar effects to previous studies involving controlled tasks (i.e. ...
... Literature has pointed out that mental fatigue might reduce human cognitive performance (Coutinho et al., 2018;Fortes et al., 2019), mainly IC (Gantois et al., 2020). In this study, the accuracy in the Stroop task was similar between experimental conditions, and previous studies found no change in the Stroop task accuracy following this condition (Fortes et al., 2019;Gantois et al., 2020). ...
... Literature has pointed out that mental fatigue might reduce human cognitive performance (Coutinho et al., 2018;Fortes et al., 2019), mainly IC (Gantois et al., 2020). In this study, the accuracy in the Stroop task was similar between experimental conditions, and previous studies found no change in the Stroop task accuracy following this condition (Fortes et al., 2019;Gantois et al., 2020). ...
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Background The effect of MF induced by exposure time to social media smartphone apps on inhibitory control, heart rate variability (HRV), and high-intensity physical effort following a resistance exercise session might indicate whether strength and conditioning professionals should suggest avoiding smartphone usage before a resistance exercise session. Aim The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of mental fatigue on inhibitory control, HRV, and countermovement jump (CMJ) in trained adults after resistance exercise. Methods A total of 16 trained males (21.4 ± 3.3 years) volunteered in this study. The participants performed resistance exercises with and without mental fatigue. The Stroop Task, countermovement jump, and heart rate variability were evaluated before and after the resistance exercise. The participants used smartphones in the mental fatigue condition, whereas the participants watched TV in the control condition. Results No condition × time interaction was found for the Stroop accuracy (p = 0.87), CMJ (p = 0.68), SDNN (p = 0.15), or pNN50 (p = 0.15) in the heart rate variability. An interaction was found for Stroop response time (p = 0.01) with a higher response time for the mental fatigue condition (p = 0.01). Conclusions Mental fatigue impaired the inhibitory control performance after a resistance exercise session in trained adults.
... MF is regulated by neurophysiological mechanisms (e.g., increase of adenosine extracellular in anterior cingulate cortex) (Franco-Alvarenga et al., 2019;Martin et al., 2018). Driving a car or using social media apps on smartphones have been shown to cause MF (Fortes et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2018). Prolonged smartphone-based social media use before training sessions has been harmful to athletes' performances (e.g., Durand-Bush & DesClouds, 2018). ...
... It is essential to highlight that the PFC and vmPFC are involved in focused attention and inhibitory control (Franco-Alvarenga et al., 2019;Friehs et al., 2020). Previous studies demonstrated that the response time on an inhibitory control task was impaired among amateur or recreational athletes who were mentally fatigued (Filipas et al., 2019;Fortes et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2016). ...
... All matches were filmed using a CANON V R camera (SX60 model, Yokohama, Japan) for further analysis of decision-making performance (attack and passing) using the Game Performance Analysis Instrument (GPAI; Memmert & Harvey, 2008). The matches were performed between athletes from same experimental group (CON or SMA) as proposed by past MF researchers (Fortes et al., 2019;Smith et al., 2018). ...
Article
We studied the effects of repeated inducements of mental fatigue (MF) from using social media on smartphones immediately before training sessions by young male volleyball athletes, focusing specifically on their decision-making, endurance, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ). We pair-matched 24 participants according to their decision-making abilities and then, randomly assigned them to one of two 4-week block training groups: control (CON) and smartphone use (SMA). For a 30-minute period before each training session, the CON group watched TV and the SMA group used social media apps on smartphones. We found a significant group x time interaction effect for decision making (attack, p = 0.03; passing, p = 0.02) during training blocks. More specifically, only the CON group improved their decision making (attack, p = 0.03; passing, p = 0.02). Both groups significantly improved their CMJ performance (p = .01), with no significant group x time interaction effect for CMJ (p = 0.91). Neither group significantly improved their endurance (p = 0.56). We concluded that 30-minutes of repetitive social media app use on a smartphone immediately before 4-weeks of volleyball training sessions negatively affected decision-making in young male volleyball athletes. Keywords: cognition, fatigue, media, performance, psychology.
... Psychological preparation has been highlighted in recent studies as a determinant factor to the development of the performance of competitive athletes 3,4 . Thus, preparation in high-performance sports demands a high training load in order to reach maximal performance 5 . ...
... It is composed of 16 items distributed in three subscales, being: cognitive anxiety (CA) (I am worried by the fact that I can lose); somatic anxiety (SA) (I feel my body tense); and self-confidence (SC) (I feel self-confident). The items are answered through a Likert type scale from "nothing" (1) to "very" (4). The results of this scale, in its adapted version, revealed a satisfactory reliability (α > 0.70) and indexes with good adjustment (CFI = 0.959; GFI = 0.942; RMSEA = 0.044) for the 16 items reduced model (CSAI-2R). ...
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Aims: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Methods: Participants were five hundred and nineteen young and adult athletes who responded to the ABQ and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R. Data analysis was conducted through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Cronbach’s alpha, Composite reliability, average variance extracted, multigroup analysis, and Pearson’s correlation (p<0.05). Results: The results of the CFA confirmed the structure with three dimensions (Physical and emotional exhaustion (PEE), reduced sense of sports accomplishment (RSSA), and sports devaluation (SD) [χ²/gl=2.92; CFI=.92; TLI=.91; RMSEA=.06]. Internal consistency was satisfactory (>.70). External validity revealed a positive correlation between PEE (r=.14) and RSSA (r=.23) with somatic anxiety and a positive correlation of PEE (r=.15), RSSA (r=.30), and SD (r=.14) with cognitive anxiety. Further, all dimensions of burnout had negative correlations with the self-confidence (r=.17-.23). In the factor invariance analysis, satisfactory data were found in the model’s fit, establishing good factor loadings, variance/covariance, and residuals in both age groups (up to 18 years and over 18 years) and genders (men and women). Conclusion: It was concluded that the Brazilian version of the ABQ is satisfactory for the application of possible studies involving burnout syndrome in the Brazilian sports context in different group extracts.
... Several studies have reported adverse effects of smartphone use on athletes. Fortes et al. (2019) suggested that 30 min exposure to smartphone apps causes mental fatigue and impairs decision making in male soccer athletes. Park (2017) reported that excessive use of smartphones would worsen learning attitudes, relationships with others, and self-control in college golf players. ...
... However, long-term use of SNS by athletes has been found to worsen their performance (Billings et al., 2016;Geurin-Eagleman and Burch, 2016). In a study of male soccer athletes, 30 min of smartphone apps, including SNS, caused mental fatigue and impaired decision making (Fortes et al., 2019). It is worth looking into the types of content shared on SNS. ...
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Smartphone app-use patterns will predict professional golfers’ athletic performance, and the use time of serious apps would be associated with improved performance. This longitudinal 4-week observation of 79 professional golfers assessed golf handicaps and smartphone app-use patterns at the start of the Korean professional golf season and 2 and 4 weeks later. We classified use as social networking, entertainment, serious apps, and others. Use time of entertainment apps increased for non-improved golfers but did not change for improved golfers. Use time of serious apps increased for improved golfers and decreased for non-improved ones. Changes in golf handicaps were positively correlated with changes in entertainment app use time and negatively correlated with changes in serious app use time. Professional golfers’ sports performance was not associated with smartphone use time but was with the smartphone app type. The management of smartphone app-use patterns is important for professional golfers’ performance.
... In their systematic review on mental fatigue and physical performance, Van Cutsem, already argued that at least 30 min of mental load is necessary to result in mental fatigue and that longer tasks appear to induce more severe mental fatigue. Moreover, a recent study by Fortes et al. (2019) also appears to support this statement. Fortes et al. (2019) observed that 30 min and 45 min, but not 15 min, of smartphone use impaired decision-making during a soccer game in soccer athletes. ...
... Moreover, a recent study by Fortes et al. (2019) also appears to support this statement. Fortes et al. (2019) observed that 30 min and 45 min, but not 15 min, of smartphone use impaired decision-making during a soccer game in soccer athletes. ...
Article
Purpose It has recently been reported that professional road cyclists have superior inhibitory control and resistance to mental fatigue compared to recreational cyclists. We sought to assess whether badminton players also have superior executive functions and whether they are more resistant to mental fatigue than controls on a visuomotor task. Methods Eleven healthy controls (mean ± SD; age: 25±4y; 6 females, 5 males) and nine healthy badminton players (age: 23±3y; 4 females, 5 males) performed two experimental trials in a randomized crossover order. Participants completed a baseline visuomotor task, followed by a Flanker task. Next, they performed either a 90-min Stroop task (MF) or watched a 90-min documentary (CON). Immediately thereafter, the Flanker task and the visuomotor task were completed again. Multiple physiological and psychological measures were assessed during the protocol. Results Badminton players’ and controls’ accuracy during the Stroop task decreased over time (p = 0.023). Subjectively, both groups perceived the Stroop task as more mentally demanding than the documentary (p < 0.001). In addition, higher mental fatigue was perceived in MF compared to CON, independently from group (p = 0.029). In the visuomotor task, controls as well as badminton players reacted significantly slower to the complex stimuli when mentally fatigued (~7%; p < 0.001). Badminton players (1109 ± 251 ms) outperformed controls (1299 ± 227 ms; p = 0.022) in the visuomotor task. However, this was not the case in the Stroop and Flanker task; in terms of accuracy and response time, badminton players and controls performed similarly. Conclusion These findings provide evidence that badminton players have better visuomotor response time than controls. However, they do not seem to be more resistant to the negative effects of mental fatigue on open skill-visuomotor performance. Furthermore, our study suggests that cognitive tasks with a larger motor component, such as our visuomotor task, are more sensitive to the negative effects of mental fatigue than traditional cognitive tasks (e.g. Flanker task) that have a very small motor component.
... Examples reported in the media include Arsenal footballer Granit Xhaka, British speed skater Elise Christie, and tennis player Rebecca Marino. Research has also evidenced that 30-mins of smartphone application use on social networking apps (WhatsApp, Facebook and Instagram) can impair passing decision-making performance in male soccer athletes (Fortes et al., 2019). Accordingly, response-inhibition demand appears as a concurrent consequence of social media use, a medium that is commonplace in elite sport. ...
... One study concluded that 30-min & 45-min of continuous exposure to social networking apps (e.g., WhatsApp, Facebook & Instagram) impaired passing decisionmaking in a 90-min simulated match. The study also revealed that 15-min exposure to the same condition did not impair passing decision-making (Fortes et al., 2019). Whilst smartphone use has been shown to be prevalent up to two hours before match-play in elite academy football players (Thompson et al., 2020), it is unlikely that players would be able to continuously use their smartphones 30/45-min in the two hours leading up to kickoff. ...
Article
Purpose: Previous research investigating the impact of induced mental fatigue in football (soccer) has demonstrated associated performance decrements in physical, technical, tactical and decision-making performance. A common limitation amongst this research is the protocols used to induce mental fatigue which provides low ecological validity, and the inclusion of recreational or sub-elite players. Therefore, understanding the presence of mental fatigue in elite football can provide insight into protocols with greater ecological validity. Methods: The current study used focus groups with 10 elite female football players, focusing on five topics (travel, fixture congestion, receiving tactical information, pre-match routine and pressure to win) related to the perceived causes of mental fatigue in elite football (directed by anecdotal quotes in elite football and research-based theories). Results: Several themes emerged from the data; travel fatigue, inability to switch off from football, fatigue experienced following team meetings, use of pre-match music and internal pressure to succeed. Conclusion: These findings present practical recommendations to reduce mental fatigue in elite football settings, such as considering the timing, content and duration of team meetings, providing players with free time/rest where possible, and considering the modality of coaching instructions during matches.
... Além disso, compreende-se que os aspectos relativos ao jogo de futebol não podem ser tratados de forma isolada e que a compreensão dos aspectos técnicos, táticos, físicos e psicológicos/cognitivos, específicos do esporte, precisa ser sistêmica (Filgueira & Greco, 2008). Neste sentido, surgem estudos que buscam uma visão integrada dos aspectos relacionados ao rendimento, ao treinamento e à aprendizagem do esporte (Silva & Greco, 2009;Greco, Morales, Castro & Praça, 2015;Fortes et al., 2019). Nesta linha, destaca-se que, com o avanço da tecnologia, a análise de dados e também de vídeos, está crescendo no contexto futebolístico, trazendo benefícios para o rendimento de equipes e jogadores (Afonso et al., 2020;Silva, Barros & Albuquerque, 2020;Alves, Graça, Feitosa & Soares, 2021;Rocha-Lima, Tertuliano & Fischer, 2021). ...
Article
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O princípio da especificidade é o treinamento estar conectado com as necessidades do jogo. Portanto, o treino deve consistir em aprimorar competências e reduzir limitações, desenvolvendo comportamentos rápidos e efetivos por parte dos atletas. Deste modo, o presente estudo apresenta, como objetivo, analisar a condução de uma sessão de treinamento de futebol, de uma equipe brasileira sub-15, sob o princípio da especificidade. A pesquisa consiste em um estudo de caso, de caráter documental audiovisual, na qual o material utilizado corresponde a três vídeos analisados, de uma sessão de treinamento, que contou com a participação de 25 atletas. Como resultados, percebe-se que o princípio da especificidade esteve presente durante toda a sessão de treino, por meio de aspectos como longas transições defesa-ataque, a construção de um modelo de jogo e a comunicação. Dessa forma, conclui-se que o princípio da especificidade se mostra como uma importante ferramenta para a integração dos componentes do jogo e para resolver problemas apresentados pelo complexo cenário no qual o futebol está presente.
... In practical terms, players who show atypical variations in different performance indicators (e.g., distance covered and accuracy of tactical actions) may be undergoing the consequences of MF, according to findings reported in previous cross-sectional studies (Coutinho et al., 2018;Kunrath et al., 2018). Therefore, the engagement in cognitive tasks, including the utilization of smartphones (Fortes et al., 2019), should be constantly monitored so that it does not damage performance in competitive matches to reduce the potential for a negative impact on aspects of sporting performance'. ...
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Objectives: We examine how mental fatigue (MF) influences peripheral perception, tactical behaviour, and physical performance of soccer players during a standardized small-sided game. Methods: Eighteen male university first-team soccer players participated. A modified Stroop task and the Vienna Test System were employed to induce MF and to evaluate players’ peripheral perception, respectively. The FUT-SAT test was used to assess participants’ tactical behaviour and physical performance was quantified using GPS technology. Results: MF decreased players’ visual field (pre-test = 189.9° and post-test = 181.6°). Additionally, MF constrained players to more frequently perform actions related to the tactical principles of penetration, depth mobility, and defensive unity, and less frequently perform actions of defensive coverage and balance. During MF, players showed decreased accuracy in actions related to the principles of offensive coverage, width and length, offensive unity, delay, balance, concentration, and defensive unity. Finally, under MF players covered higher total distance and at more moderate speed. Conclusions: MF decreased players’ peripheral perception, making them prioritize actions towards the opposing goal and protecting their own goal, while displaying more errors for most tactical actions. In summary, MF impaired several aspects of players’ cognitive and tactical behaviours, causing a compensatory increase in physical performance.
... [3] In a recent study on soccer athletes (24.7 ± 3.6 years) it was concluded that at least 30 min of smartphone exposure caused mental fatigue, which impaired passing decision-making performance. [4] No such Kolkata-based publications have been found related to this issue. ...
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CONTEXT: According to multiple studies, the use of smartphone leads to several deleterious implications such as visual fatigue, mental fatigue, and altered mental alertness level. AIM: The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is any instance of visual fatigue, mental fatigue, and changes in alertness. METHODOLOGY: A light meter has been used to detect the level of illumination of the experimental room. Critical flicker fusion frequency (CFFF) test is used to identify the occurrence of visual fatigue, mental fatigue, and changes in alertness. Student's t-test was performed to investigate the differences in the CFFFs of pre- and post-experimental conditions in both illuminated and dark situations. RESULTS: A reduction of post-task CFFF has occurred after the completion of the task in both cases. There were significant differences of means in between pre- and post-experimental conditions in both illuminated and dark conditions. Post-task mean CFFF values in the dark condition are lesser than the illuminated condition. CONCLUSIONS: It can be suggested from the present study that the use of smartphone with video features for 30 min or more can cause visual fatigue, mental fatigue, and reduced mental alertness among young (22 ± 2.1 years) smartphone users. The use of smartphone in the presence of illumination causes less deleterious effects than dark conditions. Keywords: Critical flicker fusion test, flicker fusion threshold, mental alertness, smartphone use, visual fatigue
... Especially, soccer players may be more susceptible to mental fatigue due to the prolonged duration of exposure to cognitive activities (Smith et al., 2018;Sun et al., 2021). Numerous studies have shown that there are negative effects of mental fatigue on soccer performance (Fortes et al., 2019(Fortes et al., , 2020Gantois et al., 2019;Soylu et al., 2022). However, the intervention is still misty. ...
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Background It has been well investigated that nature exposure intervention can restore directed attention and improve subsequent cognitive performance. The impairment of decision-making skills in mentally fatigued soccer players was attributed to the inability of attention allocation. However, nature exposure as the potential intervention to counter mental fatigue and improve the subsequent decision-making skill in soccer players has never been investigated.ObjectsThis study aimed to evaluate the effects of nature exposure intervention on decision-making skills among mentally fatigued university soccer players. Moreover, different durations of nature exposure were also evaluated.MethodsA random control between-subject design was adopted. Players were randomly assigned into six groups with three different durations of the experimental group compared with the corresponding control group (4.17 min: Exp 1 vs. Con 1; 8.33 min: Exp 2 vs. Con 2; and 12.50 min: Exp 3 vs. Con 3). All players were first mentally fatigued by performing a 45-min Stroop task; then, they viewed virtual photos of natural or urban scenes; and finally, they performed a soccer decision-making task.ResultsThe subjective ratings of mental fatigue were significantly higher following the Stroop task. Only Exp 3 (12.50 min viewing natural scenes) significantly improved decision-making reaction time compared with Con 3 (p = 0.09). Moreover, the accuracy slightly increased in Exp 3 after the intervention.Conclusion In line with attention restoration theory, nature exposure significantly improved decision-making skills in mentally fatigue university players. However, the duration must be 12.50 min for each stimulus to stay longer to attract involuntary attention.
... Although two recent meta-analyses have demonstrated decrements in physical performance subsequent to shorter (< 30 min) and longer (> 30 min) cognitive tasks [3,30], this time cut-off was maintained. When task difficulty is similar, task duration negatively affects subsequent task performance [31,32] with 30 min appearing to be a consistent threshold for MFrelated performance impairments [2,33,34]. In addition, the vigilance decrement that typically occurs after 20-30 min of continuous work in the literature on sustained attention [2,33], and the typical 30-min time range in which an increase in perceived mental fatigue is often observed in the literature on mental fatigue [2,34], further supports the 30-min time cut-off. ...
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Introduction Mental fatigue (MF) is a psychobiological state that impairs cognitive as well as physical performance in different settings. Recently, numerous studies have sought ways to counteract these negative effects of MF. An overview of the explored countermeasures for MF is, however, lacking. Objectives The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the different MF countermeasures currently explored in literature. Countermeasures were classified by the timing of application (before, during or after the moment of MF) and type of intervention (behavioural, physiological and psychological). Methods The databases of PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science and PsycINFO were searched until March 7, 2022. Studies were eligible when MF was induced using a task with a duration of at least 30 min, when they assessed MF markers in at least two out of the three areas wherein MF markers have been defined (i.e., behavioural, subjective and/or [neuro]physiological) and used a placebo or control group for the countermeasure. Results A total of 33 studies investigated one or more countermeasures against MF. Of these, eight studies assessed a behavioural countermeasure, 22 a physiological one, one a psychological countermeasure and two a combination of a behavioural and psychological countermeasure. The general finding was that a vast majority of the countermeasures induced a positive effect on behavioural (e.g., task or sport performance) and/or subjective MF markers (e.g., visual analogue scale for MF or alertness). No definitive conclusion could be drawn regarding the effect of the employed countermeasures on (neuro)physiological markers of MF as only 19 of the included studies investigated these measures, and within these a large heterogeneity in the evaluated (neuro)physiological markers was present. Discussion Within the physiological countermeasures it seems that the use of odours during a MF task or caffeine before the MF task are the most promising interventions in combating MF. Promising behavioural (e.g., listening to music) and psychological (e.g., extrinsic motivation) countermeasures of MF have also been reported. The most assumed mechanism through which these countermeasures operate is the dopaminergic system. However, this mechanism remains speculative as (neuro)physiological markers of MF have been scarcely evaluated to date. Conclusion The present systematic review reveals that a wide range of countermeasures have been found to successfully counteract MF on a subjective, (neuro)physiological and/or behavioural level. Of these, caffeine, odours, music and extrinsic motivation are the most evidenced for countering MF. To provide in-detail practical guidelines for the real-life application of MF countermeasures, more research must be performed into the underlying mechanisms and into the optimal dosage and time of application/intake.
... Professional sponsorship commitments may include extended smartphone app use (WhatsApp, Facebook and Instagram) previously demonstrated to induce mental fatigue and impair soccer passing decision-making performance (Fortes et al., 2019). ...
Article
Mental fatigue has been shown to negatively influence physical, technical and tactical aspects of sporting performance. However, mental fatigue is not routinely monitored or managed in elite sport and it is not clear whether mental fatigue occurs and/or changes across the varied contextual demands experienced by elite athletes in training, preparation and competition. This study explored self-report measures of mental fatigue across eight training camps and six competition periods (two benchmark tournaments and four international test series) with international netballers (n = 22, 25.9 ± 2.7y) during the 2018-2019 representative period. Mental fatigue was higher during training camps (p < 0.001; 3.20 [3.12, 3.27]) and preparation camps (p < 0.05; 3.27 [3.19, 3.34]) compared to the competition periods (3.49 [3.44, 3.55]). Significant within-group differences were also identified between individual preparation camps and competition subsets. Higher mental fatigue was reported during the preparation camp for international test series 2 comparative to the preparation camp for benchmark tournament 1 (p = 0.047). For individual competitions; greater mental fatigue was found during the international test series 3 competition in comparison to both the benchmark tournament 1 (p <0.001) and international test series 1 (p = 0.020) competition periods. International representative netballers experience differing levels of mental fatigue across training and preparation camps and competition periods. Practitioners should be aware that athletes report instances of elevated mental fatigue across camps, and competition. Mental fatigue is not limited to competition and thus is recommended to be monitored during periods of training and preparation for competition.
... These technologies are ever-expanding, and can capture types of behavioural data not accessible previously, due to privacy and confidentiality concerns, costs, and practical limitations (Woo, Tay, Jebb, et al., 2020). What may be a unique advantage of smartphones is that they are highly portable, enabling researchers to cross survey data with behavioural (and often social media) observations recorded and shared through smartphone sensors, and plug-ins to capture a holistic account of participants' behaviours and experiences (Harari et al., 2016, but see Fortes et al., 2019). Discussions of reliability and validity of behavioural measurements using smartphone data have been recently offered (Harari et al., 2016;Júdice et al., 2020;Woo, Tay, Jebb, et al., 2020). ...
... activities that require attention may impact mental fatigue, such as the use of social networks on smartphones(Fortes et al., 2019), and playing video games. Once those activities are performed before official soccer matches, it may impair decisionmaking performance. ...
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The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of the use of social networks in smartphones or playing video games on the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. Participants were 25 male professional soccer athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.4 ± 2.8 years). The participants performed three randomized conditions divided into three groups: control (CON), smartphone (SMA), and video game (VID). Before and after each experimental condition, the Stroop Task assessed the level of induced mental fatigue. Then, the athletes performed a simulated soccer match. A CANON® camera recorded the matches for further analysis on passing decision-making performance. A group effect was identified (p < .01) with impairment on passing decision-making performance for the SMA (p = .01, ES = 0.5) and VID (p = .01, ES = 0.5) conditions. We concluded that the use of social networks on smartphones and/or playing video games right before official soccer matches might impair the passing decision-making performance in professional soccer athletes. The effect of smartphones and playing video games on decision-making in soccer players: a crossover and randomized study
... Qualitative studies have found that athletes can experience mental fatigue during both training and competition periods [19][20][21][22]. In particular, travelling, strict schedules, seasonal variations, repetitive tasks, novel tasks, new environments and experiences, over-analyses of competition, professional commitments as well as an overuse of technology and mobile apps are among the major factors associated with mental fatigue [20,21,23,24]. In addition, the sustained cognitive effort required for self-regulation during prolonged and strenuous endurance competitions may also induce mental fatigue and impair performance [25]. ...
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Purpose It is well established that mental fatigue impairs performance during lab-based endurance tests lasting less than 45 min. However, the effects of mental fatigue on longer duration endurance events and in field settings are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental fatigue on performance during a half-marathon race. Methods Forty-six male amateur runners (means ± SD: age 43.8 ± 8.6 years, VO 2peak 46.0 ± 4.1 ml/kg/min) completed a half-marathon after being randomly allocated to performing a 50-min mentally fatiguing task (mental fatigue group) or reading magazines for 50 min (control group). Running speed, heart rate, and perceived effort were measured during the race. Results Runners in the mental fatigue group completed the half-marathon approximately 4 min slower (106.2 ± 12.4 min) than those in the control group (102.4 ± 10.2 min), but this difference was not statistically significant (Cohen's d = 0.333; p = 0.265). However, equivalence was not established [t(40.88) = 0.239, p = 0.594] and equivalence testing analysis excluded a beneficial effect of mental fatigue on half-marathon performance. Conclusion Due to its posttest-only design and the achievable sample size, the study did not have enough power to provide evidence that the observed 4-min increase in half-marathon time is statistically significant. However, equivalence testing suggests that mental fatigue has no beneficial effect on half-marathon performance in male amateur runners, and a harmful effect cannot be excluded. Overall, it seems prudent for endurance athletes to avoid mentally fatiguing tasks before competitions.
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BACKGROUND: In our current generation, smartphone is considered a basic handheld device utilized for many tasks. Almost a billion people spend 50% of their time on any digital media like smartphone, tablet, laptop computer or television. Excessive use of the smartphone can cause physiological problems, mental disorders and so on.
Article
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the repeated effect of social media on smartphones immediately before training sessions on inhibitory control (Stroop task), endurance (tethered swimming), countermovement jump (CMJ), and swimming performance (50, 100, and 400-m freestyle) in high-level female swimmers. Methods: It is a randomized and experimental investigation with parallel groups. Twenty-two participants underwent the eight weeks of the experiment. The swimmers (eight to twelve sessions per week with 15.9 ± 1.6 hours/week, and training experience of ~ 5.6 years) were randomized in two groups: control (CON, n = 11) and smartphone (SMA, n = 11). Immediately before each training session, the CON group watched videos about Olympic Games for 30-min. The SMA group used social network smartphone apps during 30-min. The inhibitory control, endurance, CMJ, and swimming performance were measured before and after the eight weeks of intervention. Results: No group x time interaction for 50-m freestyle (F (4, 18) = 1.04; p = 0.33; η 2 = 0.09) and CMJ performance (F (4, 18) = 0.31; p = 0.58; η 2 = 0.03) was found. Both experimental groups improved CMJ (F (2, 20) = 8.71; p = 0.01; η 2 = 0.46). Only the CON group improved the 100-m (p = 0.02), 400-m freestyle (p = 0.01), and endurance performance (p = 0.01). The CON group improved the inhibitory control response (p = 0.01). Conclusion: It is concluded that the repeated effect of social media on smartphones immediately before swimming training sessions might reduce or nullify training gains on swimming and endurance performance.
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Background Due to causing inability of self-regulation (ego depletion) and executive functions such as directed attention and visual searching for relevant information (e.g., the ball location and the position of teammates), mental fatigue impairs skilled performance in various sports. On the other hand, natural scenes could improve directed attention, which may considerably benefit visual searching ability and self-regulation. However, nature exposure as a potential intervention to improve skilled performance among mentally fatigued athletes has not been discussed thoroughly.PurposeTo propose the potential intervention for the impairment of skilled performance among mentally fatigued athletes and generate a framework for future studies.MethodsA narrative review was applied to search broadly across disciplines, retrieving literature from several databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EBSCOhost).ResultsThirty-three works of literature including 39 experiments (mental fatigue 15; ego depletion 5; and nature exposure 19) were obtained. Finally, a conceptual framework was built regarding the effect of nature exposure intervention on skilled performance in athletes for future studies.Conclusion Three theories (the psychobiological model of exercise performance, the strength model of self-regulation, and attention restoration theory) could be potentially integrated to be a conceptual framework and explain the mechanism of preventing prior mental exertion (e.g., mental fatigue and ego depletion). Future studies could examine more on the duration of the intervention.
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To understand the dynamic patterns of behaviours and interactions between athletes that characterize successful performance in different sports is an important challenge for all sport practitioners. This book guides the reader in understanding how an ecological dynamics framework for use of artificial intelligence (AI) can be implemented to interpret sport performance and the design of practice contexts. By examining how AI methodologies are utilized in team games, such as football, as well as in individual sports, such as golf and climbing, this book provides a better understanding of the kinematic and physiological indicators that might better capture athletic performance by looking at the current state-of-the-art AI approaches. Artificial Intelligence in Sport Performance Analysis provides an all-encompassing perspective in an innovative approach that signals practical applications for both academics and practitioners in the fields of coaching, sports analysis, and sport science, as well as related subjects such as engineering, computer and data science, and statistics.
Interest in the influence of a prior cognitive task on physical performance is growing. This work has been approached by several different disciplines, showing its broad importance. The findings from different disciplines have begun to be brought together. This paper reviews the literatures of how both cognitive fatigue and ego depletion can influence physical performance, and does so through a new framework, adapted from Newell’s constraints model, and the further specifications of Balagué et al. ([2019] On the relatedness and nestedness of constraints. Sports Medicine-Open, 5(1), 1–10.). We describe findings that relate to how the relationship between taxing cognitive task performance and the impact on physical performance emerges from the interaction of environmental and individual constraints. Working from an acknowledgement of these different influences, the systems they create (e.g. individual-environment system), and their interactions is a key consideration in advancing this area of research. Framing previous findings in this way provides a more organised perspective on the problem, to better structure and drive the research agenda and key next steps. Using the framework, we provide a roadmap and identify five main areas where more work is needed that can advance the field and contribute across disciplines, beyond sports psychology.
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Over the past decade there has been considerable research into the effects of prior cognitive exertion on subsequent self-regulation of sport and exercise performance. In this chapter we provide an overview of how this body of literature has developed amongst two parallel, yet separate perspectives - self-control and mental fatigue – and where it currently stands. The prominent theories in the field are discussed and areas that warrant further investigation moving forward are highlighted. This includes discussion of factors known to mediate and moderate this relationship, and future directions that will help us elucidate underlying mechanisms.
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Background Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state induced by a prolonged duration of demanding cognitive tasks. The effects of mental fatigue on physical performance have been well investigated in the literature. However, the effect of mental fatigue on skilled performance in sports remains unclear. Objective This study aimed to report a comprehensive systematic review investigating the carryover effects of mental fatigue on skilled performance among athletes. Methods A thorough search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCOhost (CENTRAL, SPORTDicus), and Scopus to select relevant literature, as well as on Google Scholar and sources of reference for grey literature. The selected literatures are centred on a mental fatigue protocol in which cognitive tasks are performed prior to athletic tasks. Only studies that used an experimental design to test two conditions, namely mental fatigue and non-mental fatigue, were selected. Results Eleven articles were chosen based on the selection criteria. Mental fatigue affects skilled performance in three sports: soccer, basketball, and table tennis. A decline in skilled performance (decreased accuracy, increased performing time etc) is relevant to impaired executive functions. Seven studies focus on offensive skills, whereas only two studies are associated with defensive skills. Conclusion Mental fatigue has a negative effect on various sports skills of high-level athletes, including their technical and decision-making skills; however, the impact is greater on offensive skills than that of defensive skills in terms of the role of athletes. Impaired executive functions may be responsible for the negative effects of mental fatigue on skilled performance.
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Background: Smartphone use patterns may predict daily life efficacy and performance improvements in sports. Additionally, personal characteristics may be associated with smartphone overuse. Methods: We investigated the correlation between the temperament and character inventory (TCI) and academic performance using smartphone log data. We hypothesized that the elite and general groups, divided based on academic performance, differed according to the TCI and downloadable smartphone apps (applications). Additionally, we hypothesized a correlation between smartphone app usage patterns and TCI. A total of 151 students provided smartphone log data of the previous four weeks. They also completed the TCI and provided academic records of the previous year. Results: The first and second most frequently used apps by both groups of students were social networking and entertainment, respectively. Elite students scored higher on novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, and self-transcendence than general students. In all participants, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), reward dependence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P < 0.006). In the elite group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated with the scores for novelty seeking (r = 0.45, P < 0.001), reward dependence (r = 0.39, P = 0.022), and self-transcendence (r = 0.35, P = 0.031). In the general group, the usage time of serious apps was correlated only with self-transcendence (r = 0.32, P < 0.007). Conclusion: High usage time of serious apps can help sports majors to excel academically. Particularly among sports majors, serious apps are related to activity, the desire for rewards and recognition, and the tendency to transcend themselves.
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Purpose: This study aimed to analyze the effect of playing videogames and using social media applications on smartphones on decision-making and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance in amateur boxers. Method: Twenty boxers were enrolled in the study and were randomly assigned to all three experimental conditions [smartphone (30SMA), videogame (30VID), and control (CON)]. CMJ was measured before and 30-min after each experimental condition. The athletes ran simulated combat recorded for decision-making analysis. The boxers watched coaching videos (CON), used social media applications on smartphones (30SMA), and played video games (30VID) for 30 minutes just before the combat simulation. Results: Both attack and defense decision-making performance were worse in both 30SMA and 30VID conditions compared to the CON condition (p = 0.001). Regarding CMJ, despite no condition effect (p = 0.96) been obtained, a time effect (p = 0.001) was observed; So, it was found a decrease in CMJ performance after all experimental conditions (p = 0.001), with no difference between them. Conclusions: Using social media applications on smartphones and playing video game impairs decision-making performance in amateur boxers, with no harms for CMJ performance.
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Research in football for a long time has focused on the physical nature of fatigue as opposed to its mental aspects. However, since 2016, six original articles have investigated the effects of induced mental fatigue in football on isolated physical, skill and decision-making performance tests, along with physical, technical and tactical performance outcomes in small-sided games. Whilst these studies have overall shown a negative impact of mental fatigue on task performance, this current opinion aims to critically examine the methodological approach to this problem, most notably the lack of ecological validity when inducing mental fatigue and the present approach to measuring mental fatigue using visual analogue scales (VAS). It is suggested that future research on mental fatigue in football may benefit from the use of surveys/interviews to understand the true cognitive demands of elite football players. Additionally, future research should aim to reduce the reliance on using VAS to measure mental fatigue as results from this tool may be confounded by several response biases. In conclusion, this article highlights the need for mentally fatiguing tasks that adequately represent football-associated mental fatigue and assessments of mental fatigue that minimise the confounding effect of response bias.
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Background: The passing decision-making performance in volleyball is important because it determines the quality of a team's attack. However, no study has analysed the effect of imagery training on passing decision-making performance in young volleyball athletes. Purpose: The objective was to analyse the effect of eight weeks of imagery training on passing decision-making performance. Method: Participants were 33 young male athletes (under 17 years [U-17]). Participants were randomly assigned to two groups: experimental (EG, n = 17) and control group (CG, n = 16). The CG watched videos of advertisements, while EG participated in the imagery training. A cognitive-general imagery programme was adopted, that asks the athletes to imagine themselves executing passes during a competitive event (e.g. reception of the service with variations of speed and displacement, pass to middle attacker, pass to other attackers, and pass with projection of the body on the ground). The passing decision-making was evaluated in a simulation of a volleyball official game. The analysis of actions was based on the Game Performance Assessment instrument. A heart rate monitor was adopted as an indicator of the autonomic nervous system response during the sessions for the EG and CG. Results: The results revealed a group versus intervention interaction (p < .01) for the passing decision-making, with improvement only in the EG (p = .01). A statistically significant difference in heart rate was identified between the groups (p = .01), with a higher value in the EG. Conclusions: It was concluded that imagery training enhanced passing decision-making performance.
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Fatigue is a complex state with multiple physiological and psychological origins. However, fatigue in soccer has traditionally been investigated from a physiological perspective, with little emphasis on the cognitive demands of competition. These cognitive demands may induce mental fatigue, which could contribute to the fatigue-related performance decrements observed during and after soccer matches. Recent research investigating the relationship between mental fatigue and soccer-specific performance supports this suggestion. This leading article provides an overview of the research in this emerging field, outlining the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical, technical, decision-making, and tactical performances. The second half of this review provides directions for future research in response to the limitations of the existing research. Emphasis is placed on translating the current body of knowledge into practical applications and developing a greater understanding of the mechanisms underpinning the negative impact of mental fatigue on soccer performance. A conceptual model is presented to help direct this future research.
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This study examined the effects of mental fatigue and additional corridor and pitch sector lines on players' physical and tactical performances during soccer small-sided games. Twelve youth players performed four Gk+6vs6+Gk small-sided games. Prior to the game, one team performed a motor coordination task to induce mental fatigue, while the other one performed a control task. A repeated measures design allowed to compare players' performances across four conditions: (a) with mental fatigue against opponents without mental fatigue in a normal pitch (MEN), (b) with mental fatigue on a pitch with additional reference lines (#MEN); (c) without mental fatigue against mentally fatigued opponents on a normal pitch (CTR); and (d) without mental fatigue on a pitch with reference lines (#CTR). Player's physical performance was assessed by the distance covered per minute and the number of accelerations and decelerations (0.5–3.0 m/s2; > −3.0 m/s2). Positional data was used to determine individual (spatial exploration index, time synchronized in longitudinal and lateral directions) and team-related variables (length, width, speed of dispersion and contraction). Unclear effects were found for the physical activity measures in most of the conditions. There was a small decrease in time spent laterally synchronized and a moderate decrease in the contraction speed when MEN compared to the CTR. Also, there was a small decrease in the time spent longitudinally synchronized during the #MEN condition compared to MEN. The results showed that mental fatigue affects the ability to use environmental information and players' positioning, while the additional reference lines may have enhanced the use of less relevant information to guide their actions during the #MEN condition. Overall, coaches could manipulate the mental fatigue and reference lines to induce variability and adaptation in young soccer players' behavior.
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Background: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. It has recently been suggested that mental fatigue can affect physical performance. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the literature on impairment of physical performance due to mental fatigue and to create an overview of the potential factors underlying this effect. Methods: Two electronic databases, PubMed and Web of Science (until 28 April 2016), were searched for studies designed to test whether mental fatigue influenced performance of a physical task or influenced physiological and/or perceptual responses during the physical task. Studies using short (<30 min) self-regulatory depletion tasks were excluded from the review. Results: A total of 11 articles were included, of which six were of strong and five of moderate quality. The general finding was a decline in endurance performance (decreased time to exhaustion and self-selected power output/velocity or increased completion time) associated with a higher than normal perceived exertion. Physiological variables traditionally associated with endurance performance (heart rate, blood lactate, oxygen uptake, cardiac output, maximal aerobic capacity) were unaffected by mental fatigue. Maximal strength, power, and anaerobic work were not affected by mental fatigue. Conclusion: The duration and intensity of the physical task appear to be important factors in the decrease in physical performance due to mental fatigue. The most important factor responsible for the negative impact of mental fatigue on endurance performance is a higher perceived exertion.
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Purpose: To assess the effects of mental fatigue on physical and technical performance in small-sided soccer games. Methods: Twenty soccer players (age 17.8 ± 1.0 y, height 179 ± 5 cm, body mass 72.4 ± 6.8 kg, playing experience 8.3 ± 1.4 y) from an Australian National Premier League soccer club volunteered to participate in this randomised crossover investigation. Participants played 15-min 5 vs 5 small-sided games (SSG) without goalkeepers on two occasions, separated by 1 wk. Prior to the SSG, one team watched a 30-min emotionally neutral documentary (control), while the other performed 30 min of a computer-based Stroop task (mental fatigue). Subjective ratings of mental and physical fatigue were recorded before and after treatment and following the SSG. Motivation was assessed prior to treatment and SSG; mental effort was assessed after treatment and SSG. Player activity profiles and heart rate (HR) were measured throughout the SSG, while ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded prior to the SSG, and immediately following each half. Video recordings of the SSG allowed for notational analysis of technical variables. Results: Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher following the Stroop task, while motivation for the upcoming SSG was similar between conditions. HR during the SSG was possibly higher in the control condition, while RPE was likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had an unclear effect on most physical performance variables, but impaired most technical performance variables. Conclusions: Mental fatigue impairs technical, but not physical performance in small-sided soccer games.
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This study aimed to investigate the impact of mental fatigue on soccer-specific decision-making. Twelve well-trained male soccer players performed a soccer-specific decision-making task on two occasions, separated by at least 72 h. The decision-making task was preceded in a randomised order by 30 min of the Stroop task (mental fatigue) or 30 min of reading from magazines (control). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort (referring to treatment) and motivation (referring to the decision-making task) were measured after treatment. Performance on the soccer-specific decision-making task was assessed using response accuracy and time. Visual search behaviour was also assessed throughout the decision-making task. Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were almost certainly higher following the Stroop task compared to the magazines. Motivation for the upcoming decision-making task was possibly higher following the Stroop task. Decision-making accuracy was very likely lower and response time likely higher in the mental fatigue condition. Mental fatigue had unclear effects on most visual search behaviour variables. The results suggest that mental fatigue impairs accuracy and speed of soccer-specific decision-making. These impairments are not likely related to changes in visual search behaviour.
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the recovery state of 10 male athletes after an official professional soccer match. The Total Quality Recovery Scale (TQR) was used compare the athletes’ blood creatine kinase (CK) to their recovery state. The athletes (body mass 76.1 ± 7.9 kg; height 1.75 ± 7.0 m; age 26.6 ± 4.5 yrs old; BMI 21.66 ± 1.58 kg•m-2) had their Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) rated 30 min after the match. CK and TQR were obtained 24 hrs thereafter. No significant associations were found between TQR and RPE (r = -0.56; P>0.05); and CK and RPE (r = 0.60; P>0.5). However, we did find a statistically significant association between TQR and CK (r = -0.75; P<0.05). Thus, the findings indicate that TQR could be used in the evaluation of professional soccer athletes to determine recovery state after an official game.
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Purpose: To investigate the effects of mental fatigue on soccer-specific physical and technical performance. Methods: This investigation consisted of two separate studies. Study 1 assessed the soccer-specific physical performance of 12 moderately-trained soccer players using the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test, Level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Study 2 assessed the soccer-specific technical performance of 14 experienced soccer players using the Loughborough Soccer Passing and Shooting Tests (LSPT, LSST). Each test was performed on two occasions and preceded, in a randomized, counter-balanced order, by 30-min of the Stroop task (mentally fatiguing treatment) or 30-min of reading magazines (control treatment). Subjective ratings of mental fatigue were measured before and after treatment, and mental effort and motivation were measured after treatment. Distance run, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded during the Yo-Yo IR1. LSPT performance time was calculated as original time plus penalty time. LSST performance was assessed using shot speed, shot accuracy and shot sequence time. Results: Subjective ratings of mental fatigue and effort were higher following the Stroop task in both studies (P < 0.001), while motivation was similar between conditions. This mental fatigue significantly reduced running distance in the Yo-Yo IR1 (P < 0.001). No difference in HR existed between conditions, while RPE was significantly higher at iso-time in the mental fatigue condition (P < 0.01). LSPT original time and performance time were not different between conditions, however penalty time significantly increased in the mental fatigue condition (P = 0.015). Mental fatigue also impaired shot speed (P = 0.024) and accuracy (P < 0.01), while shot sequence time was similar between conditions. Conclusion: Mental fatigue impairs soccer-specific running, passing, and shooting performance. (C) 2015 American College of Sports Medicine
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Objectives: The ability to perform a context-free 3-dimensional multiple object tracking (3D-MOT) task has been highly related to athletic performance. In the present study, we assessed the transferability of a perceptual-cognitive 3D-MOT training from a laboratory setting to a soccer field, a sport in which the capacity to correctly read the dynamic visual scene is a prerequisite to performance. Design: Throughout pre- and post-training sessions, we looked at three essential skills (passing, dribbling, shooting) that are used to gain the upper hand over the opponent. Method: We recorded decision-making accuracy during small-sided games in university-level soccer players (n = 23) before and after a training protocol. Experimental (n = 9) and active control (n=7) groups were respectively trained during 10 sessions of 3D-MOT or 3D soccer videos. A passive control group (n = 7) did not received any particular training or instructions. Results: Decision-making accuracy in passing, but not in dribbling and shooting, between pre- and post-sessions was superior for the 3D-MOT trained group compared to control groups. This result was correlated with the players' subjective decision-making accuracy, rated after pre- and post-sessions through a visual analogue scale questionnaire. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this study represents the first evidence in which a non-contextual, perceptual-cognitive training exercise has a transfer effect onto the field in athletes.
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The purpose of this study was to examine whether mental fatigue influences the perceived effort required to complete fairly light and hard effort self-paced exercise challenges. 12 partici- pants completed 2 trials in a randomised cross- over design. Each participant was required to complete a time-matched pre-exercise task: 1) a continuous cognitive activity test (EXP con- dition; n=12), or 2) a time-matched passive neutral observation task (CON condition; n = 12). Following the pre-exercise task, participants performed 2 consecutive bouts of self-paced cycling exercise again in randomized order at fairly light (RPE 11) and hard (RPE 15) effort. Physiological, psychological and EEG indices were measured throughout both conditions. EXP participants reported significantly greater sen- sations of fatigue (p < 0.01) and demonstrated greater EEG beta-band activation compared with CON (p<0.01) prior to exercise. Power out- puts from the exercise bouts were significantly reduced for EXP in both self-paced: RPE 11 (83 ± 7 vs. 99 ± 7 W; p = 0.005) and RPE 15 (132 ± 9 vs. 143 ± 8 W; p = 0.028) trials. This study demon- strates that individuals with higher self-reported sensations of fatigue and elevations of EEG beta activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain prior to exercise produce less work during self-paced exercise trials than in a control condition, prob- ably due to an altered perception of effort.
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to test the hypotheses that prolonged mental exertion (i) reduces maximal muscle activation and (ii) increases the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. Methods: The neuromuscular function of the knee extensor muscles was assessed in 10 male subjects in two different conditions: (i) before and after prolonged mental exertion leading to mental fatigue and (ii) before and after an easy cognitive task (control). Both cognitive tasks lasted 90 min and were followed by submaximal isometric knee extensor exercise until exhaustion (endurance task), and a third assessment of neuromuscular function. Results: Time to exhaustion was 13% ± 4% shorter in the mental fatigue condition (230 ± 22 s) compared with the control condition (266 ± 26 s) (P < 0.01). Prolonged mental exertion did not have any significant effect on maximal voluntary contraction torque, voluntary activation level, and peripheral parameters of neuromuscular function. A similar significant decrease in maximal voluntary contraction torque (mental fatigue condition: -26.7% ± 5.7%; control condition: -27.6% ± 3.3%, P < 0.001), voluntary activation level (mental fatigue: -10.6% ± 4.3%; control condition: -11.2% ± 5.2%, P < 0.05), and peripheral parameters of neuromuscular function occurred in both conditions after the endurance task. However, mentally fatigued subjects rated perceived exertion significantly higher during the endurance task compared with the control condition (P < 0.05). Conclusions: These findings provide the first experimental evidence that prolonged mental exertion (i) does not reduce maximal muscle activation and (ii) does not increase the extent of central fatigue induced by subsequent endurance exercise. The negative effect of mental fatigue on endurance performance seems to be mediated by the higher perception of effort rather than impaired neuromuscular function.
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The purpose of this article is to discuss some concerns with the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI). This review of the GPAI includes five perceived problems with the GPAI scoring and coding system: (1) calculation of individual and overall game performance indices, (2) use of game involvement versus game performance index to analyze game performance, (3) observer reliability, (4) nonlinearity, and (5) usefulness of action. In this article, we suggest a reexamina-tion of the GPAI scoring and coding system that will lead to more efficient use of this game performance instrument. Some of the suggested modifications can be implemented quickly, whereas others need further research. Traditionally, games lessons are structured around the learning of specific skills. However, alternative teaching approaches have been brought forward in the literature, such as the teaching games for understanding (TGfU) approach (Bunker & Thorpe, 1982), the tactical games model (TGM; Mitchell, Oslin, and Griffin, 2006), play practice (Launder, 2001), and the tactical-decision learning model (Gréhaigne, Wallian, & Godbout, 2005). All these approaches suggest a reversal of the skills-first approach to teaching games, in which teaching is driven by the need for contextual, real-world, game-simulated practice to develop game knowledge and understanding (i.e., knowing what to do, and when and how to do it). With the evolution of these teaching approaches and the increased focus on teaching the tactical dimensions of game play (Griffin, Oslin, & Mitchell, 1995; Mitchell, Griffin, & Oslin, 1995; Mitchell, Oslin, & Griffin, 1995), there is a need for
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Abstract This study investigated effects of manipulating the number of action possibilities in a futsal passing task to understand the representativeness of practice tasks designs. Eight male senior futsal players performed a passing task in which uncertainty on passing direction for the player in possession of the ball was increased in four conditions and compared with passing data from a competitive match. Performance during a passing task and competitive futsal performance was compared using ball speed and passing accuracy data. Ball speed data were analysed by approximate entropy (ApEn) to capture their regularity in each of the four conditions and during competitive performance. Significantly high levels of regularity were observed in predetermined passes in comparison with emergent passes (i.e., passes with high number of possibilities for action). Similar results for ball speed regularity were observed between practice tasks with a high number of possibilities for action (i.e., emergent passes) and competitive performance. Similar results were observed for passing accuracy in practice tasks with a high number of possibilities for action compared to competitive performance. Increases in the number of action possibilities during practice improved action fidelity of tasks in relation to competitive performance.
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While the importance of physical abilities and motor coordination is non-contested in sport, more focus has recently been turned toward cognitive processes important for different sports. However, this line of studies has often investigated sport-specific cognitive traits, while few studies have focused on general cognitive traits. We explored if measures of general executive functions can predict the success of a soccer player. The present study used standardized neuropsychological assessment tools assessing players' general executive functions including on-line multi-processing such as creativity, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. In a first cross-sectional part of the study we compared the results between High Division players (HD), Lower Division players (LD) and a standardized norm group. The result shows that both HD and LD players had significantly better measures of executive functions in comparison to the norm group for both men and women. Moreover, the HD players outperformed the LD players in these tests. In the second prospective part of the study, a partial correlation test showed a significant correlation between the result from the executive test and the numbers of goals and assists the players had scored two seasons later. The results from this study strongly suggest that results in cognitive function tests predict the success of ball sport players.
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Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity. Although the impact of mental fatigue on cognitive and skilled performance is well known, its effect on physical performance has not been thoroughly investigated. In this randomized crossover study, 16 subjects cycled to exhaustion at 80% of their peak power output after 90 min of a demanding cognitive task (mental fatigue) or 90 min of watching emotionally neutral documentaries (control). After experimental treatment, a mood questionnaire revealed a state of mental fatigue (P = 0.005) that significantly reduced time to exhaustion (640 +/- 316 s) compared with the control condition (754 +/- 339 s) (P = 0.003). This negative effect was not mediated by cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic factors as physiological responses to intense exercise remained largely unaffected. Self-reported success and intrinsic motivation related to the physical task were also unaffected by prior cognitive activity. However, mentally fatigued subjects rated perception of effort during exercise to be significantly higher compared with the control condition (P = 0.007). As ratings of perceived exertion increased similarly over time in both conditions (P < 0.001), mentally fatigued subjects reached their maximal level of perceived exertion and disengaged from the physical task earlier than in the control condition. In conclusion, our study provides experimental evidence that mental fatigue limits exercise tolerance in humans through higher perception of effort rather than cardiorespiratory and musculoenergetic mechanisms. Future research in this area should investigate the common neurocognitive resources shared by physical and mental activity.
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The Stroop test comes in different variations, but all of them index performance on a basic task, like color or picture naming, when it is carried out by itself versus when it is performed in the presence of conflicting or incongruent stimuli. The present study examined the hypothesis that Stroop interference--the cost of performing one task in the presence of another--is a general as opposed to a test-specific index of cognitive flexibility. A second goal was to examine changes in Stroop test performance in old age. A group of 129 healthy older adults (> or = 65 years of age) were assessed on the color- and picture-word Stroop test, as well as on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Subjects' performance on each card of both Stroop tests, and various derived (differences and ratios) scores, were used to prepare age-group norms. The use of the norms is illustrated with findings from previous studies. Regression analyses showed age-changes in several aspects of Stroop test performance. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses, and causal modeling showed an age effect on Stroop interference only on the picture-word test but not on the color-word test. Exploratory factor analysis of the Stroop data and the neuropsychological test data revealed different factor loadings for the color- and picture-word test. The combined findings suggest that the color- and picture-word Stroop test measure different cognitive functions, at least in old age.
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Fiercer competition between athletes and a wider knowledge of optimal training regimens dramatically influence current training methods. A single training bout per day was previously considered sufficient, whereas today athletes regularly train twice a day or more. Consequently, the number of athletes who are overtraining and have insufficient rest is increasing. Positive overtraining can be regarded as a natural process when the end result is adaptation and improved performance: the supercompensation principle--which includes the breakdown process (training) followed by the recovery process (rest)--is well known in sports. However, negative overtraining, causing maladaptation and other negative consequences such as staleness, can occur. Physiological, psychological, biochemical and immunological symptoms must be considered, both independently and together, to fully understand the 'staleness' syndrome. However, psychological testing may reveal early-warning signs more readily than the various physiological or immunological markers. The time frame of training and recovery is also important since the consequences of negative overtraining comprise an overtraining-response continuum from short to long term effects. An athlete failing to recover within 72 hours has presumably negatively overtrained and is in an overreached state. For an elite athlete to refrain from training for > 72 hours is extremely undesirable, highlighting the importance of a carefully monitored recovery process. There are many methods used to measure the training process but few with which to match the recovery process against it. One such framework for this is referred to as the total quality recovery (TQR) process. By using a TQR scale, structured around the scale developed for ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), the recovery process can be monitored and matched against the breakdown (training) process (TQR versus RPE). The TQR scale emphasises both the athlete's perception of recovery and the importance of active measures to improve the recovery process. Furthermore, directing attention to psychophysiological cues serves the same purpose as in RPE, i.e. increasing self-awareness. This article reviews and conceptualises the whole overtraining process. In doing so, it (i) aims to differentiate between the types of stress affecting an athlete's performance: (ii) identifies factors influencing an athlete's ability to adapt to physical training: (iii) structures the recovery process. The TQR method to facilitate monitoring of the recovery process is then suggested and a conceptual model that incorporates all of the important parameters for performance gain (adaptation) and loss (maladaptation).
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The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fatigue on decision making and goal shooting skill in water polo. Fourteen junior elite male players (age 17.2 +/- 0.5 years; mass 84.2 +/- 7.6 kg; height 1.85 +/- 0.05 m) completed four sets of eight repetitions of an approximately 18 s maximal water polo specific drill. Progressively declining rest ratios for each successive set of the drill were employed to induce increasing fatigue and reflect the demands of match-play. A video-based temporally occluded decision-making task (verbalized response to various tactical situations) or goal shooting skill test (qualitative and quantitative analysis of goal shooting) was performed after each set. Heart rate, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration were recorded. Heart rate (159 +/- 12, 168 +/- 13, 176 +/- 12, 181 +/- 12 Deats min-1; P < 0.001) and RPE (13.1 +/- 2.2, 15.5 +/- 1.7, 17.3 +/- 1.6, 19.1 +/- 1.1; P < 0.001) increased with declining rest ratios. At very high fatigue, decision-making accuracy was 18.0 +/- 21.8% better than at low fatigue (P = 0.008). Shooting accuracy and velocity were unaffected by incremental fatigue; however, skill proficiency (technique) decreased by 43 +/- 24% between the pre-test and high-fatigue conditions (P < 0.001). In conclusion, incremental increases in fatigue differentially influenced decision making (improved) relative to the technical performance (declined), accuracy and speed of the ball (unchanged) of a water polo goal shot.
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This study examined the effects of induced mental and muscular fatigue on soccer players’ physical activity profile and collective behavior during small-sided games (SSG). Ten youth soccer players performed a 5vs5 SSG under three conditions: a) control, playing without any previous activity; b) muscular fatigue, playing after performing a repeated change-of-direction task; c) mental fatigue, playing after completing a 30 min Stroop color-word task. Players’ po- sitional data was used to compute time-motion and tactical-related variables. The muscular fa- tigue condition resulted in lower distances covered in high speeds (∼27%, 0.3; ± 0.5) than the control condition. From the tactical perspective, the muscular fatigue condition resulted in lower distance between dyads and players spent ∼7% more time synchronized in longitudinal dis- placements than the control condition (0.3; ± 0.3). Additionally, players spent ∼14% more time synchronized with muscular fatigue than with mental fatigue (0.7; ± 0.3). The mental fatigue condition resulted in a very likely more predictable pattern in the distance between dyads than in muscular fatigue condition (0.4; ± 0.2). Also, the mental fatigue possibly decreased the teams’ stretch index when compared with control (0.2; ± 0.3) and likely increased compared with muscular fatigue (0.5; ± 0.5). The better levels of longitudinal synchronization after muscular fatigue, might suggest the usage of tactical-related tasks after intense exercise bouts. The lower physical performance and time spent longitudinally synchronized after mental fatigue, should alert to consider this variable before matches or training activities that aim to improve collective behavior.
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Recent research has examined the effect that undertaking a cognitively fatiguing task for ≤90 min has on subsequent physical performance. Cognitive fatigue is claimed to affect subsequent physical performance by inducing energy depletion in the brain, depletion of brain catecholamine neurotransmitters or changes in motivation. Observation of the psychophysiology and neurochemistry literature questions the ability of 90 min' cognitive activity to deplete energy or catecholamine resources. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine the evidence for cognitive fatigue having an effect on subsequent physical performance. A systematic, meta-analytic review was undertaken. We found a small but significant pooled effect size based on comparison between physical performance post-cognitive fatigue compared to post-control (g = -0.27, SE = -0.12, 95% CI -0.49 to -0.04, Z(10) = -2.283, p < 0.05). However, the results were not heterogenous (Q(10) = 2.789, p > 0.10, Τ2 < 0.001), suggesting that the pooled effect size does not amount to a real effect and differences are due to random error. No publication bias was evident (Kendall's τ = -0.07, p > 0.05). Thus, the results are somewhat contradictory. The pooled effect size shows a small but significant negative effect of cognitive fatigue, however tests of heterogeneity show that the results are due to random error. Future research should use neuroscientific tests to ensure that cognitive fatigue has been achieved.
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Objective To evaluate the effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of aerobic exercise intervention for cognitive function in older adults with MCI. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, SinoMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang and Chinese Science and Technology Periodical (VIP) databases from their inception to 31 January 2015, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 3) and the reference lists of all retrieved articles. Eligibility criteria Randomised controlled trials, older adults with MCI, aerobic exercises compared with no specific exercise intervention for global cognitive ability and any specific domains of cognition. Data synthesis Meta-analysis was conducted with RevMan V.5.3 software using the fixed-effect model for the available data without significant heterogeneity, or the random-effect model was used if appropriate. Results 11 studies were identified involving 1497 participants. Meta-analysis showed that aerobic exercise significantly improved global cognitive ability (Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores: MD=0.98, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.45, p<0.0001; Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores: MD=2.7, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.29, p=0.0009); weakly, positively improve memory (immediately recall: SMD=0.29, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.46, p=0.0005; delay recall: SMD=0.22, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.34, p=0.0005). No significant improvement was found in other domains of cognition. Conclusions Aerobic exercise led to an improvement in global cognitive ability and had a positive effect with a small effect size on memory in people with MCI. However, owing to the limitations of the included studies, these findings should be interpreted cautiously.
Article
Performance in most sports is determined by the athlete's technical, tactical, physiological and psychological/social characteristics. In the present article, the physical aspect will be evaluated with a focus on what limits performance, and how training can be conducted to improve performance. Specifically how intensified training, i.e., increasing the amount of aerobic high-intensity and speed endurance training, affects physiological adaptations and performance of trained subjects. Periods of speed endurance training do improve performance in events lasting 30 s–4 min, and when combined with aerobic high-intensity sessions, also performance during longer events. Athletes in team sports involving intense exercise actions and endurance aspects, such as soccer and basketball, can also benefit from intensified training. Speed endurance training does reduce energy expenditure and increase expression of muscle Na+, K+ pump α subunits, which may preserve muscle cell excitability and delay fatigue development during intense exercise. When various types of training are conducted in the same period (concurrent training), as done in a number of sports, one type of training may blunt the effect of other types of training. It is not, however, clear how various training modalities are affecting each other, and this issue should be addressed in future studies.
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Abstract Ecological dynamics of decision-making in the sport of sailing exemplifies emergent, conditionally coupled, co-adaptive behaviours. In this study, observation of the coupling dynamics of paired boats during competitive sailing showed that decision-making can be modelled as a self-sustained, co-adapting system of informationally coupled oscillators (boats). Bytracing the spatial-temporal displacements of the boats, time series analyses (autocorrelations, periodograms and running correlations) revealed that trajectories of match racing boats are coupled more than 88% of the time during a pre-start race, via continuous, competing co-adaptions between boats. Results showed that both the continuously selected trajectories of the sailors (12 years of age) and their categorical starting point locations were examples of emergent decisions. In this dynamical conception of decision-making behaviours, strategic positioning (categorical) and continuous displacement of a boat over the course in match-race sailing emerged as a function of interacting task, personal and environmental constraints. Results suggest how key interacting constraints could be manipulated in practice to enhance sailors' perceptual attunement to them in competition.
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This article summarizes research from an ecological dynamics program of work on team sports exemplifying how small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs) can enhance skill acquisition and decision-making processes during training. The data highlighted show how constraints of different SSCGs can facilitate emergence of continuous interpersonal coordination tendencies during practice to benefit team games players.
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In order to improve the applicability of research to exercise professionals, it is suggested that researchers analyze and report data in intervention studies that can be interpreted in relation to other studies. The effect size and proposed scale for determining the magnitude of the treatment effect can assist strength and conditioning professionals in interpreting and applying the findings of the strength training studies.
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Acknowledging that total body water (TBW) turnover is complex, and that no measurement is valid for all situations, this review evaluates 13 hydration assessment techniques. Although validated laboratory methods exist for TBW and extracellular volume, no evidence incontrovertibly demonstrates that any concentration measurement, including plasma osmolality (P(osm)), accurately represents TBW gain and loss during daily activities. Further, one blood or urine sample cannot validly represent fluctuating TBW and fluid compartments. Future research should (a) evaluate novel techniques that assess hydration in real time and are precise, accurate, reliable, non-invasive, portable, inexpensive, safe, and simple; and (b) clarify the relationship between P(osm) and TBW oscillations in various scenarios.
Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport
  • L S Fortes
  • J R A Nascimento-Júnior
  • A L Mortatti
  • D R A A Lima-Júnior
  • M E C Ferreira
Fortes, L. S., Nascimento-Júnior, J. R. A., Mortatti, A. L., Lima-Júnior, D. R. A. A., & Ferreira, M. E. C. (2018b). Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 89, 332-339. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2018.1488026.